Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0022-3069 / 1554-6578
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP) (10.1093)
Total articles ≅ 11,831
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Maren Winkler, Christina von Landenberg, Karin Kappes-Horn, Stephan Neudecker, Cornelia Kornblum,
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab101

Abstract:
To review our diagnostic and treatment approaches concerning sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) and polymyositis with mitochondrial pathology (PM-Mito), we conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical and histological data of 32 patients diagnosed as sIBM and 7 patients diagnosed as PM-Mito by muscle biopsy. Of 32 patients identified histologically as sIBM, 19 fulfilled the 2011 European Neuromuscular Center (ENMC) diagnostic criteria for “clinico-pathologically defined sIBM” at the time of biopsy. Among these, 2 patients developed sIBM after years of immunosuppressive treatment for organ transplantation. Of 11 patients fulfilling the histological but not the clinical criteria, including 3 cases with duration <12 months, 8 later fulfilled the criteria for clinico-pathologically defined sIBM. Of 7 PM-Mito patients, 4 received immunosuppression with clinical improvement in 3. One of these later developed clinico-pathologically defined sIBM; 1 untreated patient progressed to clinically defined sIBM. Thus, muscle histology remains important for this differential diagnosis to identify sIBM patients not matching the ENMC criteria and the PM-Mito group. In the latter, we report at least 50% positive, if occasionally transient, response to immunosuppressive treatments and progression to sIBM in a minority. The mitochondrial abnormalities defining PM-Mito do not seem to define the threshold to immunosuppression unresponsiveness.
Ming Liang Oon, Sharon Y Y Low, Chik Hong Kuick, Jian Yuan Goh, Kenneth T E Chang, Roger E McLendon,
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab099

Merilee A Teylan, Charles Mock, Kathryn Gauthreaux, Jessica E Culhane, Gregory Jicha, , Kwun C G Chan, Walter A Kukull, Peter T Nelson, Yuriko Katsumata
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab098

Abstract:
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is aberrantly aggregated and phosphorylated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration of the TDP-43 type (FTLD-TDP), and in limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy neuropathologic change (LATE-NC). We examined data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center to compare clinical features of autopsy-confirmed LATE-NC and FTLD-TDP. A total of 265 LATE-NC and 92 FTLD-TDP participants were included. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms were compared, stratified by level of impairment based on global clinical dementia rating (CDR) score. LATE-NC participants were older at death, more likely to carry APOE ε4, more likely to have Alzheimer disease neuropathology, and had lower (i.e. less severe) final CDR global scores than those with FTLD-TDP. Participants with FTLD-TDP were more likely to present with primary progressive aphasia, or behavior problems such as apathy, disinhibition, and personality changes. Among participants with final CDR score of 2–3, those with LATE-NC were more likely to have visuospatial impairment, delusions, and/or visual hallucinations. These differences were robust after sensitivity analyses excluding older (≥80 years at death), LATE-NC stage 3, or severe Alzheimer cases. Overall, FTLD-TDP was more globally severe, and affected younger participants, whereas psychoses were more common in LATE-NC.
, Azim Z Pothiawala, Cole T Lewis, Meenakshi B Bhattacharjee, ,
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab095

Abstract:
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare process at the intersection of cerebral developmental and neoplastic disorders that often results in epilepsy. We evaluated molecular alterations in MA to characterize its biology and pathogenesis. We searched a comprehensive institutional database for patients with MA treated between 2004 and 2019. Demographic, clinical, surgical, and radiographical data were collected. MA and associated meningioma tissues were evaluated using a next-generation sequencing assay interrogating 1425 cancer-related genes. We studied 5 cases: 3 with MA and 2 with MA associated with a meningioma. Of the MAs associated with a meningioma, 1 had deletions in the NF2 gene in both the MA and the meningioma components, whereas the other had an NF2 deletion in only the MA component. Additional mutations were identified in the MA components, suggesting that MA arises from the meningioma rather than the meningioma resulting from a transformation of the MA. The 3 cases of pure MA showed variants of unknown significance with no alterations in known oncogenic drivers. Our findings provide a starting point to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this rare lesion. Our study indicates that MA-meningiomas have a neoplastic nature that differs from the hamartomatous/developmental nature of pure MA.
Jared T Ahrendsen, Claire Sinai, David M Meredith, Seth W Malinowski, Tabitha M Cooney, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Keith L Ligon,
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab097

Abstract:
Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) have excellent long-term survival, but death can occasionally occur. We reviewed all PLGG-related deaths between 1975 and 2019 at our institution: 48 patients were identified; clinical data and histology were reviewed; targeted exome sequencing was performed on available material. The median age at diagnosis was 5.2 years (0.4–23.4 years), at death was 13.0 years (1.9–43.2 years), and the overall survival was 7.2 years (0.0–33.3 years). Tumors were located throughout CNS, but predominantly in the diencephalon. Diagnoses included low-grade glioma, not otherwise specified (n = 25), pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 15), diffuse astrocytoma (n = 3), ganglioglioma (n = 3), and pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n = 2). Recurrence occurred in 42/48 cases, whereas progression occurred in 10. The cause of death was direct tumor involvement in 31/48 cases. Recurrent drivers included KIAA1549-BRAF (n = 13), BRAF(V600E) (n = 3), NF1 mutation (n = 3), EGFR mutation (n = 3), and FGFR1-TACC1 fusion (n = 2). Single cases were identified with IDH1(R132H), FGFR1(K656E), FGFR1 ITD, FGFR3 gain, PDGFRA amplification, and mismatch repair alteration. CDKN2A/B, CDKN2C, and PTEN loss was recurrent. Patients who received only chemotherapy had worse survival compared with patients who received radiation and chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that PLGG that led to death have diverse molecular characteristics. Location and co-occurring molecular alterations with malignant potential can predict poor outcomes.
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab096

Abstract:
Few studies have focused on histological patterns of metastatic spread to the pituitary gland. We review our experience and that in the literature, 1970–present. Departmental cases, 1998–2021, were assessed for anterior versus posterior gland and/or capsular involvement and cohesive tumor obliterating underlying pituitary architecture versus metastatic cells filling pituitary acini with relative acinar preservation. Eleven autopsy/15 surgical cases, including 2 metastases to pituitary adenomas, were identified. Cohesive/obliterative patterns predominated histologically in both surgical and autopsy cases, but acinar filling by metastatic cells was extensive in 3/26 cases, focal in 5/26, and had resulted in initial erroneous impressions of atypical pituitary adenoma/pituitary carcinoma in 1 case and pituitary adenoma with apoplexy in another, likely due to focusing on necrotic areas in the specimen where the acinar pattern had been broken down and not appreciating nearby areas with acinar filling by metastatic cells. Although most pituitary metastases produce readily identifiable cohesive/obliterative patterns, diagnostic challenges remain with the less frequently seen “acinar filling” pattern. A dichotomy exists between patients with symptomatic pituitary metastases occurring early in the disease course and requiring surgical excision versus patients in whom asymptomatic small pituitary metastases are found incidentally at autopsy, the latter almost invariably in late disease stages, with widely disseminated metastatic disease.
, John D E Parratt
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab083

Abstract:
This study examined the roles of microglia and monocytes in myelin destruction in patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-two cases were studied; the clinical duration was <9 weeks in 10 cases. Twenty myeloid cell subtypes or categories were identified including 2 cell types not known previously to occur in demyelinating diseases. Commencing myelin breakdown in plaques and in perivascular and subpial tissues occurred in the immediate presence of infiltrating monocytes and was effected by a homogeneous population of IgG-positive Fc receptor-bearing early phagocytes interacting with abnormal myelin. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis was observed in intact myelinated tissue bordering areas of active demyelination. Capillaries in the cerebral cortex plugged by large numbers of monocytes were common in acute cases of MS and in a patient with a neuromyelitis optica variant and extreme systemic recruitment of monocytes. In an MS patient with progressive disease, microglial nodules centered on MHC-II-positive capillaries plugged by monocytes were present in the cerebral cortex. This constitutes a new gray matter lesion in MS.
, , , Satu Lehti, Behnam Rezai Jahromi, , Mika Niemelä
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab086

Abstract:
Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) rupture leads to a disabling subarachnoid hemorrhage. Chronic inflammation and lipid accumulation in the sIA wall contribute to wall degenerative remodeling that precedes its rupture. A better understanding of the pathobiological process is essential for improved future treatment of patients carrying sIAs. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein produced in response to acute and chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Here, we studied the presence and the potential role of SAA in 36 intraoperatively resected sIAs (16 unruptured and 20 ruptured), that had previously been studied by histology and immunohistochemistry. SAA was present in all sIAs, but the extent of immunopositivity varied greatly. SAA immunopositivity correlated with wall degeneration (p = 0.028) and rupture (p = 0.004), with numbers of CD163-positive and CD68-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T lymphocytes (all p < 0.001), and with the expression of myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinase-9, prostaglandin E-2 receptor, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 in the sIA wall. Moreover, SAA positivity correlated with the accumulation of apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100. In conclusion, SAA occurs in the sIA wall and, as an inflammation-related factor, may contribute to the development of a rupture-prone sIA.
, Alexander Efanov, Jayanth Rajan, Andrew Denney, Bradley Gigax, Peter Kobalka, Hesham Kelani, D Michele Basso, John Bozinovski, Esmerina Tili
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlab084

Abstract:
Spinal cord ischemic injury and paralysis are devastating complications after open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Preclinical models have been developed to simulate the clinical paradigm to better understand the neuropathophysiology and develop therapeutic treatment. Neuropathological findings in the preclinical models have not been comprehensively examined before. This systematic review studies the past 40 years of the histological findings after open surgical repair in preclinical models. Our main finding is that damage is predominantly in the grey matter of the spinal cord, although white matter damage in the spinal cord is also reported. Future research needs to examine the neuropathological findings in preclinical models after endovascular repair, a newer type of surgical repair used to treat aortic aneurysms.
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