ISSN / EISSN : 1507-7888 / 2451-4306
Current Publisher: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL (10.18290)
Total articles ≅ 208
Latest articles in this journal
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 227-245; doi:10.18290/rpsych20233-3
Few studies have applied a person-centered approach to work motivation using cluster or profile analyses. Thus, little is known about which configurations of work motivations characterize professionals. The aim of this study is to establish the structure of work motivation profiles under the framework of self-determination theory and to examine the relationship between work motivation and subjective work performance. The study involved 147 corporate employees who completed the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and self-rated their work performance. The two-step cluster analysis was applied, followed by a one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Bonferroni test. The findings revealed differences between the five profiles for all forms of motivational regulation on the self-determination continuum (large effect sizes). Further examination revealed that the employees’ current work performances differed across motivational profiles (medium effect size). Strongly and poorly motivated as well as autonomously motivated employees reported better subjective work performance compared to unmotivated individuals. In line with self-determination theory, the quantity and shape of motivation can be simultaneously considered in terms of both theoretical and practical implementation.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 247-266; doi:10.18290/rpsych20233-4
This study examined how person–supervisor fit is related to employees’ proactive behavior and unethical behavior towards the organization. The study involved 321 employees representing various sectors in Poland. The participants completed the Person–Supervisor Fit Scale, Proactive Behavior Scale, and the Unethical Behavior Questionnaire. Results show that a supplementary fit is weakly and positively related to proactive behavior but is not related to complementary fit. Surprisingly, supplementary fit is weakly but positively related to unethical behavior, while complementary fit from a needs–resources perspective is weakly and negatively associated with unethical behavior. Conclusions may be applied to organizational settings challenged by the problem of employee unethical behavior and their low proactivity in the context of person–supervisor congruence.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 207-211; doi:10.18290/rpsych20233-1
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 267-290; doi:10.18290/rpsych20233-5
Power in organizations creates interpersonal settings and lays the ground for designating individual roles and positions of superiors and subordinates. In such a context, influence tactics are situation-specific behaviors used to change the behavior of others and achieve organizational goals. The notion that power and influence can be based on personal or positional variables was used to design the framework of the present studies intended to describe how trait- and state-like variables are related to influence tactics and deinfluentization. The subjects were 250 Polish managers. Study 1 (n = 250) was undertaken to collect data about the influence tactics of Polish managers to fill the void in information in the field of social psychology in organizations. In Study 2 (n = 104) we correlated influence tactics with the personal sense of power. The results proved that the perception of having the ability to exert power over others was positively related to rational persuasion, apprising, and pressure. In Study 3 (n = 69) we investigated the relationships of influence tactics and deinfluentization with the Big Five and directiveness. The results showed that Neuroticism was positively correlated with pressure, legitimating, and coalition, but negatively with rational persuasion and consultation. Extraversion was positively correlated with rational persuasion, so was Conscientiousness. Agreeableness was negatively related to coalition. Directiveness was in a positive relation with pressure but correlated negatively with personal appeals. Deinfluentization positively correlated with Agreeableness and negatively with directiveness.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 291-307; doi:10.18290/rpsych20233-6
The aim of the article is to broaden the knowledge about the mutual relationship between work engagement and professional burnout. In the psychological literature, a lively discussion between the position that these are opposite poles of one dimension and the position that both dimensions are independent has not yet been clearly concluded. The article focuses on the analysis of the causes of both phenomena. It was assumed that one-dimensionality means that the same elements of the work situation affect each of the states but in an opposite way. The research was conducted using standardized questionnaires (AWLS, LBQ, and UWES) on a group of 128 teachers from different types of schools. Statistical analyses relying on regression analysis indicated different sources of each phenomenon, which supports the position of independence of both constructs.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 213-226; doi:10.18290/rpsych20233-2
Four criteria attest to the credibility of subconscious goal effects on organizational related behavior. First, the findings support hypotheses derived from goal setting theory. Second, the empirical experiments, conducted in both laboratory and field settings, have both internal and external/ecological validity. The dependent variables include brainstorming, negotiations, task/job performance, and satisfaction with customer service. Third, the results of these experiments have been shown to be robust with regard to exact and conceptual replications. Fourth, a meta-analysis has shown the practical as well as the theoretical significance of these findings. A goal primed in the subconscious and a consciously set goal have additive effects on job performance and negotiations.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 107-131; doi:10.18290/rpsych20232-1
This article presents an analysis of intergroup relations in light of Władysław Witwicki’s cratism theory. His theory allows social relations to be explained in light of the pursuit for a sense of power, although this has never been verified in the psychological laboratory. Because the cratism theory is largely based on the analysis of social relations described in historical documents, this paper presents an attempt to use its basic assumptions to describe the linguistic behavior (and linguistic picture of the world) of a threatened group. The examined material consisted of religious documents of the first Christians, created before and during the growing conflict with an unfriendly/ antagonistic environment. Frequency analysis shows significant changes in the cratic orientation as well as emotions and the evaluation of the social world in conflict conditions.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 153-172; doi:10.18290/rpsych20232-3
Several scales were used to assess the levels of coping with stress and pain of 97 Polish hard adventure mountain athletes (Mage = 30.50, SD = 9.45), who climb in winter using mountain ice axes, harnesses, hooks or ropes in high mountains, and 103 Polish soft adventure mountain athletes who summer hike in low mountains (Mage = 28.30, SD = 6.50). The results indicated significant differences between soft and hard adventure climbers in the ways climbers react to stress. The hard adventure climbing group had significantly higher means on the Preventive Coping, Proactive Coping, Task-Oriented Coping, Diverting Attention, Reinterpretation of Pain, Ignoring Pain, Coping Self-Statements and Behavioural Strategies than the soft adventure mountain athletes, but lower means on Emotion-Oriented Coping, Catastrophising and Praying/Hoping compared to the soft mountain athletes group. This study also examined the factor structure of the coping scales in the climbers’ samples. The results suggested that the coping scales contain the following three factors: Passive-Oriented Coping, Future-Oriented Coping and Appraisal-Oriented Coping. The extracted factors discriminate between soft and hard adventure mountain athletes. The hard adventure mountain athletes had significantly higher means on the Future-Oriented Coping and the Appraisal- Oriented Coping, and a lower mean on Passive-Oriented Coping than the soft mountain athletes group.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 191-200; doi:10.18290/rpsych20232-5
To date canonical size for physical objects has been exclusively investigated in the visual domain and termed canonical visual size. As the visual and haptic modalities are interconnected in object processing, we have investigated if canonical size occurs in the tactile domain, namely, in embossed drawings made by sighted adults when blindfolded. 17 participants were asked to draw 16 objects of 8 different ranks of physical size. In the visual domain, they drew on sheets of paper, and in the tactile domain, they drew (when blindfolded) on special plastic sheets for embossed graphics haptically controlling the performance with hands. In both the visual and the tactile domain the size of drawings increased linearly with the logarithm of the physical size of real-world objects indicating occurrence of canonical size effect in both domains. Our findings demonstrated that canonical size is not only visual in character but that it is also revealed in a haptic drawing task. It suggests that spatial images (at least visual and tactile) are shared instead of being unimodal in nature.
Roczniki Psychologiczne, Volume 23, pp 173-190; doi:10.18290/rpsych20232-4
The aim of this article was to present a Polish adaptation of the Multidimensional Existential Meaning Scale (MEMS) developed by George and Park (2017). The scale proposes a tripartite view of meaning in life, measuring it in three different dimensions: Comprehension, Purpose, and Mattering, which is a new interesting approach to the conceptualization of this factor from a broader, existential perspective. The scale testing procedure involved a research sample consisting of 401 participants. In addition to the MEMS scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Purpose in Life Test (PIL) were used. The results obtained with the Polish version confirmed its reliability and validity, and the three-factor structure. The Cronbach’s α coefficient was .91 for the entire scale and oscillated between .72 and .89 for the subscales. The Polish MEMS contains 9 items; therefore, it is a short tool which can be successfully used in research on meaning in life.