International Business Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 1913-9004 / 1913-9012
Total articles ≅ 2,291
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Wuryanti Kuncoro, Hanifah Azhar Windyasari
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n8p42

In several studies, theoretically, companies that have good brand ambassadors will produce good purchasing decisions. However, empirically, it does not guarantee that brand ambassadors are able to produce good purchasing decisions. This gap is interesting to study in depth. Based on theoretical studies and according to the viewpoint of previous research, the concept of brand awareness is expected to be a solution in overcoming research gaps in brand ambassadors and consumer purchasing decisions. Companies that use brand ambassadors that generate good brand awareness are companies that are able to increase consumer purchasing decisions. For this reason, 150 Tokopedia users in Central Java were researched and tested the linkages between research variables. This phenomenon study is expected to contribute to the development of science, especially marketing management.
Yue Huang, Lu Suo
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n8p1

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social capital including social interaction, shared language and trust on Chinese consumer online impulse buying in social commerce platforms. To verify the hypothesis, we surveyed the Chinese customers who have buying experiences of using social commerce by snowball sampling technique. After analyzing 548 valid data, we confirmed that three dimensions of social capital, social interaction, shared language and trust, positively affects both peer intrinsic motivation and peer extrinsic motivation. In addition, peer motivation exerts a positively impact on consumer impulse purchases on social commerce. The findings not only provide a new theoretical perspective for studying consumers' impulse buying behavior in theory, but also have important implications for the online sellers in their follower’s groups to improve online marketing.
Yun Wang, Yu-Tzu Lin
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n8p26

Based on the perspective of concert experience marketing, this research explores whether consumers resonate with the brand STAYREAL through celebrity endorsements while using the P-O-X theory as the research’s structure. Research subjects are audiences who have participated in the Mayday concerts. Mall-intercepts method with intentional sampling is used and questionnaires were distributed at the “Super Slippa– part 9” and “The Great Nobody” of 831 rock band in 2018 at the Taipei Arena. 422 valid questionnaires were returned from the 469 distributed. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS19.0 and it was found that: 1. Experience value has a significant positive impact on celebrity endorsements; 2. Experience value has a significant positive impact on brand resonance. 3. Celebrity endorsements have a significant positive impact on brand resonance; 4. Celebrity endorsements have a partial intermediary effect between experience value and brand resonance, which proves that P-O-X is in a balanced state. In order to reach a stage of consumers’ resonance with the brand, future research can examine the utility factors such as brand attributes in price, design, fabric, comfort, color, etc. at the same time.
Raymond A.K. Cox, Quan Cheng
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n8p17

This research investigates the investment performance of Canadian listed cannabis stocks. Canada legalized medical marijuana in 2001, following the initiation of medical marijuana authorization by some states in the US starting in 1996, and completely approved cannabis products in 2018. Investing in the 89 Canadian cannabis equities (listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, Canadian Securities Exchange, Toronto Venture Stock Exchange, and Over-the-Counter Market) as an industry portfolio, based on weekly returns for the 1996 to 2020 period, generated high mean returns, standard deviation, positive skewness, and kurtosis. Robustness tests taking the winsorised returns (deleting the top and bottom 10 percent of returns) produced qualitatively similar results. Further, both the portfolio alpha and beta were extremely high. More so, the Canadian cannabis portfolio garnered excess returns when compared to the Standard and Poor’s Toronto Stock Exchange Composite Index. Money managers, financial analysts, and investors should contemplate including Canadian listed  cannabis stocks based on their high investment return. 
Kevin Duran
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n7p115

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Business Research, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2021
Salah Mohamed Eladly
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n7p103

This paper attempts to investigate the impact of the profitability and liquidity on capital structure of insurance industry in Egypt as applied on a sample of (19) insurance firms represented in the Egyptian insurance industry over the period from 1999-2019. The capital structure is measured by debt ratio, and the financial performance is measured by (liquidity, return on equity, and retune on investment).The study results show that there are significant negative linear relationships between the independent variable in terms of return on equity (X1), return on investment (X3), and dependent variable for the capital structure (Y) at the level of significant less than (0.001); based on panel data analysis, the results show that Tau-statistic, and z-statistic, are at a significant level less than (0.05).The statistical conclusion is the null significant relationship between the capital structure and liquidity, while there is a significant relationship between the capital structure, return on equity, and return on investment. The results  also show that the R2 for the independent variables are accepted in the model (capital structure Y, lag Y1, return on equity X1, liquidity X2, and return on investment) by (79.3%) from total variation of capital structure (Y).
Andrej Agačević, Ena Jusufbegović
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n7p87

Tourism economy is severely affected by COVID-19 pandemic, and if it is not adequately handled, the industry will suffer further negative consequences, resulting in economic failure. This study attempts to formulate post-COVID-19 recovery strategies for Destination Management Organizations (DMO) in six ex-Yugoslavia (Ex-Yu) countries. In order to achieve this, firstly, an overview of popularity of tourist sights in the Ex-Yu is given, benchmarking pre-COVID-19 to the current pandemic scenario; secondly, global best case practices of post-COVID-19 recovery strategies in Tourism economy are analyzed, drawing paralles with Ex-Yu countries. To understand the effect of the global pandemic on the international tourism and in Ex-Yu countries, statistical data from reputable and authentic data sources was collected and analyzed. The research findings prove that effective, long-term strategies are necessary to recover the industry from the negative effects of the pandemic. This pandemic has left such an impact on this industry, that it will be a challenge to overcome the consequences, some of them for years to stay. Therefore, governments and international organisations, as well as private companies, must establish a long-term plan for the industry so that it does not fail again, as it did in this case, in order to continue on the path of growth. At various stages, methods should be consistent and complementary. Thus, recovery strategies need to respond to challenges in a way that ensures a planned and effective recovery of the industry.
Désiré Avom, Bernard Nguekeng, Iréné Tiako
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n7p69

The aim purpose of this paper is to assess the contribution of public policies on youth employment in Cameroon. To do this, we used the multinomial Logit model that is being followed up for our employment equation. The maximum probability method is the estimation technique used and applied to data extracted from the EISS database (2011). Three main results emerge from this study: (1) young people who wish to self-employment do not have adequate training and the technical and financial support offered to them by the government is insufficient; (2) the incentives proposed by the State to private operator to encourage them to recruit young people do not always contribute to this objective and (3) the massive recruitments carried out by the State fail to pay off all unemployed young people. In this situation, the Cameroonian state should further strengthen the professionalization of training and, above all, guide training offers in the areas that present opportunities in our country. It also needs to strengthen the facilities afforded to private companies to encourage them to recruit more young people. We also suggest that the Cameroonian government provide more technical and material support to young people who are seeking it and, on the other hand, to raise more funds for the bankable projects presented by these Last.
Zhisen Zeng, Yuying Li
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n7p12

Ownership structure will have a certain impact on the private information of a company, which will have a complex impact on the financial market. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of the ownership structure on private information. This paper uses the monthly data of individual stocks in A-share from 2019 to 2020 to calculate the goodness of fitof the CAPM model to measure the private information content, and then conducts multiple analysis processes such as multicollinearity analysis and heteroscedasticity analysis to ensure the accuracy of the model. Then, this paper uses the WLS regression method for final calculation. The results show that the higher ownership concentration, the less private information content, the weaker private information arbitrage. Finally, this paper puts forward some valuable suggestions for China's financial market based on the empirical results.
Faiz Hamad Zoubi
International Business Research, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ibr.v14n7p19

The main objective of the study is to explore the extent of the conceptualization of soft-power leadership among graduate business students, and the degree to which they apply the concept in their study programs in the Jordanian universities. In precise, to explore the effect of curriculums and courses, learning style, and the way the business program is managed in forming the concept of soft power leadership in students. The analysis was extended to investigate the variation in the relationship between curriculums, learning style, and program management as independent variables and soft-power leadership concept as dependent variable due to the moderating variables gender, background education, and work sector. A sample of 350 students was drawn from two representative universities in Jordan. Data were collected by a self-designed questionnaire based on literature, Amos 21 was used in the analysis, and findings were as follows: Students have positive attitudes toward soft-power leadership conceptualization with a satisfactory level of belief. Learning style and curriculums have been found to be of significant effect in soft-power conceptualization. This indicates that the American Model of Management Education (AMME) is applied in both curriculums and learning styles in business schools in Jordan. With regards to the moderating effect of gender, background education, and job sector of students it was found that gender significantly affects the relationship between learning style and soft-power concept, and it does affect the relationship between program management and soft-power concept, Background education significantly affects the relationship between both curriculums and program management, and soft-power concept, while the job sector that students belong to in their work only affects significantly the relationship between program management and soft-power concept.  
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