Comprehensive Psychiatry

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ISSN / EISSN : 0010-440X / 1532-8384
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 6,245
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, Susanne R. de Rooij, Marta V. Dimitrova, Anke B. Witteveen, Corine J. Verhoeven, Ank de Jonge, Tanja G.M. Vrijkotte, Jens Henrichs
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152239

Abstract:
Postpartum depression is prevalent and concerns a serious health problem for women and their families. The current large-scale birth cohort study investigated: (1) the associations of various potential determinants of postpartum depression using a multidimensional approach, and (2) the individual contribution of obstetric and perinatal determinants and pregnancy-specific anxiety to the risk of postpartum depression. This study was based on a large-scale birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (ABCD-study). In 5109 women depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (cut-off ≥16 indicating high risk of postpartum depression). Determinants were assessed using self-report or perinatal registries. In the final multivariable model, other-Western and non-Western ethnic background, increased antepartum depressive symptoms, increased antepartum anxiety, increased pregnancy-specific anxiety, being unemployed, poor sleep quality, unwanted pregnancy, abuse, multiparity, and congenital abnormality were all independently related to an increased risk of postpartum depression. The strongest risk factors for postpartum depression were antepartum depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.02–4.92), having a baby with a congenital abnormality (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.46–3.73), and abuse (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.02–3.73). The final model accounted for 24.5% of the variance. Our dataset did not provide information on social support or maternal and family history of depression. Next to these determinants, future research should include biological factors. The determinants identified provide opportunities for the development of multidimensional early screening and early intervention strategies for women with an increased risk of postpartum depression.
Dulcinea Vega, , Pedro Saavedra
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152240

Abstract:
Despite a wealth of studies seeking to identify factors associated with nonadherence few consistent predictors have been determined, and several gaps still exist in the literature. We assessed 110 consecutively admitted patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder according to ICD-10 criteria. Assessments were performed during hospitalization and at six-months follow-up. Evaluation included sociodemographic, clinical, psychopathologic and treatment-related variables. Prevalence of nonadherence, associated variables, reasons for nonadherence and possible subtypes were explored. Adherence was defined as the concurrence of adherence to antipsychotic treatment and adherence to outpatient follow-up, during the six-month period. Nonadherence was detected in 58.2% of patients. An identifiable profile was found in nonadherent patients. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, low socio-economic level (OR = 3.68; 95% CI = 1.42–9.53), current cannabis use or abuse (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.07–7.28), nonadherence as a reason for relapse and admission (OR = 5.46; 95% CI = 2.00–14.90), and greater overall severity of symptoms at six months follow-up (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02–3.95) remained independently associated with nonadherence. Believing that medication is unnecessary was the most reported reason for nonadherence. For nonadherent patients (N = 64), two distinguishable subtypes were found: intentional nonadherence (N = 32; 50%), and unintentional nonadherence (N = 32; 50%). A large percentage of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder did not adhere to their treatment in the post-discharge follow-up period. The profile identified may enable better prevention of this problem. Specific reasons for nonadherence should also be explored to provide individualized strategies.
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152242

Abstract:
Several studies have shown that interpersonal dependency is a risk factor for prolonged grief disorder (PGD), a disorder that has been recently approved by the American Psychiatric Association Assembly for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—5—Text Revision (DSM-5-TR). Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this relationship is independent of depression, which may also be related to both loss and interpersonal dependency. Furthermore, anaclitic dependency (maladaptive and immature) compared to relatedness (more adaptive and mature) dependency, and the relationships between these types of dependency and PGD, have not been examined. The aim of the present study was to determine how anaclitic and relatedness dependency are associated with PGD symptom severity, controlling for depressive symptom severity, over and above potential sociodemographic and loss-related confounder variables. Participants (N = 241) bereaved after the death of a family member from 0.5 to 8 years before the survey (M = 3.36, SD = 2.02) completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire—9, and the Prolonged Grief Disorder—13 scale (PG-13). A hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that anaclitic dependency is positively associated with PGD symptom severity, even when controlling for depression severity and other potential confounder variables. There was no significant association between relatedness dependency and PGD. To assess the risk of PGD in individuals bereaved after the death of a family member, it is important to assess anaclitic dependency.
, Elisa Maietti, Paola Rucci, Sofia Burato, Marco Menchetti, Domenico Berardi, Giuseppe Maina, Naomi A. Fineberg, Umberto Albert
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152246

Abstract:
Previous meta-analyses showed that OCD is associated with a substantial risk of suicidal behaviours. Conclusive rates of suicidal ideation (current and lifetime) and suicide attempts based on pooled prevalence rates have not so far been calculated using meta-analysis for the other DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRDs). This meta-analysis aims to separately calculate the pooled prevalence rates of lifetime suicide attempts and current or lifetime suicidal ideation in BDD, Hoarding Disorder (HD), Skin Picking Disorder (SPD) and Trichotillomania (TTM) and to identify factors associated with increased suicide rates. Our protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020164395). A systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA reporting guidelines was performed by searching in PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL databases from the date of the first available article to April 20th, 2020. Stata version 15 was used for the statistical analysis. Given the small number of studies in TTM and SPD, the two grooming disorders were grouped together. Meta-analyses of proportions based on random effects (Der-Simonian and Laird method) were used to derive the pooled estimates. Thirty-eigth studies (N = 4559 participants) were included: 23 for BDD, 8 for HD, 7 for Grooming Disorders. For BDD, the pooled prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, current and lifetime suicidal ideation was, respectively 35.2% (CI:23.4–47.8), 37.2% (CI:23.8–51.6) and 66.1% (CI:53.5–77.7). For HD, the pooled prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, current and lifetime suicidal ideation was 24.1% (CI:12.8–37.6), 18.4% (CI:10.2–28.3) and 38.3% (CI:35.0–41.6), respectively. For Grooming Disorders, the pooled prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts and current suicidal ideation were 13.3% (CI:5.9–22.8) and 40.4% (CI:35.7–45.3), respectively (no data available for lifetime suicidal ideation). The OCRDs as a group are associated with relatively high rates of suicidal behaviour. Through indirect comparisons, we infer that BDD has the greatest risk. Comorbid substance abuse, possibly reflecting poor underlying impulse control, is associated with higher rates of suicidal behaviour in BDD. Our data emphasize the need for clinicians to consider the risk of suicidal behaviour in the management of patients presenting with all forms of OCRDs.
Guillem Navarra-Ventura, Muriel Vicent-Gil, Maria Serra-Blasco, Carmen Massons, Josep Maria Crosas, Jesús Cobo, Abigail Jubert, , Sol Fernández-Gonzalo, Ximena Goldberg, et al.
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 109; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152258

Abstract:
Impairment of social cognition is documented in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SCH). In healthy individuals, women perform better than men in some of its sub-domains. However, in BD and SCH the results are mixed. Our aim was to compare emotion recognition, affective Theory of Mind (ToM) and first- and second-order cognitive ToM in BD, SCH and healthy subjects, and to investigate sex-related differences. 120 patients (BD = 60, SCH = 60) and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. Emotion recognition was assessed by the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) test, affective ToM by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and cognitive ToM by several false-belief stories. Group and sex differences were analyzed using parametric (POFA, RMET) and non-parametric (false-belief stories) tests. The impact of age, intelligence quotient (IQ) and clinical variables on patient performance was examined using a series of linear/logistic regressions. Both groups of patients performed worse than healthy subjects on POFA, RMET and second-order false-belief (p < 0.001), but no differences were found between them. Instead, their deficits were related to older age and/or lower IQ (p < 0.01). Subthreshold depression was associated with a 6-fold increased risk of first-order false-belief failure (p < 0.001). Sex differences were only found in healthy subjects, with women outperforming men on POFA and RMET (p ≤ 0.012), but not on first/second-order false-belief. The cross-sectional design does not allow for causal inferences. BD and SCH patients had deficits in emotion recognition, affective ToM, and second-order cognitive ToM, but their performance was comparable to each other, highlighting that the differences between them may be subtler than previously thought. First-order cognitive ToM remained intact, but subthreshold depression altered their normal functioning. Our results suggest that the advantage of healthy women in the emotional and affective aspects of social cognition would not be maintained in BD and SCH.
, K. Bihan, P. Duriez, P. Podevin, L. Silveira-Reis-Brito, A. Benyamina, A. Valero-Cabré, B. Millet
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 109; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152257

Abstract:
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) ranks among the leading causes of decrements in disability-adjusted life-years. Long-term exposure to alcohol leads to an imbalance of activity between frontal cortical systems and the striatum, thereby enhancing impulsive behaviours and weakening inhibitory control. Alternative therapeutic approaches such as non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation have gained some momentum in the field of addictology by capitalizing on their ability to target specific anatomical structures and correct abnormalities in dysfunctional brain circuits. The current review, covers original peer-reviewed published research on the use of brain stimulation methods for the rehabilitation of AUD. A broad and systematic search was carried out on four electronic databases: NCBI PubMed, Web of Science, Handbooks and the Cochrane Library. Any original article in English or French language, without restrictions of patient age or gender, article type and publication outlet, were included in the final pool of selected studies. The outcomes of this systematic review suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontral cortex (DLPFC) is a promising target for treating AUD with high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Such effect would reduce feelings of craving by enhancing cognitive control and modulating striatal function. Existing literature also supports the notion that changes of DLPFC activity driven by transcranial direct current stimulation, could decrease alcohol craving and consumption. However, to date, no major differences have been found between the efficacy of these two non-invasive brain-stimulation approaches, which require further confirmation. In contrast, beneficial stronger evidence supports an impact of deep brain stimulation reducing craving and improving quality of life in AUD, effects that would be mediated by an impact on the nucleus accumbens, a central structure of the brain's reward circuitry. Overall, neurostimulation shows promise contributing to the treatment of AUD. Nonetheless, progress has been limited by a number of factors such as the low number of controlled randomized trials, small sample sizes, variety of stimulation parameters precluding comparability and incomplete or questionable sham-conditions. Additionally, a lack of data concerning clinical impact on the severity of AUD or craving and the short follow up periods precluding and accurate estimation of effect duration after discontinuing the treatment, has also limited the clinical relevance of final outcomes. Brain stimulation remains a promising approach to contribute to AUD therapy, co-adjuvant of more conventional procedures. However, a stronger therapeutic rational based on solid physio-pathological evidence and accurate estimates of efficacy, are still required to achieve further therapeutic success and expand clinical use.
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152232

Abstract:
Seasonal patterns in the effect of sunlight on depression, where depression decreases when sunlight increases, have been observed in previous studies. In this study, we demonstrate a bimodal effect of sunlight on depression – short-term increases in sunlight increase depression and long-term increases in sunlight decrease depression. The analysis showed that the significant effect of sunlight is temporary and appears only when seasonal changes are severe within a given year. We analyzed approximately 530,000 cases where patients visited hospital for depression in Korea from January 1 to December 31, 2016. We measured the daily average amount of sunlight and daily sunlight for the 30 days previous to the day of measurement using data from 96 weather stations. To analyze the effect of sunlight, several climatic variables and local dummies were added to the negative binomial model, and the period in which the effect of sunlight was significant was derived as a term of the interaction between the month variable and sunlight. When the average effects of climatic factors such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity were removed, the number of cases of depression increased when the daily average amount of sunlight increased [IRR = 1.024 (95% CI: 1.009 to 1.039)]; this effect was significant only in January and May. The number of cases of depression decreased with higher daily average sunlight for the previous 30 days increasing [IRR = 0.917 (95% CI: 0.892 to 0.944)], and this effect was significant only in January, March, and May. The effect of sunlight on depression appears in both the short and long terms, but the effect is significant only for limited periods. The data examined in this study supports a pattern where short-term daily sunlight increases depression and daily sunlight for the previous 30 days decreases depression.
Sina Weingarten, Shirin Diop, Christina Specht, Luc Turmes, , Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152248

Abstract:
Mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) show impaired affects and behaviour patterns in the mother-child interaction, which affects an infant's emotional and cognitive development and the maternal course of disease. However, impairment of the mother-child relationship does not occur in every case of PPD. The aim of this exploratory-descriptive video-based study was to investigate the possible associations between mother-child interactions and aspects of maternal biography and clinical history, with a focus on pre-existing mental disorder. Sixty-two mother-child dyads (31 mothers with PPD and pre-existing mental disorders and 31 mothers with PPD but no further mental disorder) hospitalized at the mother and baby unit (MBU) of the LWL-Hospital Herten were included in this study. The Marcé Clinical Checklist and the “Mannheimer Beurteilungsskala zur Erfassung der Mutter-Kind-Interaktion im Säuglingsalter” (MBS-MKI-S) were used to explore sociodemographic and clinical parameters, and video-based interaction behaviour was examined. Mother-infant interaction behaviour showed a significant group difference on the MBS-MKI-S-Vm subscale (variability in maternal behaviour) before psychiatric treatment (exact Mann-Whitney U test: U = 555, p = 0.023), with higher scores in mothers with a pre-existing mental disorder. Furthermore, significant differences were shown on the MBS-MKI-S-RSm (maternal reactivity/sensitivity) (U = 259, p = 0.019) and MBS-MKI-S-Rc (child's reactivity) subscales at discharge (U = 251, p = 0.021). Among mothers with a pre-existing diagnosis, the MBS-MKI-S-Tm (maternal tenderness) and MBS-MKI-S-Rc (child's reactivity) subscales were significantly correlated after treatment. Mothers with PPD and a pre-existing mental disorder displayed significantly more behavioural variability than mothers with only PPD. Maternal behaviour seems to influence the child's responsive behaviour; thus, mothers and their children can benefit from inpatient treatment at an MBU. Further investigations with larger samples should be conducted.
, Kenneth Hugdahl, Bodil Kråkvik, Einar Vedul-Kjelsås, Anne Martha Kalhovde, Janne Grønli, Frank Larøi
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152247

Abstract:
Few studies have investigated hallucinations that occur at the onset/offset of sleep (called hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations; HHHs), despite the fact that their prevalence in the general population is reported to be higher than the prevalence of daytime hallucinations. We utilized data from an epidemiological study to explore the prevalence of HHHs in various modalities. We also investigated phenomenological differences between sleep-related (HHHs) and daytime hallucinations in the auditory modality. We hypothesized that individuals with only HHHs would not differ from controls on a range of mental health and wellbeing measures, but that if they occur together with daytime hallucinations will pose a greater burden on the individual experiencing them. We also hypothesize that HHHs are qualitatively different (i.e. less severe) from daytime hallucinations. This study utilized data from a cross-sectional epidemiological study on the prevalence of hallucinations in the Norwegian general population. The sample (n = 2533) was divided into a control group without hallucinations (n = 2303), a group only experiencing sleep-related hallucinations (n = 62), a group only experiencing daytime hallucinations (n = 57), and a group experiencing both sleep-related as well as daytime hallucinations (n = 111). Prevalence rates were calculated and groups were compared using analyses of variance and chi-square tests where applicable. The prevalence for HHHs in the auditory domain was found to be 6.8%, whereas 12.3% reported multimodal HHHs, and 32.2% indicated out-of-body experiences at the onset/offset of sleep. Group comparisons of hallucinations in the auditory modality showed that individuals that experienced only auditory HHHs scored significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those who also experienced daytime auditory hallucinations on a range of variables including mental health, anxiety, childhood happiness, and wellbeing. In addition, individuals with only auditory HHHs reported significantly (p < 0.05) less frequent hallucinations, less disturbing hallucinations, more neutral (in terms of content) hallucinations, hallucinations with less influence over their behavior, and less hallucination-related interference with social life compared to those individuals that experience daytime hallucinations. We also found that purely auditory HHHs had a significantly higher age of first onset of hallucinations than the purely daytime and the combined daytime and auditory HHHs groups (28.2 years>20.9 > 19.1). Sleep-related hallucinations are common experiences in the general population, with the auditory modality being the least common. They occur mostly in combination with daytime hallucinations. However, some individuals (2.4%) experience only (auditory) sleep-related hallucinations and this group can be seen as more closely related, on a range of health-related factors, to non-hallucinating individuals than individuals who experience daytime hallucinations. Finally, there is a clear need for more research in this field, and ideas for future studies are presented.
Hye Yoon Park, Eunchong Seo, Kyung Mee Park, Se Jun Koo, Eun Lee,
Published: 1 July 2021
Comprehensive Psychiatry, Volume 108; doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2021.152241

Abstract:
Feelings of shame and guilt have rarely been investigated in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. We aimed to outline differences in shame and guilt in relation to empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in young people, particularly those at UHR for psychosis. First, 166 young healthy controls were assessed for their proneness to shame and guilt using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect, empathy and its four subdomains (perspective taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress) using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), ToM using the ToM picture stories task, and neurocognitive performance using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM). Next, we evaluated shame and guilt in 24 UHR individuals comparing them to 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Finally, we explored relationships for shame and guilt in relation to empathy and ToM in the UHR individuals. In the healthy youth, a regression analysis showed fantasy and personal distress in IRI to be significant determinants of shame, while perspective taking and empathic concern in IRI, ToM, and SPM were independent predictors of guilt. Meanwhile, compared to the healthy controls, individuals with UHR exhibited higher levels of shame, which was associated with increased personal distress. Our findings showed that four subdomains of empathy, ToM, and neurocognition were differentially associated with shame and guilt in healthy young people. Given the correlation between excessive feelings of shame and high levels of the personal distress dimension of empathy in UHR for psychosis, redressing the tendency to focus on self-oriented negative emotions upon witnessing distress of others could possibly reduce self-blame or self-stigma of help-seeking individuals.
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