ISSN / EISSN : 2580-1163 / 2580-9776
Published by: Universitas Airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 324
Latest articles in this journal
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 191-197; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.191-197
Background: Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin cannot take up glucose, increasing blood glucose. Elderly people are more exposed to insulin resistance, requiring dietary interventions that extend longevity. Trehalose, a naturally occurring sugar, showed potentially reduce insulin resistance which can be measured using the HOMA-IR (Homeostatis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) index. Objectives: This study aimed to assess HOMA-IR levels as a parameter of insulin resistance in old rats after giving trehalose sugar. Methods: Experimental research with 28 male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) was separated into 4 groups, the control group of young rats (Group A), the control group of old rats (Group B), a group of old rats that were given 2% Trehalose solution (Group C), and a group of old rats that given 2% sucrose solution (Group D) that observed for 8 weeks. Results: The results showed differences in HOMA-IR levels (p<0.001) between old and young subjects. The intervention in Group C was optimal in reducing levels of HOMA-IR (p<0.001) by 18.2% compared with the old control, while Group D increased levels of HOMA-IR by 14.3% (p<0.001) compared with the old control. The age of the subjects with HOMA-IR level is positively correlated (p<0.001; r=0.721) and the weight of subjects with the HOMA-IR level is also positively correlated (p<0.001; r=0.698), indicating that the older and the greater weight of subject resulting in the bigger of HOMA-IR value. Conclusion: Trehalose is effective in reducing HOMA-IR levels as a parameter of insulin resistance in old rats.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 164-172; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.164-172
Background: Moringa Oleifera leaves "Marungga" contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenol compounds that potential to fulfill nutritional requirements among children and adults. The product development often utilized Moringa leaves powder rather than the fresh ones. The powdering process might reduce the nutritional content while using fresh Moringa leaves is more applicable for the local community. However, the strong taste and aroma of Moringa leaves could influence the individual acceptance of a food product. Pudding is a simple and easy-to-make food product at the household level. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of fresh Moringa leaves substitution compared with Moringa leaves powder on pudding product acceptance and proximate characteristics. Methods: This was an experimental study with a complementary randomized design. The substitution of fresh Moringa leaves was 0%,20%,30%, while Moringa leaf powder was 0%, 5%, 10%. We conducted an organoleptic test, hedonic test, and proximate analysis of chosen formulations. Statistical analysis included Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Duncan's multiple range test, and t-test. Results: The chosen formula based on the hedonic test was the 20% of fresh Moringa leaf substitution (FML2) with a score of 3.64, and 5% of Moringa leaf flour (FMP1) with a score of 4.10. A significant difference between the two formulations was their texture; FMP1 had a hard texture than FML2. The protein, fat, carbohydrate, and total calorie content of those formulations were significantly different, but not for the ash content. Conclusion: Substitution used fresh leaves utilized more Moringa leaves and improved pudding nutrients contents than powder type.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 173-182; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.173-182
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding should be supported by early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF), provision of colostrum and not providing pre-lacteal feeding. Objectives: The study objective was to analyze nutritional knowledge and factors related to breastfeeding and feeding practices of lactating mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March–November 2020 in Sibubut, Kedungdalem, and Bayalangu Kidul Villages, Cirebon Regency. Study respondents were 44 lactating mothers with under six months infants. Mothers’ nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and breastfeeding/feeding practice were obtained using a validated questionnaire, while the food consumption data of mothers was obtained from two days of 24-hour food recall (weekday and weekend). Spearman’s correlation test and Chi-Square analysis were used to analyze the correlation between variables, while the Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the difference in nutritional knowledge and breastfeeding/infant feeding practice variables based on education level. Results: Family characteristics (age, mother’s education and occupation, household income, parity, family size, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were not correlated with breastfeeding/infant feeding practice (p=0.427; 0.136; 0.481; 0.056; 0.699; 0.241; 0.547, respectively). There was no significant correlation between nutritional knowledge and breastfeeding/infant feeding practice of mothers (p=0.728). No significant difference was found in the nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding (p=0.828) and breastfeeding/feeding practice of infants (p=0.572) between mothers with education > elementary school and < elementary school. More mothers with low education provided pre-lacteal food than mothers with higher education (p =0.046). Conclusions: The breastfeeding/feeding practice of mothers are still poor regardless of education level. Nutrition education for breastfeeding mothers is required to encourage good breastfeeding/infant feeding practices.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 140-147; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.140-147
Background: Childhood obesity became a major nutritional problem in the last decades and growing rapidly in many countries, including Indonesia. Processed food especially ultra-processed food (UPF) as part of NOVA classification had known to contain obesogenic nutrients which were high energy-dense, fatty, sugary, and salty may lead to higher body mass index-for-age (BAZ). Objective: The study aimed to assess the correlation between UPF and BAZ among school-age children 10-12 years old in Surabaya. Methods: A cross-sectional study and data collection were conducted in three public and private schools in Surabaya, East Java Indonesia from March-April 2020. Elementary students in the 4th and 5th grades were enrolled and 136 students were randomly selected as respondents. Weight and height measurements were obtained for calculating the BAZ, and UPF consumption was obtained by food frequency questionnaire. Structured questionnaires and physical activity questionnaires for children (PAQ-C) were used to assess socio-demographic status, physical activity level, energy intake, and sedentary screen time. ANOVA test was done for bivariate analysis and linear regression for multivariate analysis, all data analyzed used SPSS version 20. Results: The result found a mean of BAZ was 0.31 SD; 35.3% of respondents were in the 1st tercile of UPF consumption. Most of the respondents had inadequate TEI and low PAL. No significant association was found between UPF consumption and BAZ (p=0.217). Only physical activity that significant in multivariate analysis (p=0.032) Conclusion: It was necessary to distinguish the type of obesogenic and non-obesogenic UPF to get a clear correlation between UPF consumption and BAZ among school-age children.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 206-211; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.206-211
Background: Palm sugar (Arenga pinnata) is believed to benefit people with diabetes mellitus since they believe it has a low glycemic index. However, the total carbohydrates in palm sugar, particularly sucrose, are high. Thus, offering palm sugar to diabetic people still needs further studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the glycemic response, glycemic index, and glycemic load of palm sugar compared to cane sugar. Methods: This study used an experimental design. Measurement of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) through the finger-prick capillary blood test method. The main materials in this study were commercial white cane sugar as reference food and traditional palm sugar product of Lebak District, Banten Province, as a test food. Reference food and test food were provided equivalent to 50 g available carbohydrate dissolved in 250 ml mineral water subjected to 5 men and 5 women. The glycemic response was determined by the area under the curve (AUC) of the trapezoid method. The difference in glycemic response between the reference food and the test food was assessed using the independent sample t-test. Results: The peak of the increase in blood glucose occurred at 30 minutes. There was no difference in glycemic response between the reference food and the test food (p-value 0.685). The palm sugar glycemic index was 98.71 and was categorized into the high glycemic index category. Meanwhile, the glycemic load of palm sugar and cane sugar was 11.80 and 12.22, those categorized into the medium glycemic load category. Conclusions: No differences in glycemic response between palm sugar and cane sugar. The glycemic index of palm sugar was considered high and was not different from cane sugar. The glycemic load of palm sugar and cane sugar was classified as moderate due to the small serving size. Using palm sugar less than cane sugar was expected to provide a lower glycemic response, glycemic index, and glycemic load.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 122-129; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.122-129
Background: The right to food is one of the human rights that must be protected and fulfilled. Inequality in priorities on food and nutrition security development causes a sharp distinction among provinces regarding food security achievement. Currently, methods for evaluating the right to food at the provincial level are not yet available. Objectives: This study aims to analyze the right to food at the provincial level in Indonesia with a food system approach (food availability, food accessibility, and food utilization) using structural, process, and outcome indicators. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from 34 provinces in Indonesia. The data consist of regulations, programs, and the government's performance achievements. There were five data analysis stages: identification, selection, assessment indicators, provincial rankings provision, and the characteristics based on cluster analysis. Results: Based on the evaluation of 36 selected indicators of the right to food, only three provinces were included in the high category, twenty-five provinces in the medium category, and six provinces in the low category. Central Java had the highest level of the right to food, while West Papua had the lowest level. Non-hierarchical clustering with K-Means methods was further applied to analyze the right to food and later divided into five clusters. The first until the third cluster was categorized as medium level, while the fourth and fifth clusters were categorized as low. Conclusions: The right to food in western part of Indonesia had better than the eastern region. The availability of regulations and program implementations with adequate budget support will affect the government's performance in fulfilling the right to food.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 155-163; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.155-163
Background: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused the government to implement social movement restrictions affecting the household economy and school closure that will lead to change in the home food environment, parental feeding practices, and the end will influence child’s eating behavior. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the parental feeding practices among young school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Eighteen informants consisting of mothers and a grandmother have participated in the online in-depth interview. Moreover, 4 fathers had also been interviewed to triangulate the data and to increase the meaningful insight. A question guideline was used to guide the in-depth interview process. Thematic analysis using an inductive approach was applied to analyze the transcripts. Results: Five themes were identified around changes in food restriction, pressure to eat, giving the explanation, child involvement, and modeling. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents demand their children to have good eating behavior. However, they tend to give autonomy more often to their child to get the snacks. It would make the children lead to having poor and unhealthy eating behaviors.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 198-205; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.198-205
Background: Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin cannot take up glucose, increasing blood glucose. Elderly people are more exposed to insulin resistance, requiring dietary interventions that extend longevity. Trehalose, a naturally occurring sugar, showed potentially reduce insulin resistance which can be measured using the HOMA-IR index. Objectives: This study aimed to assess HOMA-IR levels as a parameter of insulin resistance in old rats after giving trehalose sugar. Methods: Experimental research with 28 male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) was separated into 4 groups, the control group of young rats (Group A), the control group of old rats (Group B), a group of old rats that were given 2% Trehalose solution (Group C), and a group of old rats that given 2% sucrose solution (Group D) that observed for 8 weeks. Results: The results showed differences in HOMA-IR levels (p<0.001) between old and young subjects. The intervention in Group C was optimal in reducing levels of HOMA-IR (p<0.001) by 18.2% compared with the old control, while Group D increased levels of HOMA-IR by 14.3% (p<0.001) compared with the old control. The age of the subjects with HOMA-IR level is positively correlated (p<0.001; r=0.721) and the weight of subjects with the HOMA-IR level is also positively correlated (p<0.001; r=0.698), indicating that the older and the greater weight of subject resulting in the bigger of HOMA-IR value. Conclusion: Trehalose is effective in reducing HOMA-IR levels as a parameter of insulin resistance in old rats.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 212-226; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.212-226
Background: The problem of overnutrition has become an epidemic issue at the global level. As one of the effective ways to prevent and overcome obesity, nutrition education is growing by utilizing eHealth media as a message delivery channel. Objectives: To identify studies that integrate nutrition education with eHealth-based technology in the prevention and control of obesity, behavioral theory and BCT (Behaviour Change Technique), their effectiveness in improving the anthropometric status and behavioral outcomes in obese adults. Discussion: Article searches were conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, and using manual search Google Scholar in reputable journals in the last ten years, and 17 English articles were obtained. Two forms of communication channels and activities were used to deliver nutrition education messages, namely interpersonal channels and internet-based mass media with or without assistance. Mobile applications were the most widely used as a messaging tool. The most frequently used theory was Social Cognitive Theory, and the majority of BCT were self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. The eHealth method (online) gave the same results on anthropometric status, physical activity, and treatment adherence compared to face-to-face (offline) by providing the same BCT-based obesity management intervention. Conclusions: Integrating nutrition education into eHealth media channels that emphasizes modification of eating behavior and physical activity has a significant effect on improving anthropometric status but was inconsistent on eating behavior and physical activity outcomes in adults with short-term intervention (≤3.5 months/ 14 weeks). This effect will give benefit the outcomes if followed by personal or group mentoring accompanied by well-design BCT.
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 6, pp 183-190; https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v6i2.2022.183-190
Background: Vascular inflammation is one of contributing factors to the pathogenesis of arterial aging. Age-related activation of the inflammatory process can lead to various macro-and microvascular pathologies. The pro-inflammatory microenvironment generated in the vascular wall can lead to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases due to an increase in vascular dysfunction. Trehalose is a disaccharide that has several functions, protecting against stressors (one of them is reactive oxygen species/ROS) and preventing the inflammatory responses induced by endotoxic shock. Objectives: To analyze the effect of trehalose supplementation on macrovascular inflammatory processes related to the aging process. Methods: The experimental study used 28 male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) which were divided into 4 groups, young control group (Group A), old control group (Group B), 2% sucrose group (Group C), and 2% trehalose group (Group D); were then observed for 8 weeks. Results: The results showed that there were no significant differences in aortic tissue NFκB-p65 expression between old and young subjects (p=0.247). The 2% trehalose group had 40% lower aortic tissue NFkB-p65 expression compared to the old control group (p=0.012); while the group given 2% sucrose solution had a 30% higher aortic tissue NFkB-p65 expression compared to the trehalose group (p=0.018). Conclusion: Trehalose has a good effect on aging-associated vascular inflammatory processes that can be seen from the low aortic tissue NFκB-p65 expression in old rats.