Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies

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ISSN / EISSN : 1729-3774 / 1729-4061
Published by: Private Company Technology Center (10.15587)
Total articles ≅ 4,374
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, Yuliya Sobolevska, , Olexandr Fedorenko, Oleksndr Tokin, Andrii Pavliv, Ivan Kravets, Julia Lesiv
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238440

Abstract:
This paper reports the analysis of methods for determining temperature stresses and deformations in bridge structures under the influence of climatic temperature changes in the environment. A one-dimensional model has been applied to determine the temperature field and thermoelastic state in order to practically estimate the temperature fields and stresses of strengthened beams taking into consideration temperature changes in the environment. The temperature field distribution has been determined in the vertical direction of a reinforced concrete beam depending on the thickness of the structural reinforcement with methyl methacrylate. It was established that there is a change in the temperature gradient in a contact between the reinforced concrete beam and reinforcement. The distribution of temperature stresses in the vertical direction of a strengthened reinforced concrete beam has been defined, taking into consideration the thickness of the reinforcement with methyl methacrylate and the value of its elasticity module. It was established that the thickness of the reinforcement does not have a significant impact on increasing stresses while increasing the elasticity module of the structural reinforcement leads to an increase in temperature stresses. The difference in the derived stress values for a beam with methyl methacrylate reinforcement with a thickness of 10 mm and 20 mm, at elasticity module E=15,000 MPa, is up to 3 % at positive and negative temperatures. It has been found that there is a change in the nature of the distribution of temperature stresses across the height of the beam at the contact surface of the reinforced concrete beam and methyl methacrylate reinforcement. The value of temperature stresses in the beam with methyl methacrylate reinforcement and exposed to the positive and negative ambient temperatures increases by three times. It was established that the value of temperature stresses is affected by a difference in the temperature of the reinforced concrete beam and reinforcement, as well as the physical and mechanical parameters of the investigated structural materials of the beam and the structural reinforcement with methyl methacrylate
Natalia Sytnik, , Viktoria Mazaeva, Viktoriia Kalyna, Andrii Chernukha, Serhii Vazhynskyi, Oleksandr Yashchenko, Murat Maliarov, Oleg Bogatov, Borys Bolibrukh
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 6-13; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.236984

Abstract:
As a result of alkaline neutralization of oils, a significant amount of soapstock is formed, the utilization of which creates an environmental and economic problem. The production of fatty acids from soapstock using sulfuric acid decomposition is investigated in this work. The peculiarity of the work is the determination of regression dependences of the yield and neutralization number of fatty acids on the soapstock processing conditions: temperature and duration. Soapstock obtained after neutralization of sunflower oil was used as raw material. Soapstock indicators: mass fraction of moisture – 15.4 %, total fat – 71.9 %, fatty acids – 64.5 %, neutral fat – 7.4 %. Rational conditions of soapstock processing are determined: temperature (90–95) °С, duration 40 min. Under these conditions, the fatty acid yield is 79.0 %, the neutralization number is 180.0 mg KOH/g. Quality indicators of the obtained fatty acids: mass fraction of moisture and volatile substances – 1.8 %, mass fraction of total fat – 97.0 %, cleavage depth – 64.5 % of oleic acid, the presence of mineral acids – no. Fatty acids correspond to fatty acids of the first grade according to DSTU 4860 (CAS 61788-66-7). An increase in the temperature and duration of soapstock contact with sulfuric acid increases the yield and neutralization number of fatty acids. This is due to a decrease in the viscosity of the reaction medium, an increase in the depth of cleavage of soapstock soaps with sulfuric acid, an increase in the intensity and duration of mass transfer. The developed rational conditions allow obtaining fatty acids from soapstock, which correspond in composition to fatty acids from refined deodorized sunflower oil. The results allow solving a number of economic and environmental problems associated with soapstock utilization and can be implemented in oil refineries and fatty acid production
Viktor Durcek, Michal Kuba,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.225852

Abstract:
This paper investigates the construction of random-structure LDPC (low-density parity-check) codes using Progressive Edge-Growth (PEG) algorithm and two proposed algorithms for removing short cycles (CB1 and CB2 algorithm; CB stands for Cycle Break). Progressive Edge-Growth is an algorithm for computer-based design of random-structure LDPC codes, the role of which is to generate a Tanner graph (a bipartite graph, which represents a parity-check matrix of an error-correcting channel code) with as few short cycles as possible. Short cycles, especially the shortest ones with a length of 4 edges, in Tanner graphs of LDPC codes can degrade the performance of their decoding algorithm, because after certain number of decoding iterations, the information sent through its edges is no longer independent. The main contribution of this paper is the unique approach to the process of removing short cycles in the form of CB2 algorithm, which erases edges from the code's parity-check matrix without decreasing the minimum Hamming distance of the code. The two cycle-removing algorithms can be used to improve the error-correcting performance of PEG-generated (or any other) LDPC codes and achieved results are provided. All these algorithms were used to create a PEG LDPC code which rivals the best-known PEG-generated LDPC code with similar parameters provided by one of the founders of LDPC codes. The methods for generating the mentioned error-correcting codes are described along with simulations which compare the error-correcting performance of the original codes generated by the PEG algorithm, the PEG codes processed by either CB1 or CB2 algorithm and also external PEG code published by one of the founders of LDPC codes
Areej Adnan Abed, , Ruslan Zhyvotovskyi, Andrii Shyshatskyi, Spartak Hohoniants, Serhii Kravchenko, Iryna Zhyvylo, Mykola Dieniezhkin, Nadiia Protas, Oleksandr Shcheptsov
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 43-55; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237996

Abstract:
In order to objectively and completely analyze the state of the monitored object with the required level of efficiency, the method for estimating and forecasting the state of the monitored object in intelligent decision support systems was improved. The essence of the method is to provide an analysis of the current state of the monitored object and short-term forecasting of the state of the monitored object. Objective and complete analysis is achieved using advanced fuzzy temporal models of the object state, taking into account the type of uncertainty and noise of initial data. The novelty of the method is the use of an improved procedure for processing initial data in conditions of uncertainty, an improved procedure for training artificial neural networks and an improved procedure for topological analysis of the structure of fuzzy cognitive models. The essence of the training procedure is the training of synaptic weights of the artificial neural network, the type and parameters of the membership function and the architecture of individual elements and the architecture of the artificial neural network as a whole. The procedure of forecasting the state of the monitored object allows for multidimensional analysis, accounting and indirect influence of all components of the multidimensional time series with their different time shifts relative to each other in conditions of uncertainty. The method allows increasing the efficiency of data processing at the level of 12–18 % using additional advanced procedures. The proposed method can be used in decision support systems of automated control systems (ACS DSS) for artillery units, special-purpose geographic information systems. It can also be used in ACS DSS for aviation and air defense and ACS DSS for logistics of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
, Serhii Sidchenko, Dmitriy Barannik, Sergii Shulgin, Valeriy Barannik, Anton Datsun
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 6-17; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237359

Abstract:
Along with the widespread use of digital images, an urgent scientific and applied issue arose regarding the need to reduce the volume of video information provided it is confidential and reliable. To resolve this issue, cryptocompression coding methods could be used. However, there is no method that summarizes all processing steps. This paper reports the development of a conceptual method for the cryptocompression coding of images on a differentiated basis without loss of information quality. It involves a three-stage technology for the generation of cryptocompression codograms. The first two cascades provide for the generation of code structures for information components while ensuring their confidentiality and key elements as a service component. On the third cascade of processing, it is proposed to manage the confidentiality of the service component. The code values for the information components of nondeterministic length are derived out on the basis of a non-deterministic number of elements of the source video data in a reduced dynamic range. The generation of service data is proposed to be organized in blocks of initial images with a dimension of 16×16 elements. The method ensures a decrease in the volume of source images during the generation of cryptocompression codograms, by 1.14–1.58 times (12–37 %), depending on the degree of their saturation. This is 12.7‒23.4 % better than TIFF technology and is 9.6‒17.9 % better than PNG technology. The volume of the service component of cryptocompression codograms is 1.563 % of the volume of the source video data or no more than 2.5 % of the total code stream. That reduces the amount of data for encryption by up to 40 times compared to TIFF and PNG technologies. The devised method does not introduce errors into the data in the coding process and refers to methods without loss of information quality.
, Oksana Kornukh
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 66-77; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237900

Abstract:
It has been substantiated that personnel is the driving force of innovative development of enterprises. The interrelation of the components of the formation of innovativeness of the company’s personnel, such as innovative potential, the innovative activity of employees, and the effectiveness of their innovative activity was demonstrated. A comprehensive approach to assessing the innovativeness of the company’s personnel, which consists of six stages describing the procedure of such evaluation, was proposed. It was proved that it is appropriate to evaluate the innovativeness of the company’s personnel in the areas of innovative activity of employees and the effectiveness of their innovative activities. The systems of partial, integrated, and general indicators of innovativeness of the company’s personnel and criteria for assessing its level were proposed. A system of indicators of innovative activity of personnel based on qualimetric assessment of their innovative potential was offered. The procedure for assessing the level of innovative activity of employees was improved by introducing a partial indicator of personnel’s desire to carry out innovative activities. A system of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of innovative activities of personnel, including two groups, was proposed. The first group of partial indicators characterizes the effectiveness of innovative activity of the company’s personnel, the second group focuses on the effectiveness of commercialization of innovative products. To determine the level of innovativeness of the company’s personnel, a matrix that combines assessment of the levels of innovative activity and effectiveness of innovative activities of employees was proposed. The results of the study make it possible to determine the level of innovativeness of personnel, to develop an effective strategy for the creation and commercialization of innovative products of an enterprise.
Valentyn Lesinskyi, , Oksana Zarytska, ,
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 15-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238795

Abstract:
This paper reports modeling the assessment of the potential of loan financing of projects aimed at implementing energy-saving technologies. An array of information to assess the potential of loan financing of these projects was formed. The methods for assessing the existing and prospective potential of loan financing of projects for the implementation of energy-saving technologies were devised. The criteria for the selection of energy-saving projects, which should be financed at the expense of loan funds, were systematized and ordered. The appropriateness of these studies is determined by the need to reduce the volume of energy consumption of non-renewable energy resources in many countries of the world. This causes the need to determine the potential of financial support, in particular the potential of loan financing, the implementation of energy-saving projects, first of all, projects for the implementation of energy-saving technologies at enterprises. The obtained theoretic and methodological results for the sample of enterprises were tested. It was established that the absolute magnitude of the potential of loan financing of projects implementing technologies that ensure reducing natural gas consumption at the studied enterprises is 42 projects and USD 1,805 thousand. As for the relative level of this potential, for the whole totality of enterprises it is: by the number of projects – 0.447; by financing volumes – 0.420. The obtained theoretical and methodological results can be applied by enterprises of all types of economic activity in assessing the magnitude of the potential of loan financing of energy-saving projects. In addition, these results can be used by the authorities in the development of the programs of preferential lending of the projects of implementation of energy-saving technologies
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.239165

Abstract:
The main attention is paid to the analysis of electromyogram (EMG) signals using Poincaré plots (PP). It was established that the shapes of the plots are related to the diagnoses of patients. To study the fractal dimensionality of the PP, the method of counting the coverage figures was used. The PP filtration was carried out with the help of Haar wavelets. The self-similarity of Poincaré plots for the studied electromyograms was established, and the law of scaling was used in a fairly wide range of coverage figures. Thus, the entire Poincaré plot is statistically similar to its own parts. The fractal dimensionalities of the PP of the studied electromyograms belong to the range from 1.36 to 1.48. This, as well as the values of indicators of Hurst exponent of Poincaré plots for electromyograms that exceed the critical value of 0.5, indicate the relative stability of sequences. The algorithm of the filtration method proposed in this research involves only two simple stages: Conversion of the input data matrix for the PP using the Jacobi rotation. Decimation of both columns of the resulting matrix (the so-called "lazy wavelet-transformation", or double downsampling). The algorithm is simple to program and requires less machine time than existing filters for the PP. Filtered Poincaré plots have several advantages over unfiltered ones. They do not contain extra points, allow direct visualization of short-term and long-term variability of a signal. In addition, filtered PPs retain both the shape of their prototypes and their fractal dimensionality and variability descriptors. The detected features of electromyograms of healthy patients with characteristic low-frequency signal fluctuations can be used to make clinical decisions.
, , Rustam Buzyakov, Yelena Neshina, Aliya Alkina
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.237873

Abstract:
The study was devoted to solving the issue of creating new electric heating devices that can be used in autonomous heat supply systems. The issues were resolved by developing an original low-pressure electric steam heater. The study was aimed at improving the efficiency of heat supply systems for buildings and structures. Given the current trends in the global striving for energy conservation, it cannot be fully realized without the introduction of high-tech and low-energy-consuming electrical equipment. As a result of theoretical studies of a heat pipe with an electric heater, a design of an electrovacuum heating element has been developed. The low-pressure electric steam heater can be used in heat supply systems of autonomous users. Thermal energy transfer is currently accompanied by substantial energy losses since the heat carrier has to pass considerable distances. Switching of the facility to the heating plant is impossible in some cases because of technical problems or significant material costs for laying pipelines. As a result of the study, the dependence of heating the heat pipe at various volumes of the heat carrier and mass of the pipe itself was established. When a certain mass is reached, the temperature of the heating surfaces can reach 70 °C which is considered acceptable. The experimental data obtained have made it possible to develop an electric heater of new generation with a fundamentally new design of the heating element. It combines the efficiency of an electric spiral and comfortable warmth from a traditional radiator. This heater is an explosion and fire-safe and can be integrated into the Smart Home system
Dmytro Ruban, Lubomir Kraynyk, Hanna Ruban, Andrii Sosyk, Andriy Shcherbyna, Olga Dudarenko, Alexander Artyukh
Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, Volume 4, pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2021.238171

Abstract:
This paper addresses the issue related to forecasting the durability indicators of public transport buses under operational conditions. It has been established that when buses are operated to transport passengers the bus bodies wear at different intensities. During operation, the strength of the body frame weakens under the influence of corrosion in combination with sites of fatigue destruction. As it was established, the intensity of corrosion of the bus body depends on the number of residents in the city where the bus is operated. The earlier established dependences were taken into consideration; the current study has identified two conditional variants of corrosion evolution based on the number of inhabitants: up to 1 million and exceeding 1 million. The expediency of repairs and their impact on the bus passive safety has been analyzed. It was found that the elements of the body frame, without external characteristic damage, no longer meet the specified conditions of strength as a result of sign-alternating loads and during long-term operation. Determining the durability of the bus body was made possible through the construction of a mathematical model. The model’s adequacy was confirmed by road tests of the bus. The devised model describes the movement of the bus over a road surface with different micro profiles, with different corrosion penetration, different loading by passengers, and bus speeds. It was established that the reason for the evolution of structural corrosion is the influence of salt mixtures preventing the icing of roads, as well as ignoring the washing of buses after such trips. It is recommended to use new software for the in-depth study into this issue addressing the combination of various factors of destruction: cyclic loads at variable bus speeds and the corrosion progress. The study results could make it possible to predict a life cycle of the body frame under factors that correspond to actual operating conditions.
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