International Business Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1913-9004 / 1913-9012
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 2,244
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Mengyi Fan, Wasi Phromthiphakkul
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n3p53

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between female executives and non-efficient investment behavior in enterprises. The data of China's private listed companies from 2016 to 2017 were selected for empirical study, the variables of the model were defined and measured. The author designs the current research to be mixed methods research, qualitative and quantitative research approach. The results show that: (1) increase in the proportion of female CEOs relative to female executives can significantly inhibit non-efficient investment; (2) the level of education has a significant moderating effect on both female executives and the non-efficient investment of female CEOs and companies; (3) Social capital has a moderating effect on the non-efficient investment of female executives and enterprises, but has no significant effect on the gender of CEOs and non-efficient investment of enterprises. The conclusion of this study can better break the bottleneck of female workplace, develop the leadership of female executives in a targeted way, and improve the management level and performance of enterprises through the relationship between female executives and non-efficient investment behaviors of enterprises.
Kevin Duran
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n3p66

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Business Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2021
Bassant Adel Mostafa
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n3p41

Abstract:
The study aims to enrich employers' understanding of how employees perceive remote working Post COVID-19's quarantine period and its effect on employees' psychological wellbeing and work-life integration in Egypt. A structured questionnaire was distributed post-COVID-19 pandemic lockdown period on a sample of 318 employees who are supposed to be working remotely in different sectors from home. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to test the research hypotheses. The results suggest a significant positive effect of employees' perception of remote working on psychological wellbeing and work-life integration. Simultaneously, there is a significant negative effect of employees' perception of remote working and emotional exhaustion. This study should help employers design the appropriate intervention plan to sustain operations and maintain effective communication with remote workers. It contributes to the literature by considering it as one of the growing empirical studies that will tackle remote working in relation to employee psychological wellbeing and work-life integration Post-COVID-19 quarantine period in Egypt. The majority of research nowadays tackling COVID-19 is from a biomedical perspective, focusing on physical and mental health, but this research will tackle COVID-19 from a psychological and managerial standpoint. The research results will assist researchers and practitioners in gaining insights into the future role of remote working.
Xuan Feng
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n3p26

Abstract:
In recent years, last-mile delivery has become an increasingly important area in the global supply chain. Practically, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in developing the last-mile delivery robots/vehicles to increase the efficiency of the whole supply chain. Theoretically, several researchers have suggested that using autonomous robots brings more efficiency for delivery. However, almost no current studies consider a specific last-mile delivery activity – transport from supermarkets after loading to pick-up stations before unloading. The goal of this study is to investigate whether and how autonomous vehicles/robots can address the issue of cost and time efficiency. Specifically, this research aims at identifying the time and cost structures of using autonomous vehicles for the delivery along the chosen route – a single way from the Sainsbury’s supermarket to the Amazon pick-up station at Coventry. Furthermore, the research aims to find whether using autonomous vehicles is more efficient in time and/or cost than using vans with drivers for this route.
Ahmed Ebrahim Mousa
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n3p1

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to conduct an examination of how workplace bullying affects employee loyalty. The focus of the study was technical and specialist nurses employed in Egypt’s Menoufia University. The study's data was collected from 240 participants. The results from the study show that the sub-dimensions of workplace bullying and correlations with employee loyalty are moderate in the negative direction. On the other hand, it has also been concluded that the perceptions of workplace bullying sub-dimensions explain 23.8 percent of the aggregate variance in employee loyalty. The analysis of the teats results of regression coefficient regression model is conducted, it can be noted that as the levels of workplace bullying increase in the workplace, the perception of employee loyalty statistics decreases. When it comes to comparative importance predictor variables on the levels of employee loyalty shows that the leading factor is attacks on health, the second is attacks on self-expression, the third is attacks on social relations, and the last is attacks on reputation. In the study, the insignificance sub-dimension, which has the least average is the attack on the quality of professional and personal life. From the results, it can be concluded that the nursing staff at Menoufia University Hospital’s perception of their loyalty variable is at the level of medium.
Mohammed Frag Alaqla
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n3p15

Abstract:
Governance is one of the most effective tools to stimulate investments because it encourages the growth of financial markets. IT governance is a fundamental part of corporate governance. It helps achieve many advantages and benefits for companies. This study aims to examine the level of IT governance practice and its application, benefits, and administrative implications in the private banking sector in Saudi Arabia. To achieve the research objective, the inductive and deductive research approaches are employed to address the questions and collect the data. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was administered to three categories of employees in the selected Saudi banks. The findings revealed that IT governance contributed to creating a competitive advantage and adding real value to the banks through improving their reputation, increasing the market share, and enhancing customer satisfaction, which resulted in an improvement in the value of the banks. However, it is recommended that the rules of control and the principles of IT governance are considered in the future policies of Saudi banks, their mission, structures, and decision-making.
Mohammad Alam Tareque, Nazrul Islam
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n2p124

Abstract:
The prime objective of the research was to determine how the apparel manufacturing sector is embracing digitization and its leaders are preparing for the digital age? so we wanted to find out what type of leadership style is needed for digital leadership. The present study used a sample of 50 RMG companies. We investigated relationships between three variables, Internet od Things, use of digitization-automation, use of smart phones and apps. Further, the variables’ influence on digitization has been assessed through multiple factors leading to digitization by allotment of weightage for each factor. The findings in this paper supports two variables; use of automized digital machines and internet of things being significant whereas, use of smartphones and apps is insignificant. It implies that preparation for leading in the digital age remains limited which require change oriented leadership behavior at all levels. Limitations of the paper include the data which is specific to Bangladesh RMG industry, therefore it cannot be generalized, further the economic meltdown due to COVID-19 pandemic might have influenced the results. The paper’s prime contribution is based on the assessment of predictor variables and their influence that it makes in providing leadership in the digital age which demand change oriented behavior of leaders.
Shanta Rajapaksha Yapa, R Senathiraja, Ilkka Kauranen
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n2p114

Abstract:
The prime objective of the research was to determine how the apparel manufacturing sector is embracing digitization and its leaders are preparing for the digital age? so we wanted to find out what type of leadership style is needed for digital leadership. The present study used a sample of 50 RMG companies. We investigated relationships between three variables, Internet od Things, use of digitization-automation, use of smart phones and apps. Further, the variables’ influence on digitization has been assessed through multiple factors leading to digitization by allotment of weightage for each factor. The findings in this paper supports two variables; use of automized digital machines and internet of things being significant whereas, use of smartphones and apps is insignificant. It implies that preparation for leading in the digital age remains limited which require change oriented leadership behavior at all levels. Limitations of the paper include the data which is specific to Bangladesh RMG industry, therefore it cannot be generalized, further the economic meltdown due to COVID-19 pandemic might have influenced the results. The paper’s prime contribution is based on the assessment of predictor variables and their influence that it makes in providing leadership in the digital age which demand change oriented behavior of leaders.
Abdulrahim Zaher Meshari, Majed Bin Othayman, Frederic Boy, Daniele Doneddu
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n2p54

Abstract:
The education sector is crucial to any nation committed to building future human capital. The Higher Education sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is at the centre of transforming the nation's future in a radical move to end oil-dependency. But this is only possible if universities make a decisive change and start working as learning organisations in all employee's levels. The present study investigates the direction of higher education in becoming learning organisations. We collected data from 840 staff members in 20 public Saudi universities. We designed a questionnaire exploring the seven dimensions of learning organisation found in the literature.  Regression analyses were used to assess the impact of those dimensions on the organisational performance. Results showed that universities that adhered most to the learning organisation principles demonstrated a better organisational performance, particularly concerning research and knowledge performance. We recommend that universities should (1) use change agents to help transform effectively and meet rising demands and (2), promote continuous learning for all employees to increase productivity.
Nada AlShaikhi, Turky AlShaikhi
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n2p102

Abstract:
The main aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of performance management system of teachers in the Saudi Ministry of Education.The study also explores whether the performance management system provides all the information needed to reflect teachers’ efficiency and productivity. The current research aims to identify the shortcomings of the performance management system for teachers in order to determine how teaching quality may be developed and improved. This is accomplished through a self-administered questionnaire survey of teachers, designed to measure teachers’ opinions of the performance management system. A total number of teachers completed the survey was 502. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analysis the data. The findings of the study demonstrate that teachers’ perceptions regarding their performance management system are generally oriented towards dissatisfaction. The results show that this dissatisfaction arises from the problems relating to the performance management process itself. Additionally, the performance management system for Saudi teachers does not capture the necessary information for managers to make informed decisions and policies in relation to the teachers. Moreover, many performance management system-related problems such lack of training of head teachers for conducting performance management system along with teachers’ beliefs about bias errors existing in performance management system caused teachers’ dissatisfaction. Therefore, this study has proposed recommendations to overcome the shortcomings of the existing system and to enhance teachers’ satisfaction with their performance management system.
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