Technology audit and production reserves

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ISSN / EISSN : 2226-3780 / 2312-8372
Published by: Private Company Technology Center (10.15587)
Total articles ≅ 2,826
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Oleksii Nalapko, Oleg Sova, Andrii Shyshatskyi, Anatolii Hasan, Vira Velychko, Oleksandr Trotsko, Dmytro Merkotan, Nadiia Protas, Roman Lazuta, Оleksandr Yakovchuk
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237433

Abstract:
The object of research is the military radio communication system. One of the problems in improving the effectiveness of military radio communication systems is the correct description of the movement process in them. Efficient routing protocols are only possible if reliable information on network topology for network nodes is available. Thus, with this information, packets can be forwarded correctly between the sender and the recipient. Given that the mobility of individual nodes is insignificant in special wireless networks, nodes in the network show the mobility properties of a group of nodes. This observation is directly related to the very existence of military wireless networks with the ability to organize themselves, that is, to support group cooperation and group activities. In this work the problem of analysis (decomposition) of the mobility models of military radio communication networks with the possibility of self-organization is solved. The classification of mobility patterns, the description of individual mobility models and the analysis of various aspects currently available, as well as those properties lacking in the attempt to simulate the movement of individual nodes, have been carried out. During the research, the analysis of random, semi-deterministic and deterministic models was carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of the above models have been identified. In the course of the research, the authors of the work used the main principles of the theory of mass service, the theory of automation, the theory of complex technical systems, as well as general scientific methods of knowledge, namely analysis and synthesis. The research results will be useful in: ‒ synthesis of mathematical models of node mobility; ‒ evaluation of the effectiveness of the science-based tool for assessing the mobility of nodes; ‒ validation of recommendations to improve the efficiency of mobile radio networks; ‒ analysis of the radio-electronic situation during the conduct of military operations (operations); ‒ creating advanced technologies to improve the efficiency of mobile radio networks.
Valerii Tkachenko, Vitalii Shevchenko
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 51-55; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237765

Abstract:
The object of research is the hardware-software complex of learning Braille. The research is aimed at the analysis of the use of the system of automatic change of modes of the hardware-software complex depending on the results of the user’s tasks. As part of the development of the project for the implementation of hardware and software for the training of the visually impaired in Braille, there is a need to analyze the operation of the updated control system for the order of output of letters. The solution was a software bridge that connects devices to a remote database server via smartphones, where learning results are stored. To solve this problem, the algorithm for changing the modes of letter output was modified, the module of connection of the hardware and software complex with the phone was implemented, the file structure for information transfer to the database was developed. After the introduction of updates in the hardware and software complexes of users, an analysis of the training was conducted. Statistics were collected according to the following parameters: selected language, type of game, correct and user answers, mode of output of letters, date-time of answer and operation of changing of the mode of output of letters. The analysis used data on the first and last states of the mode of output of letters for one day without reference to games and languages. The research was conducted over 30 calendar days for 100 users, but the data were reduced to 15 days, as some users were not study every day, and the day of study was taken. The research showed a tendency to change learning to groups of letters of the highest complexity. Less than a third of users stayed at the first level, which provides for the next update of the software to collect data on the age of the user, because children under 5 years do not learn the letters of the third group of complexity.
Liudmyla Zhurakhovska
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 15-18; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237758

Abstract:
The object of this research is the automation of the compliance matrix «Disciplines – Competences», which are the links between the list of compulsory and elective disciplines of the educational program according to the curriculum and the set of competencies of the graduate required by the Standard of higher education. The development of the educational program includes a combination of disciplines with «Program Learning Outcomes», which is listed in the Standard. One of the most problematic places is time-consuming of the process of «drawing-up» the links from «General Competencies» (GC) and «Professional Competencies» (PC) of disciplines to «Program Learning Outcomes» (PO). This problem is considered on the basis of the Educational and Professional Program (OPP) «Financial Intermediation» Academic Degree «Master» specialty 072 «Finance, Banking and Insurance» in the field of science 07 «Management and Administration» of the Department of Banking of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (KNUTE, Ukraine). The research methods are to use the design of relationships between logical elements («entities») of the data model (Entity-Relationship Model). To develop a compliance matrix «Disciplines – Competences» in the paper the author proposed a software application based on Excel (hereinafter «Application»), which allows to automate the construction of such links. There is a significant reduction in the time-consuming of preparing educational programs by guarantors and support groups. This is due to the fact that the proposed application has a number of features of use, in particular automates the construction of matrices of correspondence «Discipline – Competence». The method of automation of the compliance matrix «Disciplines – Competences» proposed in the research was successfully tested by the author in the development of educational and professional programs of KNUTE, namely «Financial Intermediation», «Management of Banking Business» and «Financial Brokerage». Thus, the application is universal and can be used by guarantors and support groups to build Compliance Matrices of the educational programs of other specializations and specialties.
Denys Honcharov, , Veronika Nikolaieva
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 37-41; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237443

Abstract:
The object of research is a sour cream product with the addition of phytosterols in terms of the finished product from 0.141 to 1.710 g/100 g of product. One of the most problematic places when using phytosterols is their extremely low solubility in water and fats. There are several ways to add phytosterols to foods. Direct application is represented by suspensions of phytosterol nanoparticles. To improve the solubility in water, phytosterols are converted into the form of glycosides. To improve the solubility in fats and oils, phytosterols are converted into fatty acid ethers. An important issue in the development of fermented milk products is the effect of phytosterols on the homogeneity of the system, the fermentation process, the final properties of the product. During the study, the introduction of pre-esterified phytosterols as a substitute for milk fat with a melting point of 32–34 °C to milk-fat mixtures. Milk-fat mixtures of various compositions were fermented with the study of acidity during fermentation. To study the properties of the system, milk fat was replaced by vegetable fat by 25, 50, and 75 %. The content of lactic acid bacteria was determined for the final product and the organoleptic parameters of the product were compared. The results show that when fermenting for 14 hours, the required acidity parameters of pH 4.2 to 4.6, titratable acidity of 76 to 79 °T were achieved at 12 hours. Phytosterols did not harm the fermentation rate, and after the process did not worsen the taste and appearance of the product. This provides the opportunity to obtain a high-quality sour cream product with additional properties. The process of fermentation of sour cream products with phytosterols corresponds to the parameters of the standard sour cream product and sour cream. This provides advantages such as the ability to integrate a new product into the sour cream and sour cream production system without significant changes in technology and equipment.
Svetlana Kolesnichenko, Alla Salavelis, Sergey Pavlovsky, Svitlana Poplavska
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 50-53; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.238039

Abstract:
Consumers of catering establishments especially value their health and therefore give preference to dishes that correspond to modern concepts of healthy eating. In this regard, the development of such dishes is an important task. Thus, the object of the study was an emulsion sauce made using the spherification technique. Agar-agar was used as a material for encapsulating the sauce. The recipe composition of the sauce contains irreplaceable nutritional components: plant phospholipids (soy lecithin), monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of olive oil and camelina oil, natural food fibers of agar-agar. Each recipe component of the developed emulsion sauce contains physiologically active substances with a high efficiency of health-improving effect. Synergy The combination of the positive effects of these prescription components makes it possible to create a therapeutic and prophylactic product. One of the most problematic areas is the formation of a lecithin-oil-water composition with a lamellar structure. Such a structure as a multilayer «container» helps to preserve the biologically active substances that make up the sauce from destruction and to better assimilate them by the human body. Due to the choice of a certain number of recipe components and their sequential combination under certain conditions (temperature 45 °C, mixing), it is possible to obtain a lamellar structure. In the course of the study, recipe components were selected that correspond to healthy food products, recipes and technologies for the preparation of an emulsion sauce with a lamellar structure were developed. And also provided with the help of spherification an attractive appearance and determined the organoleptic, microbiological indicators and shelf life of the product. To confirm the presence of the lamellar structure of the sauce, carry out optical studies and presented a micrograph in polarizing light. The research carried out makes it possible to expand the range of sauces with an extended shelf life (three days) for the restaurant industry.
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 9-13; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237269

Abstract:
The object of research is plasmonic properties copper of monosulfide nanoparticles. One of the most problematic areas is that there is still no unambiguous answer to which main copper monosulfide nanoparticles parameters have a decisive effect on their resonance absorption, scattering or electric field enhancement. It is necessary to study the plasmonic properties of copper monosulfide nanoparticles depending on their main parameter, namely the dielectric constant. The principle of dipole equivalence and Mee-Gans theory for the modeling of the optical nanoparticle characteristics is used. It is found that dielectric constant is a crucial parameter determining the resulting optical response of such nanoparticles. The surrounding medium refractive index affects the position and magnitude of the nanoparticles maximum plasmonic absorption. The nonspherical nanoparticles are characterized by two plasmon peaks corresponding to transverse and longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance if the ratio between the axes is higher than 1.5. The ellipsoidal nanoparticles exhibit higher sensitivity to changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium in comparison to the spherical ones. The obtained research results are primarily the basis for further comprehensive research of plasmonic copper monosulfide nanoparticles for their specialized applications. Second, knowledge of the influence of the nanoparticle dielectric constant on their resulting spectral characteristics allow tuning of the localized surface plasmon resonance peak position in a wide wavelength range, from 500 to 1200 nm, using the nanoparticle synthesis technique. Thus, the material under study is promising for sensor applications in a wide spectral range.
Nataliia Pochynok, Volodymyr Muravskyi, Volodymyr Farion
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 6-10; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.238858

Abstract:
The object of research is the public procurement system in terms of accounting for the processes of buying (selling) goods (works, services) using electronic communications. A problematic aspect of modern electronic public procurement platforms is the lack of information support for accounting, control and taxation functions. In the context of the development of innovative computer and communication technologies, it becomes possible to integrate various electronic services and electronic communications into the public procurement system in order to automate accounting processes. In the process of studying the prospects for the implementation of a system of public communications with expanded functional capabilities, general scientific empirical, logical and historical methodological methods of cognition of reality were used. The theoretical and methodological aspects of improving the accounting of public procurement in the context of the formation of an innovative electronic platform for business communications were studied on the basis of institutional and innovative methods of scientific research. The paper proposes to place electronic contracts at the heart of the business communications system. A procedure has been developed for business interaction between participants in electronic trading through the mechanism for concluding and executing electronic contracts for the purchase (sale) of goods (works, services). Based on the creation of a system of electronic contracts, it is possible to form a database of credentials. The expediency of using accounting information for the automated implementation of public procurement accounting procedures has been substantiated. The methodology for accounting for the occurrence and repayment of accounts payable and receivable for purchased (sold) goods (works, services), charging and paying taxes and fees, electronic money transactions in various currencies, electronic money and cryptocurrency, the occurrence of credit obligations, calculating the amount of bad debts has been improved. The implementation of a public procurement system with expanded functionality will facilitate the establishment of effective business communications with contractors, the integration of disparate electronic services into a single system. As well as minimizing costs in the process of electronic trading, automating the processing of primary information, optimizing accounting and management processes at the enterprise.
Volodymyr Pashynskyi, Igor Boyko
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 14-17; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237358

Abstract:
The object of research is the effect of the carbon-forming component of coated electrodes for welding and surfacing of Gadfield steel (110G13L and analogs) on the structure and properties of the weld. One of the most problematic areas in the welding and surfacing of high-carbon steel is the high irregularity of the rod and coating melting rates. Therefore, the non-melted part of the coating is literally poured into the weld pool, which leads to significant chemical and structural inhomogeneity of the welded metal. The main hypothesis of the study is the assumption that it is possible to increase the homogeneity of the deposited metal by changing the conditions for the transition of carbon from the electrode to the weld pool by using an electrode rod made of carbon steel. In the course of the study, electrode rods with different carbon contents were used. With an increase in the carbon content in the composition of the electrode rod, the fluidity of the drops increased, which contributed to a decrease in the strength of the welding current without harm to the welding and technological characteristics. This allows to reduce the generation of heat in the base metal, that is an effective measure to prevent hot cracks in the weld metal and heat affected zone Studies of the composition of the electrode metal droplets and the weld material showed that with an increase in the carbon content in the electrode rod from 0.08 % to 0.8 %, the carbon content in the droplets increases from 0.3 % to 0.97 %. The carbon content in the weld metal is 1.1 %. The assimilation of manganese by a drop increases with an increasing of coating and the droplet interaction time. A significant increasing in the rate of coating melting was obtained. This is due to the fact that the concomitant decrease in the content of graphite in the coating contributes to a decrease in the refractoriness of the electrode coating. The use of high carbon steels for the manufacturing of electrode rods for welding and surfacing of Gadfield steel improves the properties of the welded metal and sanitary and hygienic parameters.
Anastasia Vorobyova, Volodymyr Polyovyk, Iryna Koretska
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 32-36; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.237260

Abstract:
Nowadays, the problem of healthy eating is acute. Most consumers prefer organic foods, dishes based on natural vegetables and fruits, and healthy nutrition. Thus, reducing calories content and increasing the nutritional value of sweet dishes is a promising area for the research. Therefore, the object of this study is the technology of whipped sweet «sambuk»-type dishes. To create the new desserts, non-traditional vegetable raw materials, namely physalis puree and banana puree, were chosen. Physico-chemical, mathematical, and dessert quality analysis methods were used in the study. One of the most problematic tasks in the technology of whipped desserts is the stabilization of the foam structure. Therefore, the inclusion of physalis puree and banana puree in the recipe affects not only the organoleptic properties, but also improves the physical and chemical parameters of the dish. In particular, the aggregate stability coefficient of the foam increases to 4.33 in the samples with banana puree and to 3.48 in the samples with physalis puree, which is 2 and 1.66 times higher than the same indicator for control sample. The specific volume also has a noticeable improvement (it is 1.5 times higher in samples with physalis puree and 1.16 times higher in samples with banana puree comparing to control). During the study the effect of selected raw materials on the dry matter content in new desserts was determined (it ranges from 36.5 % to 41.3 5 % in samples with physalis puree and from 23.2 % to 27.8 % in the case of adding banana puree) . The acidity of the model samples ranges from 4.8 to 4.61 pH in desserts with physalis puree, and from 5.53 to 5.41 pH in desserts with banana puree. Based on the expert assessment, the value of the sample quality criteria was determined. Conclusions are made on the expediency of non-traditional raw materials using in the preparation of whipped desserts.
Andriy Khokhlov, Lyudmila Khokhlova
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 4, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.15587/2706-5448.2021.238342

Abstract:
The object of research is the created bioactive sorbent based on biochar from corn waste for the purification of oil-contaminated natural environments. The expediency of using biochar from corn cobs as a matrix – a carrier of microorganisms-destructors of petroleum hydrocarbons in the production of biosorbent – has been substantiated. Biochar meets the requirements for oil sorbents – environmental friendliness, oil resistance (6–8 g of oil per 1 g of sorbent), manufacturability and biocompatibility. The porous structure and chemical nature of the surface partly determines the absorbency of the material, but the dominant factor is the interaction of the hydrophobic surface with petroleum hydrocarbons. A universal oil oxidizer – a microbial complex isolated from oil-polluted natural objects, in combination with a carbon carrier, is capable of neutralizing oil pollution of various types and concentrations. It has been established that microorganisms – oil-destructors, immobilized on the surface of the sorbent, are capable of decomposing almost all oil hydrocarbons. Microorganisms immobilized on a carbon material have a great potential for destructive action. During immobilization, the viability of microbial cells is maintained, and the effect of their use is significantly increased. The use of a bioactive carbon sorbent based on biochar and immobilized natural oil-oxidizing microorganisms of a wide spectrum of action allows one to localize oil pollution and neutralize it through biodegradation. The optimal parameters for obtaining an oleophilic sorption matrix based on biochar from corn waste and for growing microbial biomass with a high destructive activity for oil hydrocarbons have been established. The optimum pyrolysis temperature is 300–350 °С, the pyrolysis time is 25–30 minutes. In this case, the sorption of oil obtained biochar reaches maximum values (6–8 g oil/gsorbent). Sufficient number of immobilized microorganisms – oil destructors 120–200·104 cells for active decomposition of oil localized on the sorbent surface. The operational characteristics of the obtained bioactive sorbents, technological features and methods of their use in cleaning the environment from oil pollution have been studied. The biosorbent does not require removal from the places of use and disposal. Cleaning of soils contaminated with oil and oil products has specific features and requires the use of agricultural techniques (loosening, moistening). The studies carried out have shown a change in the concentration of oil pollution in the soil from 40 % to 1–5 % of oil in the process of biodegradation after 3 months at positive temperatures.
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