Open Journal of Social Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2327-5952 / 2327-5960
Current Publisher: Hans Publishers (10.4236)
Former Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 2,298
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

Zhizhong Kai
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 81-92; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.91006

Abstract:
Objective: Physiognomy has over 3000 years of history in China, where the belief that personality can be discerned through physiognomy is widespread. However, it hasn’t been fully verified by scientific research. Through experiments, this paper explores the relationship between face shape and corresponding personality in physiognomy, and how face shape affects people’s judgment of personality. Method: According to the eight face shapes theory of physiognomy, 10 trained laboratory assistants have selected 64 typical faces through 3816 pieces of ID photos following a designated procedure, and tested the selected 64 persons’ scores of Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors Test. Eight more ID photos have been randomly selected, and each one has been modified by Image Processing Technology into eight face shapes, keeping other facial features same to ensure that the only variable is face shape, and ultimately obtained 64 artificial faces. 949 undergraduates, as participants, have visually judged these 128 faces in a laboratory by using E-prime 2.0 and 16PF Rating Scale. Results: Overall, there was no significant difference of tested sixteen personality traits among eight typical faces. Through a post-hoc test, some face shapes are perceived to have certain significant differences in some personality traits than a certain face shape. For example, on factor Q2 of 16PF, a heart-shaped face (M = 2.625*) is significantly lower than a diamond-shaped face (M = 4.375). In contrast, there are various differences among the eight face shapes on people’s visual judgmental of personality traits. For example, the heart-shaped face (M = 4.01**) is significantly lower than all other face shapes on factor A). By comprising the tested personality traits and perceived personality traits of each face shape, there are significant differences among some personality traits (e.g. diamond face on factor B, t = ?2.847**). Conclusions: Traditional physiognomy theory which explains personality by face shapes can’t be supported by the results. People are affected by the inherent stereotype (such as people with square face look like more right-minded), and tend to make a judgment about people’s personalities according to stereotypes of face shapes. Although their judgments are inconformity with the real personality traits, it indeed influences many people’s judgments on personality. According to this research, if people can tailor their face shape to someone’s preferences by using makeup, it will be easier for them to make a good impression with that person.
Vasileios Gougas, Lucia Malinova
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 120-139; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.91009

Abstract:
Many researchers have dealt with school leadership because of the rapid development of educational change. The leadership’s influence in shaping the reforms and improving the quality of education, as well as in the job satisfaction of the teachers and the successful operation of the school unit is catalytic and at the same time regulatory. For this reason, a number of tools for measuring school leadership have been implemented. Some of the tools have their roots in the management of companies and organizations while others have been implemented exclusively for the management of school units. In this review, a reference is made to the leadership models that one can encounter in a school unit but also to the tools that can be used to measure leadership depending on the model encountered. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the literature with the presence of tools used to measure the behavior of different leadership styles. There is a brief presentation of each tool, the dimensions it captures, the leadership style it measures as well as its degree of reliability. The review showed that tools such as MLQ, LPI, PIMRS, CLIO, GLOBE and DLI can be used with great ease.
Zhou An
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 198-211; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.91014

Abstract:
The outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused serious losses to catering industry. Even after the work resumption, the infection threat of the pandemic persistently affects consumers. This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection threat on Chinese consumers’ dining behaviors in restaurants after work resumption. Quantitative research methods were adopted to explore the relationship between infection threat and consumer behavior. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires to consumers in 4 restaurants in mainland China. A total of 190 valid questionnaires were received and then imported into SPSS software for analysis. The results indicate that the infection threat of COVID-19 is significantly related to consumer’s behaviors, including contact limitation time optimization, keeping distance, personal security and dietary health. Consumers who perceive the infection threat consciously take actions to avoid risks while dining in restaurants. This study enriches literatures on the impact of the epidemic infection threat on consumer behavior. The findings imply that restaurants can reduce the consumer’s concern of infection threat by changing the business mode, so that people can eat in restaurants without any anxiety.
Benjamin Mwadi Makengo
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 212-233; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.91015

Abstract:
With the COVID-19’s impacts to humanity, some have quickly shouted, believed and thought abusively to the end of globalization. But in this paper, following to the dimension of the strategic approach of analysis, tinged with a bit of globalism, I propose to explain why globalization could not end with the COVID-19’s impacts. In total, I advance successively throughout this paper, five (5) core arguments, which together ostensibly support my central point, pointing to the impossibility of arriving at the end of globalization with the COVID-19’s impacts. These five (5) core arguments are: COVID-19 as a pro-globalization messenger: “You are living in a global village” (i), Virus Complex nature (ii), Nationalism and Unilateralism as COVID-19’s counter-anti-dote strategies (iii), COVID-19’s Impacts Nature on Social-economic activities (iv), and the Global Complex Interdependence (v). And instead of shouting to the end of globalization, humanity should rather seek to think about, understand and internalize the different lessons that COVID-19 has just come to give it—for its best survival. Otherwise, disaster is coming.
Tariq Khraishi
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 39-53; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92003

Abstract:
Online teaching has emerged powerfully worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper recounts the personal experience of the author teaching his first full-time virtual course online in a synchronous fashion. The author provides back reflection on his Fall 2020 course enumerating advantages and disadvantages for virtual teaching versus in-person teaching. The author also gathered student feedback in the form of a survey on their first fully-immersed COVID experience as a full online live course. Data comparing the pre-COVID course grades and course evaluations to the COVID outcomes are also provided. Based on the survey and grades/course evaluations comparisons, it is concluded that the shift to pure online teaching was successful.
Abdiaziz Harun Mohamed
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 54-64; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92004

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemic has brought difficult situations for citizens of nations across the world. The impact however, may be more severe for others in the Third World Countries, who are in desperate situations and whose conditions may well further deteriorate if not put into considerations. While this pandemic affects different dimensions of life and society in general, this paper examines the impact of the outbreak COVID-19 pandemic on Somaliland Economy and analyzes the need for mitigation measures of this pandemic. The research methodology of this paper reviews secondary data which were collected through various magazines, articles, newspapers and published journals. The study focuses on descriptive research design and the sample design selected for this study which was illustrative. This study observed that COVID-19 is affecting the Somaliland economy through loss of jobs and other incomes, gradual recession and deterioration of public financial and private business sectors of the nation. The study discovers that for the recovery of the economy, certain mitigation measures and policy interventions must be administered, which includes health and social protection, fiscal policy and financial, industrial and trade policies. Therefore, the expected outcomes from administration of the policy instruments would be reduction in human suffering and the enhancement of the recovery of the economy from bankruptcy and recession.
Annelie Thor, Patrick Siegfried
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 94-101; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92006

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this scientific paper was to examine important trends and developments influencing the nursing care in order to forecast future opportunities and challenges and how to deal with them in the best possible way. Background: The Corona-pandemic demonstrated the importance of nursing care in the entire world and had drawn attention to the issue of a well-educated and enough nursing staff. The nursing care will face opportunities and challenges due to current trends and developments, which are important to examine in order to provide the best possible nursing care. Methods: To reach the above-mentioned aim, intensive research was done by using secondary sources and surveys. Results/Findings: After a detailed analysis of the research it can be summarized that there are three important topics influencing the nursing care: The demographical development with an increasing life expectancy leading to an increasing amount of old people with a demand for care and decreasing birth rates leading to less working people. Cultural transformation and diversity imply many opportunities because the employment market can fill gaps with foreign workers and the immigrating people can compensate the decreasing birth rates. Nevertheless, it can imply many challenges and potential problems which need to be solved by the society and the immigrating people. Furthermore, the changing gender roles can lead to more men becoming a nurse, which might have a significant impact on the shortage of nursing staff. The third important topic influencing the nursing care is technological trends which can help to decrease physiological stress, by facilitating the nurses’ work and by taking over some work from them. Conclusion :It can be concluded that the trends and developments influencing the nursing care are very diverse and imply many different opportunities as well as challenges.
Shek-Kam Tse, Pik-Fong Tsui, Heiken To, Kam-Fong Wu, Victor Laing, Lu-Sai Lam
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 137-150; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92009

Abstract:
Parent involvement has been found to be vital to children’s school success, as such, it is important to find ways to engage parents in students’ learning activities, especially for those who came from culturally diverse background. This paper presents the concepts of parent involvement and uses a case as an exemplar to capture the facilitating factors for involving an ethnic minority (EM) parent for enhancing the Chinese learning of her child in the Hong Kong context. Qualitative results showed that successful factors for engaging EM parents include: having high learning motivation, good program elements (such as employing the pleasurable learning elements, being culturally sensitive), the establishment of a first language-like environment, and being empowered. Future directions for education and social service sectors for engaging EM parents are also discussed.
Xin Song
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 167-176; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92012

Abstract:
The era of intelligent business has come. Under the dual driving of network collaboration and data intelligence, many enterprises and their products will evolve into C2B mode. Based on the perspective of supply chain, this paper will provide a new angle of view in analysis, and broaden the idea of achieving C2B mode by the utilization of intelligent data, in which also includes the main ways to obtain the personalized needs of massive user, the means to achieve accurate positioning of customer requirements; the key steps to realize the connection between users’ personalized requirements and Business side factories on the industrial chain; the principle of “customization-massing” to realize the enhancing of profitability by customized production of personalized products, and the future intelligent data of the embodiment of innovation has become an important breakthrough point in the development of C2B.
Xia Xu
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 151-156; doi:10.4236/jss.2021.92010

Abstract:
AACSB accreditation has specific requirements for faculty and other administrative staff. In accordance with the mission of the college’s accreditation and the features of faculty and staff members, Business College has developed criteria for the classification of teachers and organized relevant training. After several years, there are still some problems in improving the system of faculty and staffs, and we hope to make progress step by step in five aspects.
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