International Business Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 19139004 / 19139012
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 2,112
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Latest articles in this journal

Salvatore Saiu, Francesco Massara, Daniele Porcheddu
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n5p1

This study focuses on the perception of numerosity of item sets placed in retail displays. Previous studies have demonstrated that the item sets’ perceived numerosity decreases as the number of polygonal shapes placed in a panel behind a display increases. Such a result was explained by a non-spatial clustering phenomenon exerted by the shapes. Our research reveals the perceptual mechanisms underlying the described effect. Using an eye-tracking procedure, we highlight that upon augmenting the number of polygonal shapes in the decision-making context: (a) there is a significant decrease in the number of total fixations per display; (b) there is an underestimation of the perceived numerosity of item sets involved. The findings suggest that the mere presence of visual shapes can alter perception generating complex objects or “super-items”, which tend to perceptually replace entire item sets. We also propose managerial implications in terms of category management and merchandising.
Kevin Duran
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p125

Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal Title, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2020.
Mohammad Omar Shiddike, Asif Ali Rahman
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p113

This paper is written with a novice social science (management, education, public administration, public policy, and human resource development etc.) researcher in mind at the graduate or doctoral level. A case study research design has been made in this paper for a human resource development (HRD) project after extensively reviewing the research literature. This paper is useful for researchers who are looking for a case study research design plan based on a real-world example that can be adapted to their specific research. The paper is based on a research titled, “Faculty Engagement in Professional Development: A Bangladesh Case Study”. It explains a rationale for the use of case study method in an HRD project, followed by the research questions, the research methods and procedures. The paper also debates on sampling issues, data types, research instruments, data organization and cleaning, data analysis using and issues of validity and reliability. The paper concludes with a discussion on limitations and delimitations.
Ryan Cultice, Steven Dolvin
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p100

Over the past decade, Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) has grown at a rapid pace and, by some estimates, now represents a quarter of the $48 trillion in assets under professional management in the United States. At the same time, investors have broadly shifted from active to passive investing strategies. While there is significant research in each of these respective areas, we believe that we are the first to examine whether a socially conscious investor can employ a passive approach or if the constrained nature of SRI necessitates active management. As such, we examine the performance of socially conscious ETFs versus a matched sample of actively managed SRI mutual funds. We find the performance, as a whole, to be insignificantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the benefits of active management in this construct effectively offset the cost advantage of passive ETFs.
I. Welmilla
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p30

Student Engagement has emerged as a central theme in the context of Higher Education in recent years. Thus, there is great consent towards it. Due to several factors, undergraduates are diverted and disengaged consequently, especially the state universities of Sri Lanka currently experiencing this issue. Even there are many factors impact student engagement. This study explored the significance of teachers with their emotional intelligence competencies for getting student engagement. University students prefer to take student-centered teaching where it is possible if only teachers are ready and capable to take account of students' interests, needs, and perspectives on adaptation with their teaching approach. Having understood the phenomenon above, the current study designed to investigate the impact of the emotional intelligence of teachers in higher education on student engagement based on students’ perspectives. This is an explanatory study that the data collected from the sample of 1455 undergraduates selected from the state universities in Sri Lanka on which stratified random sampling method was adopted. Finding reveals that students are engaged but not actively and as per the students’ point of view lecturers are just good rather excellent enough on emotional intelligence competencies. However, there is a strong positive relationship as well as have a significant positive impact of emotionally intelligent teachers of higher education on student engagement. Ultimately it is concluded that higher education teachers require to expand the substantial amount of skill on emotional intelligence. Further, then active student engagement can be ensured.
Jung Eung Park, Jim Pulcrano, Benoit LeLeux
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p52

Entrepreneurship in Switzerland seems to be the exact opposite of that in Silicon Valley and can be described as low-impact entrepreneurship, or niche-centric entrepreneurship. We used an online survey to investigate the characteristics of Swiss entrepreneurs, their business performance, activities in securing investments, as well as their expectations from supporting institutions. In addition, as an effective example of utilizing the ecosystem, we investigated the entrepreneurs’ activities in venture competitions. We provide empirical evidence that supports the view that Switzerland, at least regarding high-tech, early stage companies, has a unique ecosystem – low financial expectations, niche technology specialists, mostly angel and self-financed, high survival rates and clear success, defined via great products and innovation, and positive social/environmental impact.
Khaw Ooi San, Abu Bakar Sade, Linda Seduram
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p63

In today’s environment, societies are free to create and browse online content; marketers therefore to face vexing challenges in drawing expressive social media users to engage with their brands. This current group of users display postmodernism characteristics; i.e. need more for subjective experiences to achieve self-realization. Hence, the creation of consumer brand engagement among expressive social media societies is through content that should be able to provide these experiences. However, there is lack research study on this trend. The objective of this study was to evaluate  passive experiential content that users perceived as novelty emotions (i.e. perceived creativity) that leads to intrinsic state of engagements (i.e. cognitive engagement and affective engagement) and to intentional engagement (the activation of willingness of brand clicking activities in social media). This, in turn, creates an advantage for the marketers because from this process if users engage the chances of building a long-term consumer brand engagement relationship is higher. This research study was done on 25-34 year-old Malaysian active expressive social media users who utilised expressive social media sites on a daily basis for at least 3 hours as the sample population from whom to collect data and administer a questionnaire survey with a still image as stimulus using social networking messaging platforms. Data analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS and IBM AMOS software and results showed positive significant relationship within all the 7 constructs which were functional appeal, emotional appeal, vividness, perceived creativity, cognitive engagement, affective engagement and intentional engagement.
Gian Paolo Stella, Umberto Filotto, Enrico Maria Cervellati, Elvira Anna Graziano
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p44

This study assesses whether participation in financial education programmes has a positive effect on financial literacy. To pursue this goal, we conducted an online survey in March 2019. The sample comprised 918 Italian adults aged 30 to 91. We asked respondents if they had participated in financial education programmes during school or university years. The results show the effectiveness of participating in financial education programmes, as the rate of correct responses to financial literacy questions was higher for those who had completed one of the above-mentioned programmes than for those who did not. In addition, those who participated in a financial literacy programme during university years gave more correct answers compared to those who participated in one of these programmes during school (non-university) years.
Sufian Radwan Al-Manaseer
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p92

This study aims to investigate the impact of market ratios on the stock prices of Jordanian industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange for the period 2009-2018. The sample comprises 45 chosen from 56 industrial companies. Fixed effect regression analysis applied by using an e-views program. The study found an impact of the combined market ratios on the stock prices of Jordanian industrial companies. Also, the study found no impact of the dividend payout, the dividend yield, and the price-earnings ratios on the stock prices, whereas the earnings per share ratio impact the stock prices of Jordanian industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange.
Frank Heilig, Edward J. Lusk
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n4p14

Forecasting creates projections into an uncertain future. To understand the decision-making implications of the forecast, confidence intervals [CIs] are required. This seems simple enough. However, considering the details of the computations that underlie generating forecasting CIs, one encounters a practical disconnect that can create a decision-making paradox. In the OLS 2-parameter linear regression [OLSR] case, there are two forecasting Models that are often employed: {The Uni-variate Time Series & The Standard two-variable Regression Y:X}. Further, for each of these two Models individually, there are three (1-FPE[α]) %CIs Versions: {Excel, Fixed Effects & Random Effects} each of which is oriented around the same OLSR-forecast value. Given this component configuration, a paradox emerges because each of the forecasting models, {TS or Y:X}, individually produces a forecast with a markedly difference precision profile over the three CI-Versions. In our experience, this is paradoxical as forecasters assume that as the forecasts are the same in each model-class, their Capture Rate—the percentage of time that the actual future values are IN the CIs—should also be the same. To address this seeming paradox, we develop, detail, and illustrate a two-stage OLSR Decomposition and Screening protocol, termed: the [D&S-Triage] protocol that has the following components: (i) Stage A: decomposition of the Model & Version factor-sets to better understand the implications of their Precision differences, and (ii) Stage B: focusing on inferentially significant forecasting model components, create a multilevel quality-algorithm to identify a forecasting model-set that addresses the Quality of the Capture Rate that are the best in their class.