Annual Review of Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0066-4219 / 1545-326X
Published by: Annual Reviews (10.1146)
Total articles ≅ 2,836
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Latest articles in this journal

Sarah E. Blutt, Mary K. Estes
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042320-023055

Abstract:
Infectious diseases affect individual health and have widespread societal impacts. New ex vivo models are critical to understand pathogenesis, host response, and features necessary to develop preventive and therapeutic treatments. Pluripotent and tissue stem cell–derived organoids provide new tools for the study of human infections. Organoid models recapitulate many characteristics of in vivo disease and are providing new insights into human respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neuronal host–microbe interactions. Increasing culture complexity by adding the stroma, interorgan communication, and the microbiome will improve the use of organoids as models for infection. Organoid cultures provide a platform with the capability to improve human health related to infectious diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Aruni Bhatnagar
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-011549

Abstract:
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to increases in blood pressure, thrombosis, and insulin resistance. It also induces vascular injury and accelerates atherogenesis. Results from animal models corroborate epidemiological evidence and suggest that the cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 may be attributable, in part, to oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activation of the autonomic nervous system. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, there is robust evidence that long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with premature mortality due to heart failure, stoke, and ischemic heart disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Natalie Y.L. Ngoi, Guang Peng, Timothy A. Yap
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042320-025136

Abstract:
Innate immunity and the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway are inextricably linked. Within the DDR, ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) is a key kinase responsible for sensing replication stress and facilitating DNA repair through checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and promotion of fork recovery. Recent studies have shed light on the immunomodulatory role of the ATR-CHK1 pathway in the tumor microenvironment and the specific effects of ATR inhibition in stimulating an innate immune response. With several potent and selective ATR inhibitors in developmental pipelines, the combination of dual ATR and PD-(L)1 blockade has attracted increasing interest in cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical data supporting the combined inhibition of ATR and PD-(L)1, discuss the potential challenges surrounding this approach, and highlight biomarkers relevant for selected patients who are most likely to benefit from the blockade of these two checkpoints. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Peter J. Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi
Published: 12 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042420-113212

Abstract:
The rapid development and deployment of mRNA and adenovirus-vectored vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to astound the global scientific community, but these vaccine platforms and production approaches have still not achieved global COVID-19 vaccine equity. Immunizing the billions of people at risk for COVID-19 in the world's low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) still relies on the availability of vaccines produced and scaled through traditional technology approaches. Vaccines based on whole inactivated virus (WIV) and protein-based platforms, as well as protein particle-based vaccines, are the most produced by LMIC vaccine manufacturing strategies. Three major WIV vaccines are beginning to be distributed widely. Several protein-based and protein particle-based vaccines are advancing with promising results. Overall, these vaccines are exhibiting excellent safety profiles and in some instances have shown their potential to induce high levels of virus neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses (and protection) both in nonhuman primates and in early studies in humans. There is an urgent need to continue accelerating these vaccines for LMICs in time to fully vaccinate these populations by the end of 2022 at the latest. Achieving these goals would also serve as an important reminder that we must continue to maintain expertise in producing multiple vaccine technologies, rather than relying on any individual platform. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Catherine Jacob-Dolan, Dan H. Barouch
Published: 5 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-012621-102252

Abstract:
The worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the unprecedented pace of development of multiple vaccines. This review evaluates how adenovirus (Ad) vector platforms have been leveraged in response to this pandemic. Ad vectors have been used in the past for vaccines against other viruses, most notably HIV and Ebola, but they never have been produced, distributed, or administered to humans at such a large scale. Several different serotypes of Ads encoding SARS-CoV-2 Spike have been tested and found to be efficacious against COVID-19. As vaccine rollouts continue and the number of people receiving these vaccines increases, we will continue to learn about this vaccine platform for COVID-19 prevention and control. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Rubens Copia Sperandio, Roberto Carmagnani Pestana, Beatriz Viesser Miyamura, Ahmed O. Kaseb
Published: 4 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-021121

Abstract:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Single-agent anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrated promising efficacy in early-phase trials, a finding that was not confirmed in phase III studies. The combination of atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1 ICI) with bevacizumab (an anti-VEGF antibody) was approved as first-line therapy in 2020, however, with significant improvement in response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival in comparison with the previous standard of care, sorafenib. Numerous ongoing clinical trials are assessing ICIs in combination with each other or with targeted agents, and also in earlier stages with local therapies. This review summarizes the latest concepts in the use of ICIs for the management of HCC. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Russell D. Dolan, Allison R. Schulman
Published: 23 September 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042320-125832

Abstract:
The field of endoscopic bariatric and metabolic therapy has rapidly evolved from offering endoscopic treatment of weight regain following bariatric surgery to providing primary weight loss options as alternatives to pharmacologic and surgical interventions. Gastric devices and remodeling procedures were initially designed to work through a mechanism of volume restriction, leading to earlier satiety and reduced caloric intake. As the field continues to grow, small bowel interventions are evolving that may have some effect on weight loss but focus on the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Future implementation of combination therapy that utilizes both gastric and small bowel interventions offers an exciting option to further augment weight loss and alleviate metabolic disease. This review considers gastric devices and techniques including space-occupying intragastric balloons, aspiration therapy, endoscopic tissue suturing, and plication interventions, followed by a review of small bowel interventions including endoluminal bypass liners, duodenal mucosal resurfacing, and endoscopically delivered devices to create incisionless anastomoses. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Yue Shan, Mirae Lee, Eugene B. Chang
Published: 23 September 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042320-021020

Abstract:
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) arise from a convergence of genetic risk, environmental factors, and gut microbiota, where each is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease. Emerging evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between disease progression and changes in microbiota membership and function. Thus, the study of the gut microbiome and host–microbe interactions should provide critical insights into disease pathogenesis as well as leads for developing microbiome-based diagnostics and interventions for IBD. In this article, we review the most recent advances in understanding the relationship between the gut microbiota and IBD and highlight the importance of going beyond establishing description and association to gain mechanistic insights into causes and consequences of IBD. The review aims to contextualize recent findings to form conceptional frameworks for understanding the etiopathogenesis of IBD and for the future development of microbiome-based diagnostics and interventions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Jennifer C. Ginestra, Oscar J.L. Mitchell, George L. Anesi, Jason D. Christie
Published: 14 September 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042420-110629

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges in critical care medicine, including extreme demand for intensive care unit (ICU) resources and rapidly evolving understanding of a novel disease. Up to one-third of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 experience critical illness. The most common form of organ failure in COVID-19 critical illness is acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, which clinically presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in three-quarters of ICU patients. Noninvasive respiratory support modalities are being used with increasing frequency given their potential to reduce the need for intubation. Determining optimal patient selection for and timing of intubation remains a challenge. Management of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 largely mirrors that of non-COVID-19 ARDS. Organ failure is common and portends a poor prognosis. Mortality rates have improved over the course of the pandemic, likely owing to increasing disease familiarity, data-driven pharmacologics, and improved adherence to evidence-based critical care. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Alida L.P. Caforio, Anna Baritussio, , Renzo Marcolongo
Published: 10 September 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-023859

Abstract:
We review current data on clinically suspected [European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2013 criteria] and biopsy-proven [ESC and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] myocarditis that is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ESC/WHO etiological diagnosis of viral myocarditis is based on histological, and immunohistological evidence of nonischemic myocyte necrosis and monolymphocytic infiltration, i.e., myocarditis, plus the identification of a specific cardiotropic virus by molecular techniques, in particular polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/in-situ hybridization, on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)/autopsy tissue. There is not yet definitive EMB/autopsy proof that SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cardiomyocyte damage in association with histological myocarditis. Clinical epidemiology data suggest that myocarditis is uncommon for both SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative PCR cases. We hypothesize that the rare virus-negative biopsy-proven cases may represent new-onset immune-mediated or latent pre-existing autoimmune forms, triggered or fostered by the hyperinflammatory state of severe COVID-19. We recommend the application of the ESC/WHO definitions and diagnostic criteria in future reports to avoid low-quality scientific information leading to an inaccurate estimate of myocarditis incidence based on misdiagnosis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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