Glycoconjugate Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 0282-0080 / 1573-4986
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 3,023
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, Milton Neto da Silva, Renata Chagas Bastos, Denise Da Silva Gomes Pereira, Elza Cristina Schott Figueira, Ellen Jessouroun, Maria De Lourdes Moura Leal, Eliana Barreto-Bergter, Ivna Alana Freitas Brasileiro da Silveira
Published: 13 September 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10016-w

Abstract:
Recent changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal have been reported and meningococcal group W (MenW) has become the third most prevalent group isolated in Brazil in the last 10 years. In this study we have developed a conjugate vaccine for MenW using a modified reductive amination conjugation method through a covalent linkage between periodate-oxidized MenW non-O-acetylated polysaccharide and hydrazide-activated monomeric tetanus toxoid. Process control of bulks was done by physicochemical analysis including polysaccharide and protein quantification, high performance liquid chromatography – size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. Conjugate bulks were best produced with concentration of polysaccharide twice as high as protein, at room temperature, and pH approximately 6.0. A scaled-up bulk (100 mg scale) was formulated and inoculated intramuscularly in mice in a dose–response study (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 µg of polysaccharide/dose). The immunogenicity of conjugate bulks was determined by serum bactericidal assay and ELISA assays of serum from immunized mice. ELISA and SBA titers revealed high titers of IgG and demonstrated the functionality of the antibodies produced in all doses studied 15 days after the third dose. However, significant differences were observed among them by ELISA. In conclusion, this study established the best conditions to produce MenW conjugate bulks and showed the efficacy of the obtained conjugate bulk in induce a good immune response in mice. Further experiments will need to be done to scale up the conjugation reaction and then allow the use of this conjugate in clinical trials.
Shi-Xi Jia, Qiao-Na Chi, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tao Liu, Xinhui Kou, Fanye Wang, Yun-Kun Qi, , Xin-Hui Xing
Published: 13 September 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10010-2

Abstract:
Methylene blue (MB) is one of the most common cationic dyes to detect heparin. As the sulfate residue presented in heparin was the main contributor to bind with MB, the UV performance of the MB with selectively desulfated heparin derivatives was investigated. It was found that the sulfate residue in different heparin analogues did not show the equal ability to attract MB binding. The stoichiometry of sulfate with MB among the heparin and derivatives was verified as a non-constant number. For the two selectively desulfated heparin derivatives: sulfate elimination at 6-O (6-OdeS) and N-acetylated heparin (N-deS-Acetyl), the MB to sulfate ratios were significantly higher than for heparin. For the not fully diminished sulfate at 2-O heparin derivative (2-OdeS), the MB-SO3- ratio of 2-OdeS was between 6-OdeS, N-deS-Acetlyl and heparin. Although in a distinct sulfation position, the MB-SO3- ratio of 6-OdeS and N-deS-Acetyl was almost equal, which agreed with the comparable total desulfation degree between 6-OdeS and N-deS-Acetyl. In addition, compared to heparin groups, the non-desulfated gs-HP showed no significantly different MB-SO3- ratio with heparin. The above results demonstrated that compared with the sulfate location and glycan composition of heparin, the content of sulfate was the most essential factor for the MB binding.
Yun-Feng Huo, Yin-Ting Li, Wei Xia, Chong Wang, Yuan-Yuan Xie, Yan-Bo Wang, ,
Published: 13 September 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10009-9

Abstract:
To explore effect of the structural properties of porphyra haitanensis polysaccharide on its biological activity, degraded porphyra polysaccharides were separated and purified by Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, obtaining three purified components (P1, P2 and P3). All the three components were sulfate polysaccharides containing the repeating units of → 3) β-D-galactose (1 → 4) 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose (1 →, and → 3) β-D-galactose (1 → 4) α-L-galactose-6-S (1 →, and → 3) 6-O-methyl-β-D-galactose (1 → 4) 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose (1 →. The molecular weight of the three fractions was measured to be 300.3, 130.4 and 115.1 kDa, respectively. Their antioxidant activity was investigated by the determination of the free radical scavenging effect and ferric reducing power. It was found that P1, P2 and P3 possessed marked antioxidant activity. It was also found that they appreciably enhanced the proliferation, phagocytic ability and nitric oxide secretion in RAW264.7 cells. Lower molecular weight and higher sulfate content were beneficial to bioactivities of P. haitanensis polysaccharides. Overall, P2 and P3 possess superior immuno-modulatory activity to that of P1 and PHP. Thus, the current work will provide the basis for the better utilization of P. haitanensis to develop the related functional foods.
, Jun Zeng, PiXian Gong, Yanchao Wu,
Published: 8 September 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10013-z

Abstract:
Polygonatum sibiricum (P. sibiricum) rhizomes are widely used as a tonic and functional food, and are often processed to enhance their tonic function by repeated steaming and drying. As the most important constituent, the polysaccharide from P. sibiricum rhizomes (PSP) has demonstrated various activities, but the alteration of structural characteristics and activities of the purified PSPs during steaming process was rarely investigated. To well understand the effect of steaming process on the polysaccharides of P. sibiricum, neutral polysaccharides from P. sibiricum rhizomes (PSP0 ~ PSP9) after steaming were first isolated and purified, and then the chemical properties and antioxidant activities were determined. The results showed that the molar ratios of monosaccharides in PSPs were different. The molecular weights of PSPs were increased significantly after the fourth steaming. Morphological studies showed that the surface of PSPs became much tighter during the steaming process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra displayed the polysaccharides had similar backbones and chemical groups. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of PSPs was measured through radical scavenging tests. It was found that the radical scavenging activity of PSPs was elevated strikingly after steaming, and increased gradually with numbers of steaming process. The biological and chemical variance of PSPs revealed considerable segregation of PSP0, PSP1 ~ PSP4 and PSP5 ~ PSP9. In conclusion, our results proposed the fourth time as the optimal number of steaming to extract functional polysaccharide from P. sibiricum rhizomes.
, , Frank St. Michael, Chantelle Cairns, ,
Published: 7 September 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10020-0

Abstract:
Haemophilus influenzae is a leading cause of meningitis disease and mortality, particularly in young children. Since the introduction of a licensed conjugate vaccine (targeting the outer capsular polysaccharide) against the most prevalent serotype, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b, the epidemiology of the disease has changed and Haemophilus influenzae serotype a is on the rise, especially in Indigenous North American populations. Here we apply molecular modeling to explore the preferred conformations of the serotype a and b capsular polysaccharides as well as a modified hydrolysis resistant serotype b polysaccharide. Although both serotype b and the modified serotype b have similar random coil behavior, our simulations reveal some differences in the polysaccharide conformations and surfaces which may impact antibody cross-reactivity between these two antigens. Importantly, we find significant conformational differences between the serotype a and b polysaccharides, indicating a potential lack of cross-reactivity that is corroborated by immunological data showing little recognition or killing between heterologous serotypes. These findings support the current development of a serotype a conjugate vaccine.
Xin Zhang, Chen Wang, Qing Han, Xuan Chen, ,
Published: 4 September 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10014-y

Abstract:
Mucins are the major proteins that distributed on the intestinal mucosa layer and protect the intestine from pathogens infection. The composition of intestinal mucin O-glycans can affect the health of the gastrointestinal tract in pigs. Porcine intestinal mucosa is widely used as the main raw material of heparin extraction. The heparin extraction residues rich in mucins were usually wasted. The structure of mucin derived O-glycans in porcine intestinal mucosa are currently unknown. In this study, we isolated the mucins from the heparin extraction residues and profiled the O-glycans. After heparin extraction, mucin was digested with trypsin, and separated by strong anion exchange chromatography. The mucin derived O-glycans were release by alkaline β elimination, and analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-porous graphitized carbon-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (UPLC-PGC-FTMS/MS). Thirty five kinds of O-glycans were identified, most of which were Core 3-derived glycans. In particular, the O-glycans containing sialic acid Neu5Ac accounted for 71.93% of the total O-glycans, which were different from that of other species, including mouse intestine, fish intestine, and porcine colon. The high content sialylated mucin may explain its effect in biological processes. Furthermore, the immunological activity results indicated that the porcine intestinal mucin could promote phagocytosis and proliferation without any cytotoxic effects, which may aid in the development of immunomodulators.
Published: 24 August 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10015-x

Abstract:
Plants contain an extended group of lectins differing from each other in their molecular structures, biochemical properties and carbohydrate-binding specificities. The heterogeneous group of plant lectins can be classified in several families based on the primary structure of the lectin domain. All proteins composed of one or more lectin domains, or having a domain architecture including one or more lectin domains in combination with other protein domains can be defined as lectins. Plant lectins reside in different cell compartments, and depending on their location will encounter a large variety carbohydrate structures, allowing them to be involved in multiple biological functions. Over the years lectins have been studied intensively for their carbohydrate-binding properties and biological activities, which also resulted in diverse applications. The present overview on plant lectins especially focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of plant lectins and their applications for crop improvement, glycobiology and biomedical research.
Published: 16 August 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10008-w

Abstract:
Plasma membrane interaction is highly recognized as an essential step to start the intracellular events in response to extracellular stimuli. The ways in which these interactions take place are less clear and detailed. Over the last decade my research has focused on developing the understanding of the glycosphingolipids-protein interaction that occurs at cell surface. By using chemical synthesis and biochemical approaches we have characterized some fundamental interactions that are key events both in the immune response and in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis. In particular, for the first time it has been demonstrated that a glycolipid, present on the outer side of the membrane, the long-chain lactosylceramide, is able to directly modulate a cytosolic protein. But the real conceptual change was the demonstration that the GM1 oligosaccharide chain is able, alone, to replicate numerous functions of GM1 ganglioside and to directly interact with plasma membrane receptors by activating specific cellular signaling. In this conceptual shift, the development and application of multidisciplinary techniques in the field of biochemistry, from chemical synthesis to bioinformatic analysis, as well as discussions with several national and international colleagues have played a key role.
Published: 14 August 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10007-x

Abstract:
Glycans have been shown to function as versatile molecular signals in cells. This prompted us to look at their roles in endocytosis, endolysosomal system and autophagy. We start by introducing the cell biological aspects of these pathways, the concept of the sugar code, and provide an overview on the role of glycans in the targeting of lysosomal proteins and in lysosomal functions. Moreover, we review evidence on the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy by glycans. Finally, we discuss the emerging concept that cytosolic exposure of luminal glycans, and their detection by endogenous lectins, provides a mechanism for the surveillance of the integrity of the endolysosomal compartments, and serves their eventual repair or disposal.
Nouara Yahi, Coralie Di Scala, Henri Chahinian,
Published: 30 July 2021
Glycoconjugate Journal pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10719-021-10012-0

Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a major neurodegenerative disorder which exhibits many of the characteristics of a pandemic. Current therapeutic strategies are centered on the dopaminergic system, with limited efficacy, so that a treatment that has a direct impact on the underlying disease pathogenesis is urgently needed. Although α-synuclein is a privileged target for such therapies, this protein has been in the past wrongly considered as exclusively intracellular, so that the impact of paracrine neurotoxicity mechanisms in PD have been largely ignored. In this article we review the data showing that lipid rafts act as plasma membrane machineries for the formation of α-synuclein pore-like oligomers which trigger an increase of intracellular Ca2+. This Ca2+ influx is responsible for a self-sustained cascade of neurotoxic events, including mitochondrial oxidative stress, tau phosphorylation, Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, Lewy body formation, and extracellular release of α-synuclein in exosomes. The first step of this cascade is the binding of α-synuclein to lipid raft gangliosides, suggesting that PD should be considered as both a proteinopathy and a ganglioside membrane disorder lipidopathy. Accordingly, blocking α-synuclein-ganglioside interactions should annihilate the whole neurotoxic cascade and stop disease progression. A pipeline of anti-oligomer molecules is under development, among which an in-silico designed synthetic peptide AmyP53 which is the first drug targeting gangliosides and thus able to prevent the formation of α-synuclein oligomers and all downstream neurotoxicity. These new therapeutic avenues challenge the current symptomatic approaches by finally targeting the root cause of PD through a long-awaited paradigm shift.
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