Amerta Nutrition

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2580-1163 / 2580-9776
Published by: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 283
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Ariani Dewi Widodo
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.14-20

Abstract:
Background: Gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem consisting of abundant microorganisms, plays a role in preterm infants’ immunity, growth, and development. Dysbiosis or disruption of the gut microbiota can precipitate various diseases, such as allergy or autoimmune disorders in premature infants. Purpose: This study aimed to review gut microbiota in preterm infants and its role in supporting the infants’ immunity, growth, and development. Discussion: Bifidobactericeae is the predominant microbiota in GI tract of preterm infants. However, various factors can influence this gut microbiota e.g., genetics, lifestyle of the mothers (smoking, diet, use of antibiotic, obesity), birth mode, type of feeding, and environmental factors. Gut dysbiosis can result in impaired immune system which predisposes the preterm infants to infections, even fatal adverse event. Furthermore, the growth and development might be affected as well as lead to various neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Human milk is a prebiotic source which can stimulate the growth of Baifidobactericeae and Bacteroidetes. If the human milk is inadequate or unavailable, the recommended interventions for gut dysbiosis in premature infants are probiotics, prebiotics, or both supplementations (synbiotics). The administration of prebiotics and probiotics associates with lower morbidity and death rates in preterm infants, as well as shorter duration of hospital stay and duration to achieve full enteral feeding. Conclusions: Immunity as well as growth and development of preterm infants are affected greatly by gut microbiota The less diverse microbiota in preterm infants’ gut predispose them to various health problems. Hence, this problem should be managed properly, one of which is prebiotic and probiotic supplementation Keywords: Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Premature, Immunity, Growth, Development
Zakiudin Munasir
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.21-26

Abstract:
Background: After birth, preterm infants face numerous challenges, including short and long-term morbidities, to survive and grow well with impaired immune and gastrointestinal systems. According to data from 184 countries, preterm birth rate ranges from 5-18%, accounting for 35% of all new born deaths. Purpose: This literature review aimed to summarize the evidence for the impact of prematurity on immune system development and the benefit of prebiotics on gut microbiota and immune responses. Discussion: Various studies in this narrative literature review showed that preterm infants have both qualitative and quantitative immune response deficits compared to term infants. Preterm newborns also have impaired intestinal immunity, underdeveloped intestinal mucosa barrier, and gut dysbiosis, which predisposes them to life-threatening infections. Early balanced gut microbiota in infants believed to be essential for adequate intestinal physiological functions and immune system maturation. The use of prebiotics, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human breast milk, has been found to decrease the risk of various infections and cognitive impairment. A previous study found that prebiotic oligosaccharides supplementation was well-tolerated, significantly increased Bifidobacteria growth, and reduced the presence of gut pathogens. Conclusions: There was robust evidence that breast milk and prebiotics supplementation may support the gut microbiome and immune system in preterm infants. However, different types of synthetic prebiotics offer different benefits, and the protective effect seems to depend on the supplementation duration and dosage.
Rinawati Rohsiswatmo
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.1-13

Abstract:
Background: Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It is the most important predictor of adverse health and development infant outcomes that extend into the early childhood and beyond. It is also the leading cause of childhood mortality under 5 years of age worldwide and responsible for approximately one million neonatal deaths. It is also a significant contributor to childhood morbidities, with many survivors are facing an increased risk of lifelong disability and poor quality of life. Purpose: In this article, we aimed to describe features of preterm infants, what makes them different from term infants, and what to consider in nutritional management of preterm infants through a traditional narrative literature review. Discussion: Preterm infants are predisposed to more health complications than term infants with higher morbidity and mortality. This morbidity and mortality can be reduced through timely interventions for the mother and the preterm infant. Maternal interventions, such as health education and administration of micronutrient supplementation, are given before or during pregnancy and at delivery, whereas appropriate care for the preterm infants should be initiated immediately after birth, which include early breastfeeding and optimalization of weight gain. Conclusion: Essential care of the preterm infants and early aggressive nutrition should be provided to support rapid growth that is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. The goal is not only about survival but making sure that these preterm infants grow and develop without any residual morbidity.
Nova Lidia Sitorus, Charisma Dilantika, Ray Wagiu Basrowi
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.34-42

Abstract:
Background: Immature immune system in preterm infants is associated with gut dysbiosis and poses significant health risks to their growth and development. Current guidelines for managing preterm infants focuses solely on macro- and micronutrients, whereas preterm infants’ gastrointestinal system requires optimalization to support nutrient absorption. Studies on the positive impacts of prebiotics as supplements have been conducted, but has not been implemented in Indonesia. Indonesian pediatricians’ perspective on these findings needs to be assessed. Objectives: To describe the perspectives of Indonesian pediatricians on the role of gut microbiota balance in supporting immunity, growth, and development of preterm infants, and the role of breastmilk and prebiotic-supplemented formula in optimizing gut microbiota balance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 114 Indonesian pediatricians using a previously-validated and previously-used questionnaire on the role of gut microbiota balance on preterm infants, as well as the role of breastmilk and prebiotic-supplemented formula in optimizing gut microbiota balance. Results: Most respondents agreed that gut microbiota balance supports immunity, growth, and development of preterm infants. Respondents also agreed that breastmilk contains nutrients that support gut microbiota balance and when breastmilk becomes unavailable, prebiotic-supplemented formula can be given as substitute. Conclusions: Indonesian pediatricians considered gut microbiota balance to be important for immunity, growth, and development of preterm infants, and breastmilk to be the most ideal source of nutrition for preterm infants in optimizing gut microbiota balance. When breastmilk is unavailable, prebiotic-supplemented formula can be considered as an alternative.
Bernie Endyarni Medise
Published: 30 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i1sp.2021.27-33

Abstract:
Background: Indonesia comes in the fifth for the greatest number of preterm births. Preterm infants may inflict various complication as the result of underdeveloped immunity, affecting their growth and development in the long run until they reach adult phase. Such complications could be prevented through adequate nutrition fulfillment. Purpose: This article aimed to elaborate the characteristics of growth and development of premature babies, long term effect on the development and the impact of immunity and gut health of preterm infants in supporting their growth and development. Methods: References cited in this article were obtained from the latest primary literature within the last 10 years. Discussion: The rate and ability of infants to perform catch-up growth depends on the birth weight and gestation age, at which the lower birth weight and lower gestational age had slower rate. Brain structures that of preterm infants differ compared to the term, and these changes give rise to various clinical outcomes, including long term emotional, behavioral changes, cognitive and executive functioning. Immature immune system in preterm infants reduces the protective ability by innate and adaptive immunity in overcoming pathogens compared to term infants, including gut microbiota prematurity which affects nutrition absorption and growth and development catch up ability. Appropriate and adequate nutrition supplementation has shown beneficial effects in promoting the growth of normal gut flora, which allow better absorption of nutrition and therefore enhancing growth rate and supporting the development of preterm infants. Conclusions: Optimal growth and development of preterm infants are supported by sufficient nutrition supplementation to support the growth of gut microbiota, facilitating the catch-up growth and development of premature infants and immune system maturity.
Grace Bella K Nussy
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 245-250; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.245-250

Abstract:
ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Pada usia yang produktif dan sanggup untuk bekerja memerlukan asupan makanan yang bergizi dan aman. Pentingnya penyediaan asupan gizi di lingkungan kerja, PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Pabrik Tuban menyediakan layanan makanan dan fasilitas kantin bagi pekerja maupun pengunjung yang datang. Berdasarkan laporan tahunan BPOM tahun 2016 dan 2017, dilihat dari lokasi terjadinya KLB keracunan pangan terbesar ketiga terjadi di area kantor/ pabrik. Mencegah kejadian serupa salah satunya dengan menerapkan prinsip higiene sanitasi makanan pada kegiatan pengolahan makanan.Tujuan: Tujuan dari penulisan artikel adalah untuk mengetahui dan mempelajari penerapan higiene sanitasi makanan mulai dari pemilihan bahan makanan sampai penyajian makanan yang telah dilaksanakan di kantin PT. Semen Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Pabrik Tuban.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan kualitatif berupa observasi dan wawancara.Hasil: Kegiatan pengolahan makanan terutama di lingkungan kerja penting untuk memperhatikan dan menerapkan higiene sanitasi makanan. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mencegah terjadinya permasalahan kesehatan serta bahaya lainnya yang diakibatkan oleh makanan dan kerugian lainnya. Berdasarkan Permenkes Nomor 1096 Tahun 2011 tentang Higiene Sanitasi Jasaboga, higiene sanitasi adalah upaya untuk mengendalikan faktor risiko terjadinya kontaminasi terhadap makanan, baik yang berasal dari makanan, orang, tempat dan peralatan agar makanan aman untuk di konsumsi. Terdapat enam prinsip dalam penerapan higiene sanitasi makanan, yaitu 1) Pemilihan bahan makanan, 2) Penyimpanan bahan makanan, 3) Pengolahan makanan, 4) Penyimpanan makanan jadi/ masak, 5) Pengangkutan makanan dan 6) Penyajian makanan.Kesimpulan: Kegiatan pengolahan makanan sebagian besar telah memenuhi dan beberapa aspek ada yang belum memenuhi. Kegiatan pengolahan makanan yang belum memenuhi prinsip higiene sanitasi makanan adalah penyimpanan bahan baku, pengolahan makanan dan penyajian makanan. Kata Kunci: higiene sanitasi, pengolahan makanan, kantin pabrik
Cantika Zaddana, Almasyhuri Almasyhuri, Sara Nurmala, Tiara Oktaviyanti
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 260-275; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.260-275

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) didefinisikan sebagai suatu kumpulan gejala metabolik yang timbul pada seseorang yang disebabkan adanya peningkatan kadar glukosa darah di atas nilai normal. Penderita DM tetap harus mengonsumsi pangan yang cukup agar kebutuhan zat gizi nya terpenuhi. Dalam rangka memenuhi kecukupan akan zat gizi didalam tubuh maka konsumsi pangan dibagi atas makanan utama dan selingan, namun penderita DM biasanya sulit untuk mendapatkan makanan selingan yang bergizi namun tetap dapat mengontrol kadar glukosa darahnya. Ubi ungu adalah jenis ubi jalar yang saat ini sudah banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Ubi ungu memiliki warna keunguan yang disebabkan oleh adanya pigmen antosianin yang dikandung didalamnya. Antosianin memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang mampu menghambat kerja radikal bebas serta meningkatkan sekresi insulin sehingga bermanfaat dalam pengendalian kadar glukosa darah. Ubi ungu merupakan sumber karbohidrat kompleks namun rendah akan protein, sehingga dibutuhkan bahan pangan sumber protein lainnya seperti kacang merah. Kacang merah merupakan jenis kacang-kacangan yang mengandung karbohidrat tinggi, kadar lemak yang lebih rendah, dan kandungan serat yang cukup baik. Selain mengandung serat yang baik dan nilai IG yang rendah, kacang merah juga mengandung protein yang cukup tinggi. Kemajuan teknologi pangan telah menghasilkan berbagai produk pangan yang praktis dikonsumsi seperti snack. Produksi snack sebagai makanan selingan semakin beragam, namun snack yang dibuat biasanya tinggi akan kalori, lemak, dan karbohidrat sederhana. Kombinasi ubi ungu dan kacang merah sebagai bahan baku pangan fungsional seperti snack bar dibuat dengan harapan dapat menghasilkan produk makanan selingan yang tidak hanya disukai namun memiliki manfaat lebih untuk kesehatan yaitu tinggi protein, kaya serat, dan rendah glukosa sehingga makanan selingan tersebut baik untuk dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat terutama penderita DM. Pengembangan produk pangan fungsional berbahan baku lokal seperti tepung kacang merah dan tepung ubi ungu juga sebagai upaya dalam mengurangi penggunaaan bahan impor seperti gandum di Indonesia.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan formula snack bar yang memenuhi persyaratan mutu, memiliki kandungan zat gizi (KH, protein, lemak), aktivitas antioksidan, gula pereduksi. serta senyawa aktif (antosianin dan serat) yang baik dikonsumsi oleh penderita DM.Metode: Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan desain eskperimen secara random acak lengkap. Formula snack bar dibuat menjadi 4 dengan rasio antara tepung ubi ungu dan kacang merah yang berbeda yaitu F1 (100:0), F2 (90:10), F3 (80:20), dan F4 (70:30). Parameter yang diteliti pada studi ini adalah daya terima (kesukaan) panelis, proksimat (kadar air, kadar abu, KH, protein, dan lemak), aktivitas antioksidan, gula pereduksi, kadar antosianin, dan kadar serat pangan dari snack bar yang paling disukai.Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil analisis diketahui bahwa snack bar F3 adalah formula yang paling disukai oleh panelis. Fomula terpilih (F3) memenuhi persyaratan mutu fisik dan kandungan zat gizi yang baik yaitu protein (7,823%), lemak (4,38%) dan KH (81,857%). Snack bar ini juga mengandung aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat yaitu (34,079 ppm), kadar gula pereduksi (3,56%), kadar antosianin (11,45 mg/kg), dan kadar serat (16,32%).Kesimpulan: Snack bar pada penelitian ini memiliki mutu fisik dan kimia yang sesuai dengan persyaratan mutu serta mengandung protein yang tinggi, lemak yang rendah, serta kandungan serat yang tinggi. Snack bar ini juga memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat karena kandungan antosianinnya yang tinggi serta mengandung gula reduksi yang rendah sehingga snack bar ini layak untuk dikonsumsi oleh penderita diabetes mellitus.
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 251-259; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.251-259

Abstract:
Background: Food for the Muyu tribe was an actualization of daily life over the belief in the religious dimension that is adopted and lived. This study aims to explore the food taboo among the Muyu tribe in Indonesia.Methods: The authors conducted the case study in Mindiptana, Boven Digoel, Papua. The study carried out data collection by participatory observation, in-depth interviews, and document searches. The authors carried out the report using an ethnographic approach an emically perspective.Results: Belief in the lord of wild animals, the lord of fruits and plants, and the lord of sago, was so thick that many spells appear to hunt and search for food in the forest, which was a form of recognition of the power of these. The Muyu tribe had restrictions on several types of food. Food can be taboo based on its physical form; meanwhile, because of Muyu people's belief that there was a bad quality inherent in these food ingredients. It was especially closely related to ritual practice for men as a process of undergoing initiation as a big man. The Muyu intended women taboo for mothers who are pregnant and breastfeeding. Abstinence for pregnant Muyu women was often related to the fetus in the womb. For children, especially for boys, it was almost the same as abstinence for adult Muyu men. This abstinence applies to boys who were prepared to be tómkót, especially when undergoing the initiation process.Conclusions: The food taboo applies to all Muyu people, both men, women, and children.
Annisa Salsabila Setya Budi, Trias Mahmudiono
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 211-222; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.211-222

Abstract:
Background: Aerofood ACS Surabaya as an international inflight catering service is required to have good food safety standards to ensure the quality of the products. The food safety system implemented by Aerofood ACS Surabaya on all its product is Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), including the banana cake. HACCP needs to be applied to prevent the possibility of physical, chemical, and biological contamination on food product that can cause foodborne disease.Objectives: The purpose of this research is to identify the application of HACCP system to banana cake in Aerofood ACS Surabaya.Methode: The method of this research is a qualitative descriptive method including field observation, interviews, and analyzes HACCP documents of aerofood ACS Surabaya.Result: There are 18 steps to produce banana cake until it can distributed to airlines and can be consumed by consumers: receiving of eggs, receiving of banana, receiving of dry goods (flour, sugar, baking soda, and oil), eggs storage, banana storage, dry goods storage, egg cracking, flour sifting, weighing, mixing, baking, chilling, shaping, packaging, storage of banana cake, setting in the tray, holding room, and delivery to plane. From 18 steps to produce banana cake, there are six critical control points: receiving of eggs, eggs storage, baking, cooling, storage of banana cake, and holding room.Conclusions: Physical, chemical, and biological contamination on banana cake can be prevented by paying attention to each steps, especially the critical control point. Aerofood ACS Surabaya has implemented the HACCP system properly and accordance with the established HACCP plan.Keywords: HACCP, food safety, airlines catering service, foodborne diseaseABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Aerofood ACS Surabaya sebagai perusahaan jasa boga penerbangan bertaraf internasional diharuskan memiliki standar keamanan pangan yang baik untuk menjamin mutu produk yang dihasilkan. Sistem keamanan pangan yang diterapkan oleh Aerofood ACS Surabaya pada semua produknya adalah Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), termasuk pada banana cake. HACCP perlu diterapkan untuk mencegah kemungkinan kontaminasi fisik, kimia, dan biologi pada produk pangan yang dapat menyebabkan foodborne disease.Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi penerapan sistem HACCP pada produk banana cake di Aerofood ACS Surabaya.Metode: Metode dari penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif yang meliputi observasi lapangan, wawancara, dan menganalisis dokumen HACCP Aerofood ACS Surabaya.Hasil: Terdapat 18 tahap produksi banana cake hingga produk dapat didistribusikan ke peswat dan dapat dinikmati oleh konsumen, yaitu penerimaan telur, penerimaan buah pisang, penerimaan bahan baku kering (tepung, gula, baking soda, dan minyak), penyimpanan telur, penyimpanan buah pisang, penyimpanan bahan baku kering, pemecahan telur, pengayakan tepung, penimbangan, mixing, baking, pendinginan, pembentukan, pengemasan, penyimpanan banana cake, penataan pada tray, penyimpanan pada holding room, dan delivery ke pesawat. Dari 18 tahap produksi banana cake, terdapat enam titik kritis yaitu penerimaan telur, penyimpanan telur, baking, pendinginan, penyimpanan banana cake, dan penyimpanan pada holding room.Kesimpulan: Kontaminasi fisik, kimia, dan biologi pada produk banana cake dapat dicegah dengan memerhatikan setiap langkah terutama titik kritis. Aerofood ACS Surabaya telah melaksanakan sistem HACCP dengan baik dan sesuai dengan HACCP plan yang telah ditetapkan.Kata Kunci: HACCP, keamanan pangan, jasa boga penerbangan, foodborne disease
Silvia Alfinnia, Lailatul Muniroh, Dominikus Raditya Atmaka
Published: 1 September 2021
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 5, pp 223-229; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v5i3.2021.223-229

Abstract:
ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Anak usia sekolah mengalami peningkatan kebutuhan gizi untuk tumbuh kembang. Di usia ini, anak-anak bisa memilih makanan maupun media bermain sesuai keinginan mereka. Aktivitas menggunakan layar yang berlebih serta perilaku makan yang buruk dapat memicu terjadinya obesitas.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan Screen Based Activity (SBA) dan perilaku makan dengan status gizi anak usia sekolah.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan desain penelitian cross sectional. Penelitian dilakukan di SDI Darush Sholihin Kabupaten Nganjuk. Besar sampel sebanyak 48 siswa yang dipilih secara proportional random sampling. Pengumpulan data meliputi berat badan, tinggi badan, kuesioner SBA, Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), serta food recall 2x24 jam. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman dan Kendall’s tau dengan nilai signifikansi 0,05.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan SBA (p=0,151), perilaku makan makanan pokok (p=0,101), perilaku makan lauk hewani (p=0,212), perilaku makan lauk nabati (p=0,829), perilaku makan sayuran (p=0,751) dan perilaku makan jajanan (p=0,109) dengan status gizi. Namun, terdapat hubungan perilaku makan buah (p=0,040) dengan status gizi.Kesimpulan: Konsumsi buah-buahan yang sering tanpa memperhatikan kandungan gula dan cara penyajian dapat memberikan risiko obesitas pada anak. Diperlukan pendidikan gizi kepada pihak sekolah maupun orang tua mengenai pembatasan SBA dan perilaku makan sehat terutama buah untuk mencapai tumbuh kembang yang optimal dan terhindar dari obesitas.
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