International Business Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1913-9004 / 1913-9012
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 2,210
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S. Sapukotanage, B. N. F. Warnakulasuriya, S. T. W. S. Yapa
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n12p42

In the highly sustainability conscious business environment, organizations face the pressure of their stakeholders to carryout sustainable operations. In this context organizations take many sustainability measures to make themselves socially responsible. Literature suggests that the power of the stakeholder determines the extent to which an organization adheres to stakeholder requirements due to their dependence on such stakeholders. Therefore whether the behaviours of organizations towards sustainability could be treated as ‘socially responsible’ and whether they really fulfill the social contract they have entered into, become questionable. A qualitative study was carried out based on in depth interviews with senior managers of four apparel manufacturing and exporting firms of Sri Lanka to investigate how organizations in a developing country fulfill their social contract towards sustainability in international operations since these firms operate with powerful international customers. The thematic analysis conducted based on the interview data of the apparel manufacturers of Sri Lanka reveal a similarity in the results to what has been identified in literature in relation to the manner manufacturers respond to stakeholder requirements. The extent to which they meet the requirements of their stakeholders has been confined to just a legal requirement to satisfy the powerful customers. Although there was legitimacy in their behavior it raised doubts for the researcher about the fulfillment of the social contract through this behavior since these manufacturers were not concerned about certain aspects of sustainability which the customers were not interested in. One such main factor was the sustainability of their suppliers. These findings inform policymakers the need to educate the apparel exporters of their responsibility towards sustainability because the social acceptability that comes with legitimacy may be more important than economic viability. The contribution of this study to knowledge is in terms of how the dependence of manufacturers in developing countries, influence their adherence to stakeholder requirements.
Tsuyoshi Aburai, Kazuhiro Takeyasu
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n12p51

This paper offers a clarification of the skills required for innovation talent by comparing the effect of innovation in education at Tokushima University and the talent requirement of companies. The researchers performed the questionnaire investigation with the use of the 19 items of The Innovator’s DNA Skill Assessment. Both the basic statistical analysis and Bayesian Network analysis were conducted based on the resulting data. The sensitivity analysis was performed after building the Bayesian Network Model. The evidences are set to “skeptical thinking”, “taking risks”, and “creativity” in the item of mind. The calculation of the odds ratio reveals that enhancing the Observation skill and Skill to Plan and Design is effective in improving skeptical thinking and creativity.
Newman Amaning, Reindolph Osei Anim, Alexander Kyere, Godfred Peprah-Amankona
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n12p14

This study examines the determinants of accounting students’ career intentions. The study adopted survey questionnaires developed on a 5-point Likert’s scale to collect primary data from 231 final year university students pursuing accounting across Ghana using purposive sampling technique. The study employed the use of PLS-SEM to conduct Regression Analysis. The outcome of the study reveals that the relationship between the future plan and career intentions of accounting students is significantly positive, and a positive perception on the accounting profession influences the accounting student to pursue a career in accounting. Thus, future plans and students’ perception on professional examinations influence the career intentions of the accounting students in Ghana. The study recommends that future studies should explore the effects of other important variables including race, culture, religion, marital status, etc. on the career intentions of accounting students.
Hua Wen, Xuan Jiang
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n12p1

Since the beginning of this century, farmers' cooperatives have been developing rapidly in China. Based on the principles of classic cooperatives, this paper investigates the farmers' cooperatives in practice in China. It is found that the cooperatives in practice do not conform to the principles of classic cooperation, and have strong characteristics based on realistic conditions. In practice, from the perspective of industrial chain, China's farmer cooperatives can be divided into four categories: engaged in production, engaged in "production + sales", engaged in "production + processing + sales" and providing services, and there are significant differences in the operation mode and governance structure of all kinds of cooperatives. For the reasons behind it, the author investigates the concentration degree of different types of cooperatives in the operation of various agricultural products, and found that different category of products have different demands on the functions of cooperatives, which makes the operation mode and governance structure of cooperatives formed for different functional needs present diversified characteristics. In addition, the author also points out that although there are essential differences between the farmers' cooperatives in practice and those in the classical, they can still play their unique functions, that is to say, they can influence the identity and income of farmers by changing the utilization of production elements in the traditional agricultural management mode.
Emanuel Bagna
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n11p137

The illiquidity discount represents the reduction in the value of an asset because it cannot be easily sold. It is usually applied by appraisals in valuing a minority interest in a closely-held business. This article presents a literature review of the illiquidity discount and an analysis of the level of discount in Italy during the period 2003 - 2012. The analysis conducted made it possible to verify: a) the existence for the Italian market of a discount for lack of liquidity for shares with less turnover; b) the variability over time of that discount, thus agreeing with the literature that has found the premiums for liquidity risk vary over time. The discounts that were found are, nonetheless, smaller than those indicated in the literature. The descending trend over time for the discount would seem to be particularly consistent with the studies on restricted stocks.
Eddison T. Walters
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n11p114

Based on the findings of the current study, policymakers must take a hard look at the media and themselves, because the world can no longer blame the subprime mortgage industry for causing the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. The public must demand answers from the media and policymakers explaining how an economic crisis that could have been avoided resulted in the collapse of the global economy. The lack of evidence supporting the theory of a financial bubble and a real estate bubble called for further investigation of factors leading to the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. Evidence presented from data analysis in Walters (2018) suggested no financial bubble existed in developed or developing countries around the world, preceding the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. Based on data analysis in Walters (2018) the evidence also suggested, the lasting effect of economic policies in response to the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008 for both developed and developing countries around the world, had no significant impact on the financial sector but pointed to a lack of economic growth. The findings raised significant questions about the existence of a real estate bubble in both developed and developing countries. Evidence from data analysis presented in Walters and Djokic (2019) suggested the existence of a real estate bubble in the United States real estate market preceding the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008 was a false conclusion. Data analysis in Walters (2019) resulted in, 0.989 Adjusted R-square, 194.041 Mean Dependent Variable, 5.908 Square Error of Regression, 488.726 Sum-of- Square Residual, and 0.00000 Probability (F-statistic), for correlation between the independent variable representing advancement in technology, and the dependent variable representing home purchase price in the United States preceding the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. The findings in Walters (2019) concluded the rapid increase in home purchase price in the United States real estate market, was due to increased demand for homes from the adaptation of advancement in technology in the real estate and mortgage industries. The current study expanded the investigation of the growth in home purchase price to fifteen developed countries around the world, building on the findings of previous research by the current researcher. The researcher in the current study concluded, the existence of significant and near-perfect correlation in many cases, between the dependent variable representing growth in home purchase price, and the independent variable representing advancement in technology. The analysis was based on data analyzed from fifteen developed countries around the world, which was collected between 1990 and 2006. The data analysis included home purchase price data from, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, Netherlands, Australia, Ireland, Belgium, Norway, Spain, and Portugal. Data preceding the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008 were analyzed in the current study. The researcher in the current study concluded the existence of overwhelming evidence suggesting advancement in technology was responsible for the rapid increase in home prices in developed countries around the world preceding the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. The result of data analysis in the current study provided further confirmation of the accuracy of former Federal Reserve Board Chairmen, Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke 2005 assessment which concluded, the occurrence of a real estate bubble developing was impossible due to the Efficient Market Hypothesis, before reversing course subsequent their assertion in 2005 (Belke & Wiedmann, 2005; Starr,2012). The result of the current study provided additional evidence supporting Eddison Walters Risk Expectation Theory of The Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. The result from data analysis also confirmed the need for the adaptation of Eddison Walters Modern Economic Analysis Theory. As a result of the findings in the current study, the researcher concluded the development of a real estate bubble is impossible where there exists real estate price transparency, as is the case in most developed and developing countries. The researcher presented Walters Real Estate Bubble Impossibility Price Transparency Theory based on the findings. False information of a real estate bubble and predictions of a real estate crash disseminated through the mainstream media and social media can be a destructive force with a disastrous effect on the economy around the world. The failure by the media to hold themselves and policymakers to a higher standard resulted in the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. The result of the failure by the media was a worldwide economic crisis and the Great Recession that followed the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008. Lessons learned from the Global Financial Crisis of 2007 and 2008 can assist in preventing another economic crisis in the future.
Kevin Duran
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n11p155

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Business Research, Vol. 13, No. 11, 2020
Ida Verna
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n11p77

This work aims to investigate the effect of a holistic approach to teaching on both the educator’s learning and teaching styles and on student performance. To this end, an experimental holistic approach was adopted, L’Ascolto®, which uses the Deming PDCA cycle for the design (Plan), management (Do), evaluation (Check) and improvement (Act) of teaching processes. The aim is to encourage educators to “train” their flexibility in learning by following the Kolb Experiential Learning Cycle. The paper is presented as an original study aimed at empirically examining the effects of an experimental holistic approach (L’Ascolto®) on the educator’s experiential learning process in a university accounting course. On one hand, the results show positive student performance, while, on the other, the positive effects of the educator’s experiential learning emerge, as evidenced by the different teaching styles adopted during the course (flexibility).
Bing Zhang, Eksiri Niyomsilp
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n11p96

The aim of this research was to study the relationship between tourism destination image, perceived value and post-visiting behavioral intention of Chinese tourist to Thailand. The methodology of this study is quantitative research in which questionnaire is the major tool in collected the primary data for analysis. The total sample of 400 Chinese tourists to Thailand was obtained for the analysis. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant positive impact of destination image on post-visiting behavioral intention; There is a significant impact of perceived value on post-visiting behavioral intention; There is a significant impact of destination image on perceived value; Perceived value plays a partial mediating role in the influence of tourist destination image on tourists' post-visiting behavioral intention. In order to enhance the competitiveness of tourism destinations, the study results suggest that organizations and marketers relevant to tourism industry in Thailand should improve the image of tourism destination and enhance the perceived value of tourists.
Sanjoy Kumar Roy, Muhammad Abdus Salam, Sm Nazrul Islam, Al- Amin
International Business Research, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/ibr.v13n11p106

The research project is mainly developed to emphasize the development of potential areas in Bangladesh especially in the islands where the tourism sector can be incorporated to act as an income generator alongside the traditional earning opportunities. To place our thoughts of this emerging sector in island areas, we had reviewed some of the works from the earlier researchers of different regions of the world worked on different islands’ tourism developments. The result of our findings after examining those works by the researchers will provide us a clear understanding of how tourism can bring balance among environment, local community, and economy of the island areas of Bangladesh which can eventually ensure sustainability. There will be some recommendations as well as policies for enacting this new industry in the island areas in Bangladesh in the last section.
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