JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2348-6201 / 2348-6201
Published by: CIRWOLRD (10.24297)
Total articles ≅ 122
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Edem K. Netsey, , Samuel M. Naandam, Aayire C. Yadem
Published: 25 September 2021
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 9, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v9i.9109

Abstract:
Many diseases like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia disease (SCD), among others, arise from single point mutations in the respective proteins. How a single point mutation might lead to a global devastating consequence on a protein remains an intellectual mystery. SCD is a genetic blood-related disorder resulting from mutations in the beta chain of the human hemoglobin protein (simply, β-globin), subsequently affecting the entire human body. Higher mortality and morbidity rates have been reported for patients with SCD, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical management of SCD often requires specialized interdisciplinary clinicians. SCD presents a major global burden, hence an improved understanding of how single point mutations in β-globin results in different phenotypes of SCD might offer insight into protein engineering, with potential therapeutic intervention in view. By use of mathematical modeling, we built a hierarchical (nested) graph-theoretic model for the β-globin. Subsequently, we quantified the network of interacting amino acid residues, representing them as molecular system of three distinct stages (levels) of interactions. Using our nested graph model, we studied the effect of virtual single point mutations in β-globin that results in varying phenotypes of SCD, visualized by unsupervised machine learning algorithm, the dendrogram.
Affoué Sylvie Rachelle N'guessan, Koutouan Ayolie, Sopie Edwige Salomé Yapo, Yao Kouakou Francois Konan, Achi Laurent N’Cho, Kouakou Désiré N’Goran, Dramane Kone, Yatty Justin Kouadio, Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou
Published: 7 November 2019
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 8, pp 1104-1117; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v8i0.8503

Abstract:
In cotton, factors such as carbon sources, hormonal combination, and type of explant influence the responses to callus induction. In this study callus induction was optimized to get high-frequency callus in cotton. Different carbon sources were tested, and among them, glucose at 3% was found to be the best carbohydrate in callus induction. Culture medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.1 mg.L-1) and KIN (0.5 mg.L-1) gave a high callogenesis response, unlike other hormonal combinations. With explants, hypocotyl (72.93%) appeared easier to induce callus than cotyledon (48.75%) following root (37.5%). So, carbone sources, hormone, and their concentration affect significantly callus induction. The highest frequency of callus induction was then observed when hypocotyl explants were cultured on medium supplemented with 0.1 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 mg.L-1 of KIN and 3% glucose. The induced-callus obtained were friable and of high quality. The other types of combinations resulted in the formation of compact callus with sometimes roots emerging from it. The present study may provide an efficient protocol to improve the callogenesis responses by adjusting the carbohydrates, the hormonal regime, and the type of explant to be cultured for a high-frequency callus induction of the Y331B-R5 cotton cultivar.
Virginia Sarropoulou, Eleni Maloupa
Published: 7 August 2019
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 8, pp 1086-1103; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v8i0.8385

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to study the effect of the ethylene inhibitor “silver nitrate (AgNO3)” and vitamin B9 "folic acid" in different concentrations combined with cytokinin BA as well as the antioxidant thiol compound “L-glutathione reduced (GSH)” in different concentrations simultaneously with auxins (IBA+NAA) on micropropagation efficiency of the endemic Sideritis syriaca L. subsp. syriaca (Hellenic mountain tea of Crete/ Malotira) using shoot tip explants. The culture medium used was the MS supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose. The simultaneous application 5 ?M AgNO3 + 2.2 ?M BA promoted best the initial shoot induction stage exhibiting 4.5 shoots/ explant and 100% shoot multiplication (5 weeks). Folic acid applied at 0.25 mg/l in combination with 0.5 mg/l BA exhibited the highest shoot multiplication percentage (90%) (4 weeks). GSH at 10 ?M with 10.7 ?M NAA + 4.92 ?M IBA gave the greatest root length (13.68 mm), at 25 ?M caused a 3-fold increase in rooting (90%) and 250 ?M GSH raised by 20% shoot multiplication (80%). An 89% final survival rate of rooted microplants to ex vitro unheated greenhouse conditions was recorded within 8 weeks period during mid-late spring. Thus, the acclimatization and hardening process was successfully completed.
Liliana Lopez-Kleine, Cristian Andres Gonzalez-Prieto
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 8, pp 1078-1085; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v8i0.8298

Abstract:
Interactions between genes, such as regulations are best represented by gene regulatory networks (GRN). These are often constructed based on gene expression data. Few methods for the construction of GRN exist for RNA sequencing count data. One of the most used methods for microarray data is based on graphical Gaussian networks. Considering that count data have different distributions, a method assuming RNA sequencing counts distribute Poisson has been proposed recently. Nevertheless, it has been argued that the most likely distribution of RNA sequencing counts is not Poisson due to overdispersion. Therefore, the negative binomial distribution is much more likely. For this distribution, no model-based method for the construction of GRN has been proposed until now. Here, we present a graphical, model-based method for the construction of GRN assuming a negative binomial distribution of the RNA sequencing count data. The R code is available under request. We used the method proposed both on simulated RNA sequencing count data and on real data. The graph is showed, and its descriptive measurements were assessed. They were found some interesting biological conclusions. We confirm that using negative binomial distribution for fitting the model is suitable because RNA sequencing data present overdispersion.
Surayya Mustapha Muhammad, Ibrahim A. Sabo, Ahmed Mohammed Gumel, Alkali Fatima I
Published: 17 April 2019
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 8, pp 1073-1077; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v8i0.8221

Abstract:
Resistant to antibiotics by microbes have become a major global challenge incurring economic and public health burden. Hence, research to develop new effective anti-biotics should be a major consideration to pharmaceutical industries, scientific researchers, Amanda ‘scientific researchers and world health organizations at large. This study is conducted to investigate the antimicrobial property of proteins present in the seeds of Datura stramonium. The extraction was carried out using Tris-HCL buffer prepared from 50M Tris and 0.3M NaCL, the proteins were isolated using ammonium sulphate precipitation to obtain 80% fraction. The isolated and extracted proteins sample were subjected to dialysis in which all the salt was removed and then purified using Ion-exchange chromatography. Acidic and basic fractions of the proteins obtained were subjected to SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to visualize their different molecular weight. More protein band was observed in the basic fraction between 9-45kDa. Antibacterial activities of both acidic and basic proteins were carried out using the paper disc diffusion method against clinical bacterial isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. More activity was observed in basic protein with a diameter 8mm compared to the acidic fraction of 7mm in diameter.
Virginia Sarropoulou, Eleni Maloupa
Published: 28 February 2019
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 8, pp 1044-1057; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v8i0.8062

Abstract:
Silene species (Caryophyllaceae) are sources of important secondary metabolites with extensive use in traditional medicine and potential applications as ornamentals. The present study was conducted to assess the regeneration potential of Silene fabaria subsp. domokina to produce massive clonal in vitro plants. Two experiments were conducted. The basal culture medium used was the MS. In the first experiment, the effect of 3 cytokinins; BA, KIN and 2-ip applied alone and in combination with 3 auxins; IBA, NAA and IAA was studied. In the second experiment, the effect of 3 auxins; IBA, NAA and IAA, each applied in 3 different concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/l) was studied. Shoot proliferation 100%, highest shoot proliferation rate (4.83) and shoot number (3.67) were achieved with 0.25 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l IAA (5 weeks). IAA at 0.5 mg/l was the most effective in stimulating shoot elongation (80.63 mm). Rooting 100% was obtained with 0.1 mg/l IBA yielding 7.3 roots 22.91 mm long (4 weeks). In vitro plants were successfully acclimatized with 92.31% survival rate. This study is the first micropropagation report of S. fabaria subsp. domokina that could be exploited for rapid, large-scale production and future germplasm maintenance of this valuable prioritized species-subspecies.
Divya Prakash, Shikha S Chauhan, Jitendra Behari
Published: 28 February 2019
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 8, pp 1058-1072; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v8i0.8128

Abstract:
The emergence of nanotechnology has had a profound effect on many areas of healthcare and scientific research. Several studies reported the importance Hydroxyapetite Nanoparticles in the biomedical field in general, and in emerging areas such as implants, drug delivery, cancer, composites, coatings, and ceramic materials in particular. On the other hand, low level Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non-invasiveness, safety, highly influential in the fracture repair process, lack of toxicity for non-cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. It has also been observed that the combined effect of these two can accelerate the osteognic and anticancer activity in the osteoporotic and carcinoma cell lines respectively. The objective of this review is to provide a broad recount of the applications of PEMFs and Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in osteoporosis and cancer and to then demonstrate what is further required for enhanced therapeutic outcomes.
Kewen Zhao
Published: 31 August 2018
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v7i0.7653

Abstract:
The Editorial team of the journal would like to thank the reviewers for their work in referring manuscripts during 2018.
Hadeel Said El-Shall
Published: 30 August 2018
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 7, pp 1019-1043; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7589

Abstract:
This study deals with isolation and optimization of soil origin fungus Drechslera sp. with valued unsaturated fatty acids using orange peel as a substrate. Accordingly, to maximize oil production, various parameters were optimized using 'one variable at a time' strategy followed by employing statistical designs (Plackett-Burman (PBD) & Response surface methodology (RSM)). The results showed that incubation time, FeSO4, pH and yeast extract were the most significant factors influencing lipid accumulation. Therefore, RSM employed to optimize their concentrations. The optimum parameter values were: incubation time 144 h, FeSO4 0.015 g/L, pH 8.5 and yeast extract 2 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, a total biomass of 12 g/L with a lipid content of 40.75 % (corresponding to a lipid yield of 4.89 g/L) was achieved. The fatty acid profile revealed production of 41.99 % of unsaturated fatty acids. The feasibility of utilizing orange peel as a sole carbon source proved that it represents a potentially valuable source of single cell oil (SCO) with oil yield of 3.65 g/L. Its FAME profile revealed an increment of unsaturated fatty acids up to 58.86% with desirable amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 33.31 %, this making it as ideal substrate for production of unsaturated fatty acids.
Dion Daniels, Nidia Panti, David Guerra, Stephen Williams
Published: 30 August 2018
JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 7, pp 1011-1018; https://doi.org/10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7567

Abstract:
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), being an important cash crop in Belize, accounts for 60% of agricultural exports providing employment for thousands of Belizeans. This research was carried out to determine the effects of different Paclobutrazol (PBZ-Cultar) concentrations used in the culture media on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane variety CPCL99-4455. Three PBZ-Cultar concentrations were tested and compared with the control. The parameters evaluated to determine the effects of PBZ-Cultar were average height, number of dead leaves and multiplication coefficient. The plants from this experiment were planted in the acclimatization phase to determine if the use of PBZ-Cultar had any effect of the growth and development of the plants ex vitro. The results revealed that the culture medium supplemented with 0.08% PBZ-Cultar concentration had the best results both in the multiplication phase as well as the acclimatization phase.
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