Amerta Nutrition

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2580-1163 / 2580-9776
Current Publisher: universitas airlangga (10.20473)
Total articles ≅ 225
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Stefania Widya Setyaningtyas, Thinni Nurul Rochmah, Trias Mahmudiono, Susi Hidayah, Yurike D Adhela
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 213-217; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.213-217

Abstract:
Background: anemia prevention through iron-folic acid supplementation (IFA) for female adolescent has become goverment’s program priority. Although this programme have been running, several constrains including consumption compliance was frequently found. On the other hand, school have potential resources such as Junior of The Red Cross (PMR) which can be peer educator for health including anemia for other students. Objectives: this research was aimed to describe knowledge, practice, and attitude of PMR member toward IFA supplementation in SMAN 2 LamonganMethods: This research used cross sectional design. The population of this study was 100 members of the Red Cross Youth Teaching (PMR) SMAN 2 Lamongan. The sample of this study was 60 students who were selected by the simple random sampling method who met the inclusion criteria, such as were active members of the PMR and were willing to take part in the study. Data collection was carried out using self-administered questionnaires using an online questionnaire application consisting of 20 questions to measure knowledge; 20 questions to measure attitude; and 13 questions to measure behavior. Data were categorized and analyzed using descriptive tests.Results: Most respondents still have lack of knowledge related to the TTD program (56.7%) and its benefits (56.7%). 66% of PMR cadres have a positive attitude towards TTD, but not 100% of PMR cadres consume blood-added tablets regularly.Conclusions Strengthening of knowledge and attitudes towards TTD is needed to improve compliance of TTD consumption among PMR members so that later PMR cadres can become peer educators for other students.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: penanggulangan anemia dengan pemberian Tablet Tambah Darah (TTD) dengan sasaran remaja putri menjadi fokus pemerintah saat ini. Walaupun sudah mulai berjalan, seringkali ditemukan beberapa kendala dalam pelaksanaan program, diantaranya ketidakpatuhan konsumsi TTD. Di sisi lain, sekolah memiliki potensi sumberdaya untuk meningkatkan optimalisasi program TTD, salah satunya adalah Palang Merah Remaja (PMR) yang dapat menjadi pendidik sebaya tentang masalah kesehatan termasuk anemia bagi siswi lainnya.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat gambaran pengetahuan, sikap, dan perilaku kader PMR di SMA Negeri 2 Lamongan terhadap program pemberian TTDMetode: Penelitian ini merupakan menggunakan desain cross sectional. Populasi penelitian ini adalah anggota ekstrakurikuler Palang Merah Remaja (PMR) SMAN 2 Lamongan sejumlah 100 orang. Sampel dari penelitian ini adalah 60 siswa anggota PMR yang dipilih dengan metode simple random sampling dan memenuhi kriteria inklusi yaitu merupakan anggota aktif PMR dan bersedia mengikuti penelitian. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan self-administered questionnaires dengan menggunakan aplikasi kuesioner online yang terdiri dari 20 pertanyaan untuk mengukur pengetahuan; 20 pertanyaan untuk mengukur sikap; dan 13 pertanyaan untuk mengukur perilaku. Data dikategorikan dan dianalisis menggunakan uji deskriptif.Hasil: Sebagian besar responden masih memiliki pengetahuan yang kurang terkait program TTD (56,7%) dan manfaatnya (56,7%). Sebesar 66% kader PMR memiliki sikap yang positif terhadap TTD, namun tidak 100% kader PMR mengonsumsi tablet tambah darah secara rutin.Kesimpulan: Perlu penguatan terhadap pengetahuan serta sikap terhadap TTD untuk meningkatkan kepatuhan konsumsi TTD di kalangan anggota PMR agar nantinya kader PMR dapat menjadi pendidik sebaya bagi siswi lainnya.
Rendi Aji Prihaningtyas, Nur Aisiyah Widjaja, Meta Herdiana Hanindita, Roedi Irawan
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 191-197; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.191-197

Abstract:
Background : The prevalence of obesity in adolescents is increasing and causes metabolic syndrome at a young age. Metabolic syndrome results from the interaction of environmental, genetic, and dietary factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the diet profile of obese adolescents suffering from metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of obese adolescents who visited the Pediatric Nutrition and Metabolic Disease in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. The anthropometry examination (weight, height and waist circumference), blood pressure, and blood tests (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose levels) were measured. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the International Diabetes Federation. Food consumption data was obtained through direct interviews using data collection sheets. Analysis of dietary differences in obese adolescents suffering from metabolic syndrome was performed by chi square using SPSS.Results and Discussions: A total of 59 obese adolescents aged 13-16 years were involved in this study. A total of 27 subjects (45.8%) suffered from metabolic syndrome and 32 subjects (54.2%) did not suffer from metabolic syndrome. The level of the consumption of fish, vegetables, and fruit in obese adolescents were still low. There was no significant difference in the diet profile between obese adolescents who suffer from metabolic syndrome or not.Conclusion: Prevention strategies through food consumption patterns are needed in obese adolescents to control metabolic stress processes and prevent metabolic syndrome in the future. Diet knowledge in obese adolescents needs to be given early to prevent further complications. Increasing foods that contain anti-oxidants, such as fruits and vegetables, is one of the strategies to prevent metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang : Prevalensi obesitas pada remaja semakin meningkat dan menyebabkan sindrom metabolik di usia muda. Sindrom metabolik terjadi akibat interaksi faktor lingkungan, genetik, dan diet. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui profil diet pada remaja obesitas yang menderita sindrom metabolik.Metode : Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian potong lintang pada remaja obesitas yang berkunjung di Poli Nutrisi dan Penyakit Metabolik Anak di RSUD Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya. Pada subyek dilakukan pemeriksaan antropometri (berat badan, tinggi badan, dan lingkar pinggang), pemeriksaan tekanan darah, dan pemeriksaan darah (kolesterol HDL, trigliserida, dan kadar glukosa darah). Diagnosis sindrom metabolik ditegakkan berdasarkan International Diabetes Federation. Data konsumsi makanan didapatkan melalui wawancara langsung dengan menggunakan lembar pengumpul data. Analisis perbedaan diet pada remaja obesitas yang menderita sindrom metabolik dilakukan dengan chi square menggunakan SPSS.Hasil dan Pembahasan : Sebanyak 59 remaja obesitas yang berusia 13-16 tahun terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Sebanyak 27 subyek (45,8%) menderita sindrom metabolik dan sebanyak 32 subyek (54,2%) tidak menderita sindrom metabolik. Tingkat konsumsi ikan, sayur, dan buah pada remaja obesitas masih rendah. Tidak ada perbedaan yang bermakna pada profil diet antara remaja obesitas yang menderita sindrom metabolik maupun tidak.Kesimpulan : Strategi pencegahan melalui pola konsumsi makanan diperlukan pada remaja obesitas untuk mengontrol proses stres metabolik sehingga dapat mencegah sindrom metabolik di masa datang. Pengetahuan diet pada remaja obesitas perlu diberikan sejak dini untuk mencegah komplikasi lebih lanjut. Memperbanyak makanan yang mengandung anti-oksidan, seperti buah dan sayur merupakan salah satu strategi mencegah sindrom metabolik pada remaja obesitas.
Diani Zafira, Farapti Farapti
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 185-190; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.185-190

Abstract:
Background: The consumption for vegetable and fruit in Indonesia was lower than recommendation World Health Organization 400g/day. School lunch and packed lunch could increased consumption of vegetable and fruit.Objective: To analyze differences vegetable and fruit consumption between school lunch and packed lunch group.Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving 155 students with 47 sampels for school lunch and 108 sampels for packed lunch group in SD Muhammadiyah 4 Surabaya. Respondents were interviewed with questioner using food recall method for 2x24 hours, observed intake of vegetables and fruit during lunch and intake a day compared between school lunch and packed lunches. Data were analyzed using independent t-test.Result: Average consumption of vegetables and fruit between two groups was significant, vegetables (p
Chusnul Fadilla, Qonita Rachmah, Juwariyah Juwariyah
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 198-204; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.198-204

Abstract:
Background: The quality of nutrition services can be seen through the patient's leftovers as the result of hospital food system management. High food waste could impact on increasing the risk of malnutrition in hospitalized patients.Objective: This study aimed to determine the food waste description among patients in Sidoarjo General Hospital. Method: This was a descriptive study used a cross-sectional design with a total sample of 150 patients selected by proportional sampling in each in patient room during September 2019. Data was taken using the comstock form and then translated into percent of food waste and lost of food costs.Results: The highest percentage of leftovers from hospitalized patients was found in vegetable side dishes (30.72%) and the lowest was in animal side dishes (21.81%). The higher class of inpatient room, the lower the percentage of food waste. Foods that were intact by patients were highest during dinner (38.0%). The highest loss due to costs lost from whole food came from inpatient class I which amounted to IDR 1,680,000.Conclusion: The food waste of inpatients at Sidoarjo General Hospital was still quite high. Evaluation of factors causing high food waste in inpatients can be done to reduce percent of food waste and food cost efficiency.ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Kualitas mutu pelayanan gizi dapat dilihat melalui sisa makanan pasien hasil manajemen penyelenggaraan makanan rumah sakit. Tingginya sisa makanan dapat berdampak pada peningkatan risiko malnutrisi pada pasien rawat inap.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran sisa makanan pasien rawat inap di RSUD Kabupaten Sidoarjo.Metode: Penelitian deskriptif ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 150 pasien dipilih secara proportional sampling di masing-masing ruangan rawat inap pada bulan September 2019. Data diambil menggunakan formulir comstock lalu diterjemahkan dalam bentuk persen sisa makanan dan foodcost yang hilang. Tingginya persentase makanan ditentukan dengan standar Depkes 2013 yaitu apabila melebihi 20%.Hasil: Persentase sisa makanan pasien rawat inap tertinggi ditemukan pada lauk nabati (30,72%) dan terendah pada lauk hewani (21,81%). Semakin tinggi kelas rawat inap, maka semakin rendah persentase sisa makanan. Makanan yang utuh atau tidak tersentuh oleh pasien paling tinggi terjadi saat makan sore (38,0%). Kerugian tertinggi akibat biaya yang hilang dari makanan utuh berasal dari rawat inap kelas I yaitu sebesar Rp. 1.680.000,00.Kesimpulan: Sisa makanan pasien rawat inap di RSUD Kabupaten Sidoarjo masih tergolong cukup tinggi. Evaluasi faktor penyebab tingginya sisa makanan pada pasien rawat inap dapat dilakukan untuk menurunkan persen sisa makanan dan efisiensi foodcost.
Fauziah Rizki Andini
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 218-224; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.218-224

Abstract:
Background: Chronic Energy Deficiency can occur in women in reproductive age (WUS) and pregnant woman who have Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUFA) 35 years, high maternal parity, and too close the pregnancy distance. Purpose: to analyze factors related to the incidence of CED in pregnant women in the Prambontergayang Health Center in 2019.Method: this study was an observational analytic study with a cross sectional design. The sample of the study was pregnant women in Prambontergayang Public Health Center, which amounted to 179 pregnant women by using simple random sampling. The variables used are age, education, occupation, income, and age of pregnancy. Data analysis was performed using the Chi Square test and Pearson's Test.Results: The results showed that the prevalence of pregnant women who experienced CED was 20.1% and the value of p on the variables of age (p 0.05, which means there was no relationship with the CED.Conclusion: the incidence of CED is related to the condition of pregnant women aged 35 years, low education, not working and low income. But there is no relationship between maternal gestational age with the incidence of CED. The advice that can be given is that the village government invites pregnant women and their families to actively participate in managing the productive economy and the Public Health Center provides information on nutritious foods so as to increase the knowledge of pregnant women.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang : Kekurangan Energi Kronis dapat terjadi padaiwanita usia subur (WUS) daniibu hamil yangimemiliki Lingkar Lengan Atasi(LiLA)
Anis Zaiti Mubarokah, Lailatul Muniroh
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 239-243; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.239-243

Abstract:
Background: Breast milk is the best nutrition for children's health and intelligence. Exclusive breastfeeding can prevent death and infectious diseases in infants. The socio-cultural factor is one of the strong driving factors towards mother's behavior in giving exclusive breastfeeding, especially to people who have strong adherence to the traditions of their ancestors such as the Maduranese.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-cultural nutrition on exclusive breastfeeding in the Bangkalan Health Center, Madura Methods: This study was using a cross sectional research design with a sample of mothers who have babies aged 6-12 months. The sample size of this study was 87 respondents. Sampling is done by stratified random sampling. Data collection through interviews using questionnaires and research results were analyzed using logistic regression tests.Results: There was an influence between socio- culture of nutrition in infants (P=0,000) on exclusive breastfeedingi the Bangkalan public health center. Mothers who have socio-culture of nutrition in infants more do not provide exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months.Conclusions: In conclusion, socio-culture of nutrition in infants in the form of prelacteal feeding and early MP-ASI can influence exclusive breastfeeding for infants for 6 months. It is hoped that health workers will educate mothers and husbands about the dangers of giving honey and MP-ASI early to babies and motivate husbands to provide support to mothers for exclusive breastfeeding. Increasing the role of cadres in moving the community to want to come in counseling about exclusive breastfeeding with her husband.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: ASI merupakan nutrisi terbaik bagi kesehatan dan kecerdasan anak. Pemberian ASI eksklusif dapat mencegah kematian dan penyakit infeksi pada bayi. Faktor sosio budaya merupakan salah satu faktor pendorong yang cukup kuat terhadap perilaku ibu dalam memberikan ASI eksklusif, terutama pada masyarakat yang memiliki kepatuhan yang kuat pada tradisi nenek moyang seperti pada etnik Madura.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh sosio budaya gizi terhadap pemberian ASI eksklusif di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Bangkalan, Madura.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan cross sectional dengan sampel ibu yang memiliki bayi usia 6-12 bulan. Besar sampel dari penelitian ini yaitu 87 responden. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan stratified random sampling. Pengumpulan data melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner dan hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan uji regresi logistik.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh antara sosio budaya gizi pada bayi (P=0,000) terhadap pemberian ASI eksklusif di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Bangkalan. Ibu yang terdapat sosio budaya gizi pada bayi lebih banyak tidak memberikan ASI eksklusif selama 6 bulanKesimpulan: Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa sosio budaya gizi pada bayi berupa pemberian makanan prelakteal dan MP-ASI dini dapat mempengaruhi pemberian ASI eksklusif pada bayi selama 6 bulan. Diharapkan agar tenaga kesehatan mengedukasi ibu dan suami tentang bahaya memberian madu dan MP-ASI dini kepada bayi serta memotivasi suami agar memberikan dukungan kepada ibu untuk menyusui eksklusif. Meningkatkan peran kader dalam menggerakkan masyarakat agar mau datang dalam penyuluhan tentang ASI eksklusif bersama suami.
Lia Dwi Lestari, Lucia Yovita Hendrati
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 231-238; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.231-238

Abstract:
Background: The program for finding pneumonia cases as an effort to prevent and control infectious diseases in Jombang is getting better. Risk factors for pneumonia in infants include complete basic immunization (IDL) status and nutritional status in infants. Complete basic immunization coverage in Jombang has met the Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2015-2019 target of 80%, however pneumonia cases continue to occur and have continued to increase for the past 3 years.Objectives: Observing the trend between complete basic immunization coverage and cases of malnutrition with the incidence of pneumonia in children under five in Jombang Regency during 2015, 2016, 2017 and describe the distribution of cases in the form of maps.Methods: This type of research is descriptive by describing in the form of a map. The population in this study were all children under five in Jombang. Data was taken from the Jombang health profile in 2015, 2016 and 2017. Data management uses the Health Mapper application version 4.3.0.0 with product version 4.03.Results: The trend of the incidence of pneumonia with IDL coverage in Jombang in 2015-2017 shows, an increase in pneumonia cases in infants accompanied by a decrease in IDL coverage. This incident occurred in 19.04% in Jombang, specifically in Mojoagung, Sumobito, Ploso and Plandaan. While the increase in pneumonia was accompanied by an increase in cases of malnutrition occurred in 23.8% of the districts namely Ngoro, Mojowarno, Bareng, Sumobito and Plandaan.Conclussions: During 2015, 2016 and 2017 the incidence of pneumonia tends to increase followed by a decrease in IDL coverage and an increase in cases of malnutrition.ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Progam penemuan kasus pneumonia sebagai upaya pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit menular di Jombang semakin membaik. Faktor risiko dari pneumonia pada balita diantaranya adalah status imunisasi dasar lengkap (IDL) dan status gizi pada balita. Cakupan IDL di Kabupaten Jombang telah memenuhi target Renstra Kementrian Kesehatan tahun 2015-2019 sebanyak 80%, namun demikian kasus pneumonia tetap terjadi serta terus mengalami peningkatan selama 3 tahun tersebut.Tujuan: Melihat kecenderungan antara cakupan IDL dan kasus gizi buruk dengan kejadian pneumonia pada balita di Kabupaten Jombang selama tahun 2015, 2016, 2017 serta menggambarkan persebarannya dalam bentuk peta.Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah peneltian deskriptif dengan menggambarkan dalam bentuk peta. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh balita di Kabupaten Jombang. Data diambil dari profil kesehatan Jombang pada 2015, 2016 dan 2017. Manajemen data menggunakan aplikasi Health Mapper versi 4.3.0.0 dengan versi produk 4.03.Hasil: Kecenderungan kejadian pneumonia dengan cakupan IDL di Jombang pada tahun 2015-2017 menunjukkan terjadi peningkatan kasus pneumonia pada balita disertai dengan penurunan cakupan IDL. Kejadian ini terjadi di 19,04% kecamatan di Jombang tepatnya kecamatan Mojoagung, Sumobito, Ploso dan Plandaan. Sedangkan peningkatan pneumonia disertai dengan peningkatan kasus gizi buruk terjadi di 23,8% kecamatan yaitu Kecamatan Ngoro, Mojowarno, Bareng, Sumobito dan Plandaan. Kesimpulan: Selama tahun 2015, 2016 dan 2017 kejadian pneumonia cenderung mengalami peningkatan yang diikuti dengan penurunan cakupan IDL serta peningkatan kasus gizi buruk.
Naila Maziya Labiba, Avliya Quratul Marjan, Nanang Nasrullah
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 244-249; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.244-249

Abstract:
Background: Increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Indonesia occurs as the result of dietary transition, which is traditional dietary habit into fast-food dietary habit. Thus, triggers the formation of free radicals in human body which can be prevented by consumption of high antioxidant food. Soyghurt or soymilk yoghurt was a probiotic drink made of fermented soybean as an alternative drink with high antioxidant to prevent non-communicable diseases. Soybean was a major source of isoflavone as antioxidant and the bioavailability of isoflavone can be increased by fermentation in soyghurt.Objectives: To developed high isoflavone soyghurt or soymilk yoghurt as probiotic drink.Methods: This study used experimental method by used completely randomized design with added ratio of soybean were 0%, 15%, 20%, 25%. Soyghurt was analyzed by chemical properties (proximate analysis and free isoflavone content), physical properties (viscosity and pH), also total lactic acid bacteria. Formula selection based on exponential comparison method.Results: The selected formula of soyghurt was the third formula which added by 25% ratio of soybean with water content (81,74%), ash content (0,49%), protein content (5,98%), fat content (11,61%), carbohydrate content (0,35%), genistein content (250,46 μg/g), daidzein content (173,02 μg/g), viscosity (7111,4 cPoice), pH (4,63), and total LAB (3,7 x 107 coloni/ml).Conclusions: Soyghurt had compatible total lactic acid bacteria with total starter bacteria in indonesian national standards of yoghurt and fulfilled claim of high isoflavone based on calculation of nutritional label reference.ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Peningkatan prevalensi penyakit tidak menular di Indonesia terjadi sebagai akibat adanya transisi pola konsumsi pangan, yaitu pola konsumsi pangan lokal menjadi pola konsumsi pangan cepat saji. Hal tersebut memicu terbentuknya radikal bebas di dalam tubuh yang dapat dicegah dengan mengonsumsi makanan atau kudapan tinggi antioksidan. Soyghurt atau yoghurt susu kacang kedelai merupakan minuman probiotik berbahan dasar susu nabati yang difermentasi dan diperuntukkan sebagai alternatif minuman tinggi antioksidan untuk mencegah terjadinya penyakit tidak menular. Jenis antioksidan utama dalam kacang kedelai adalah isoflavon yang bioavailabilitasnya akan meningkat selama proses fermentasi soyghurt. Tujuan: Melakukan pengembangan produk soyghurt atau yoghurt susu kacang kedelai sebagai minuman probiotik tinggi isoflavon.Metode: Jenis penelitian eksperimental dengan desain penelitian Rancangan Acak Lengkap menggunakan satu perlakuan yaitu penambahan rasio kacang kedelai sebesar 0%, 15%, 20%, 25%. Kemudian dilakukan analisis sifat kimia (uji proksimat dan kadar isoflavon bebas), sifat fisik (viskositas dan nilai pH), serta uji total bakteri asam laktat. Penentuan formula soyghurt terpilih dilakukan dengan metode perbandingan eksponensial.Hasil: Formula soyghurt terpilih adalah soyghurt formula ketiga dengan rasio penambahan kacang kedelai sebesar 25% dengan kadar air (81,74%), kadar abu (0,49%), kadar protein (5,98%), kadar lemak (11,61%), kadar karbohidrat (0,35%), kadar genistein (250,46 μg/g), kadar daidzein (173,02 μg/g), viskositas (7111,4 cPoice), tingkat derajat keasaman (4,63), dan total BAL (3,7 x 107 koloni/ml).Kesimpulan: Soyghurt memiliki total bakteri asam laktat yang sesuai dengan standar nasional indonesia dan telah memenuhi klaim tinggi isoflavon berdasarkan acuan label gizi.
Dimas Bayu Pinandoyo, Asriadi Masnar
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 205-212; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.205-212

Abstract:
Background: BPOM stated that in 2017, small and micro food enterprises were responsible for 49,5 % food borne disease in Indonesia. Indonesian government had provided guidance about good handling standard for food product (GMP) by UU No.18 Tahun 2012. ALOJA as Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) had lot of limitation to meet the standard. HACCP analysis was needed to give recommendation in arranging SOP that meet the standard.Objectives: The objective of this research was to do and set HACCP analysis as a way to collect data to give recommendation in setting the SOP that meet food safety standard regulation.Methods: Research done by applying 7 of 14 steps in HACCP implementation. Judgment taken based on the level of severity (3 level) and level of occurrence probability (3 level). From the matrix derived from it, SOP recommendation was taken if the level of control was medium and above.Results: Recommendation given for Pest Control procedure, washing and dipping, cooling, packaging and sealing process.Conclusions: The result shown that pest control procedure, washing and dipping, cooling, packaging and sealing process was on medium risk or above. SOP recommendation done by adding nylon net sized 80 mesh and check it regularly, control the concentration of lime betel, limit and regulate the cooling room strictly, and to apply aseptic condition. If this not possible, the best option was to apply washing hand and feet procedure with soap/hand sanitizer, masker, cover the hair of worker during packaging and sealing.ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Pada tahun 2017 BPOM menyebutkan bahwa Industri Kecil Makanan berkontribusi terhadap 49,5% kasus keracunan pangan di Indonesia. Pemerintah melalui UU No. 18 Tahun 2012 telah mengatur mengenai prosedur pengolahan pangan yang baik (CPPB). ALOJA sebagai UKM produsen minuman siap saji Aloe vera memiliki keterbatasan dalam sarana-prasarana dan SDM sehingga pemenuhan standar produksi pangan yang baik sulit untuk diterapkan. Analisis HACCP perlu diterapkan untuk memberikan masukan dalam penyusunan SOP dalam alur produksinya sehingga memenuhi standar produksi pangan yang baik.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan analisis dan menetapkan aturan HACCP sebagai bahan rekomendasi dalam penyusunan SOP yang memenuhi persyaratan standar produksi pangan yang baik.Metode: Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menerapkan 7 dari 14 langkah dalam HACCP. Metode penilaian didasarkan pada keparahan (Severity) skala tiga dan tingkat kemungkinan terjadinya (probability) skala 3. Rekomendasi SOP disusun pada resiko medium hingga tinggi yang diperoleh dari matriks severity vs probability.Hasil: Dalam analisis HACCP ini ditemukan bahwa tahap yang masih memiliki resiko menengah ke atas adalah tahap pengendalian hama, pencucian dan perendaman, pendinginan, dan pengemasan-penyegelan. Rekomendasi yang diberikan adalah dengan menambahkan jala nilon ukuran 80 mesh pada ventilasi udara dan melakukan pengecekan rutin terhadap kondisi jala nilon pengontrolan konsentrasi kapur sirih yang digunakan, dengan menyusun regulasi yang ketat untuk ruang pendinginan,dan penerapan kondisi aseptis atau minimal dengan adanya penyuci hama untuk tangan, masker, penutup kepala, apron yang bersih, dan kaki yang bersih.Kesimpulan: Rekomendasi SOP diberikan pada proses pengendalian hama, pencucian dan perendaman, pendinginan, dan pengemasan-penyegelan.
Sri Sumarmi
Published: 29 September 2020
Amerta Nutrition, Volume 4, pp 250-256; doi:10.20473/amnt.v4i3.2020.250-256

Abstract:
Background: The Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia has been running since March 2020. Efforts to break the chain of transmission of the disease caused by the new SARS-CoV 2 coronavirus are by avoiding contact by practicing social & physical distancing and improving personal hygiene, and increase immunity or body defense against the corona virus.Purpose: This article discusses the role of macro nutrients and micronutrients that have the potential to increase immunity such as omega-3 fatty acids, several water soluble vitamins such as vitamin B6, vitamin C, as well as fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin D and vitamin E. as well as several minerals such as Fe, Zn, Se. The mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immunity that involve these nutrients will be discussed in depth, as well as how the cellular mechanism fights the corona virus.Discussion: The mechanism for the entry of the corona virus into the cell is through a mechanism called endocytosis, in which the virus is captured by the receptors on the surface of the cell, then drawn into the cell. Spike protein (protein S) facilitates the entry of viruses into target cells, especially lung cells.Conclusion The body's defense mechanisms against the corona virus are: 1) strengthening the body's frontline defenses or innate immunity; 2) stimulates the production of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins in the circulation; 3) blocking the virus from binding to the ACE-2 receptor; 4) reduce the intensity of cytokine storms; 5) reduce the speed of virus replication. ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Pandemi Covid-19 di Indonesia telah berjalan sejak bulan Maret 2020. Upaya untuk memutus rantai penularan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus corona jenis baru SARS-CoV 2 adalah dengan menghidari kontak dengan cara mempraktekkan social & physical distancing dan meningkatkan kebersihan diri, serta meningkatkan imunitas atau pertahanan tubuh terhadap virus corona. Tujuan: Artikel ini membahas peran zat gizi makro dan zat gizi mikro yang berpotensi untuk meningkatkan imunitas seperti asam lemak omega-3, beberapa vitamin larut air seperti vitamin B6, vitamin C, juga vitamin larut lemak seperti vitamin A, vitamin D dan vitamin E, serta beberapa mineral seperti Fe, Zn, Se. Mekanisme innate immunity dan adaptive immunity yang melibatkan zat gizi tersebut akan dibahas secara mendalam, serta bagaimana mekanisme selular melawan virus corona. Ulasan: Mekanisme masuknya virus corona ke dalam sel adalah melalui mekanisme yang disebut endositosis, yaitu virus ditangkap oleh reseptor yang terdapat di permukaan sel, kemudian ditarik masuk ke dalam sel. Spike protein (protein S) bertugas memfasilitasi masuknya virus ke dalam sel target, terutama sel paru.Kesimpulan Mekanisme pertahanan tubuh melawan virus corona adalah: 1) menguatkan pertahanan tubuh garis depan atau innate immunity; 2) menstimulasi produksi immunoglobulin IgM dan IgG di dalam sirkulasi; 3) memblokir agar virus tidak terikat oleh receptor ACE-2; 4) menurunkan intensitas badai sitokin; 5) menurunkan kecepatan replikasi virus.
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