Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2328-4889 / 2328-4897
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 153
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Ikenna Stephen Ezennia, Sebnem Onal Hoskara
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 10, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2022.101001

Abstract:
Housing affordability measurement is a recurring subject in planning literature. Research evidence suggests that in planning for affordable housing, planners typically apply the normative (ratio and residual income) measures to all variants of affordability stress. Hence, proffering intervention strategies that often fail to address peculiar situations in their towns. This systematic review synthesizes empirical evidence in the literature relating to various applications of housing affordability measurement approaches. To ascertain the various application fields/domains, present findings, specify relevant literature gaps, and propose future research themes. The review findings demonstrate that the accurateness of conclusions reached, about the severity of the housing affordability problem is highly dependent on the measurement approach used. The study concludes that the application of appropriate methods to specific situations leads to better planning outcomes.
Dickson Osei-Asibey, Joshua Ayarkwa, Alex Acheampong, Emmanuel Adinyira, Peter Amoah
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 138-159; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.92010

Abstract:
This paper explored stakeholders’ compliance with existing laws and regulations related to construction health and safety (CHS) in the Ghanaian construction industry (GCI). Qualitative research approach was adopted for the data collection, using semi-structured interview guide. An in-depth face-to-face interview based on the grounded theory approach was conducted with actors who play important roles in ensuring health and safety at the construction site as well as key officers and professionals who are the major stakeholders in the GCI. Content analysis was adopted for the analysis of the qualitative data. The findings of the study show customary laws, bye laws, Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651), Local Governance Act, 2016 (Act 936) and the contract document as the key existing CHS related laws and regulations that the stakeholders comply with. The stakeholders also identified the following construction health and safety related regulations in the GCI which have low compliance rate: Factories, Shops and Offices Act, 1974 (Act 323), Environmental Protection Act, 1994 (Act 490), among others. The findings of the research contribute to knowledge of stakeholders’ compliance with existing laws and regulations related to CHS, and underscore the need to ensure monitoring and enforce compliance in the GCI. The findings further identify areas for stakeholders to focus attention on ensuring good health and safety practices, and also expose critical training and education needs for stakeholders in the GCI. The findings provide valuable insights on stakeholders’ compliance with laws and regulations related to CHS in Ghana, which may be applicable to other developing countries with similar construction industry.
Ali Cheshmehzangi
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 26-39; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.91003

Abstract:
In a short time, during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, we managed to shift rapidly to use digital technologies and replace some of our daily operations with virtual modes. This shift happened so instantly and widely that it enables us to argue that the COVID-19 became a valid reason to boost some of the gradual and ongoing transitions towards faster transformations. In this study, we use gray literature to delve into arguments around the boost for digitization, digitalization, and systems thinking in the development of the built environment. This is mostly discussed from the influence of COVID-19 on some of the existing practices or the business-as-usual of the built environment sector. From technological advancement to technology use, these arguments are put forward to discuss what is likely to be the major driver of technological adoption and the shifting paradigms that are yet to be revealed. The study concludes that the current push towards new directions and development pathways are likely to be widely accepted in a shorter time. The findings of this brief study feed into existing arguments on transformative pathways due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Svetlana Albu
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.91001

Abstract:
This study reflects the authors’ vision on the value of architectural heritage. The theories of value are examined, and the most explicit theory is identified from a practical point of view. From our perspective, the theory of entropic value is the most explicit theory from the point of view of detailing the reasoning process on the source of value, the value, and the measure of the value. The method of goods real value estimation is explained based on the analysis of the value creation mechanism, according to the entropic value theory. The analysis of the particularities of the architectural heritage from modern theory valuation perspective allowed authors to formulate methodological proposals for value estimation of real estate with cultural, architectural and historical value.
D. Osei-Asibey, J. Ayarkwa, E. Adinyira, A. Acheampong, P. Amoah
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 90-114; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.91008

Abstract:
Health and Safety issues in the construction industry are of much concern to stakeholders, particularly because of their impact on the industry. This paper explored the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in ensuring health and safety at the construction site. A well-structured interview guide was adopted for the qualitative study. Content analysis was adopted for the analysis of the results. The study revealed that the twelve roles identified by the stakeholders are only limited to the few laws and regulations they are aware of. Whereas the Contractors identified provision of welfare facilities, provision of health and safety policy, and health and safety plan as their key roles, the Consultants’ role was mainly limited to provision of competent site agent and provision of site layout. Abiding by the contractors’ instruction was identified by the Construction Workers as their key responsibilities. The local government officials also identified enforcement of CHS laws and regulations and reporting of incidents to the appropriate authorities, whereas the traditional authorities identified the enforcement of CHS laws and regulations including bye laws and enforcement of customs as their key roles. The findings further show that the stakeholders failed to appreciate some key roles and responsibilities enshrined in CHS laws and regulations in Ghana. The findings contribute to knowledge on stakeholders’ responsibilities in ensuring CHS, and provide valuable reference and insight to practitioners on the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders. It is recommended to train and educate stakeholders on all the relevant laws and regulations on CHS in order to improve health and safety at the construction site. The government should also set up a body such as Construction Authority to educate, coordinate, monitor and audit the activities of stakeholders to improve CHS at construction sites.
Aschalew Kassu, Carlton Farley Iii, Christina P. Tsoli
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 223-229; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.93014

Abstract:
In this work, a 532 nm diode CW laser is used to heat samples used as building materials at a 1 meter standoff distance while using an FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) thermal camera to monitor and record the heating and then cooling of each sample after lasers are switched off. The data is then analyzed using FLIR proprietary software. Since the absorption spectra of materials are unique, using multiple lasers of different wavelengths to simultaneously shine onto the sample at different locations would give enough thermal data to successfully characterize the samples within a reasonable amount of time. The results are very promising for applications involving non-destructive detection and classification of materials.
Francis Lanme Guribie, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Edward Badu, Andrew Victor Kabenlah Jnr Blay
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 251-271; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.94016

Abstract:
A growing number of studies are now emphasizing the critical importance of learning and knowledge accumulation for firm-level competitiveness. Despite the growing awareness, relatively fewer project-based firms have institutionalized mechanisms to systematically capture new project knowledge and re-use it to improve the execution of subsequent projects. The peculiarity of projects presents unique challenges that make the cognitive approach to learning difficult to implement. As such, researchers are recommending the social constructivist perspective of learning as the most viable strategy for cultivating learning within and across projects. However, scant work has been undertaken from this sociological perspective to analyze how temporary organizations manage knowledge arising from and relating to projects. From this standpoint, the aim of this paper is to discuss the learning mechanisms of construction firms. The study adopted a quantitative strategy by employing a questionnaire survey into the learning practices of construction projects in Ghana. Drawing on preliminary findings from the literature, the study proposes a model for cultivating learning within projects from the social constructivist viewpoint. In the model, project management practitioners can purposefully nurture or structure a project learning activity through four mechanisms viz.: institutionalization, externalization, socialization and internalization. The proposed model is subsequently validated in an empirical study into the learning practices during the implementation of construction projects in Ghana. Based on the empirical results, it seems that knowledge sharing and transfers through the four aforementioned learning mechanisms proposed by the model are highly regarded within project management practice in Ghana.
Samuel Amos-Abanyie, Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah, Eunice Akyereko Adjei
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 170-187; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.92012

Abstract:
Climatic considerations in the architectural design of most contemporary buildings have not been strictly adhered to by building design and construction professionals in the last few decades in the developing world, with users being denied the inevitable interactions with the natural surroundings offered by climate. The situation leads to utilization of energy-based equipment such as air conditioner that is environmentally unsustainable. The study aimed to evaluate the bioclimatic design features of residential building typologies and to identify features that can enhance the environmental responsiveness of buildings. This study adopted the Mahoney Tables to undertake a climatic analysis to develop appropriate design guidelines for the climate context. The developed design guidelines were then used to evaluate the bio-climatic design features of a sampled number of residential building types. The study revealed that features of the buildings reflect the recommended design guidelines, but to varied extents among the building typologies that were studied. Occupants generally find their spaces unsatisfactory primarily as a result of the experience of hot discomfort. The findings are expected to engender a renewed interest in the design of buildings in response to prevailing climatic conditions to reduce reliance on energy use and to serve as a useful reference for contemporary architectural design practice and education.
Ernest Kissi, Theophilus Adjei-Kumi, Jerry Gyimah Jnr
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 189-222; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.93013

Abstract:
Tender price indices (TPI) remain an optimum process for predicting tender prices. There have been several indices’ developments in the Ghanaian Building Industry (GBI) to help in cost management practices, for instance, building cost indices, and material indices among others. Notwithstanding, there are no indices for forecasting tender price at the design stage of building projects in the Ghanaian Building Industry. The motivation of this study is to develop tender price indices that would facilitate easy prediction of the initial cost of building projects. Through a thorough literature review and secondary data collection, the index was formulated using Laspeyres with Excel spreadsheet for the actual index. The variables considered include preliminaries and measured work sections which include the substructure, concrete work, reinforcement, masonry, lining/sheathing, window/door/stairs, metalwork, surface finishes, sanitary appliances/fitting and electrical supply/power light system of the Bills of Quantities. The finding of the study shows that on average there is a change in price of about 4.42 per cent within the eight-year period from 2008 to 2016. The study has developed tender price indices for the Ghanaian Building industry for the facilitation of the easy prediction of the tender prices at the initial design stage, however, the indices have an error margin of ±3. The development of these indices will serve as the basis for further development of other indices in GBI such as locational indices and value-based indices for effective cost management practices.
Rodger Millar Munthali, Xiangyang Huang
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, Volume 09, pp 66-76; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbcpr.2021.91006

Abstract:
This paper is to discuss the main factors leading to the air pressure fluctuations in appliance branch pipes and measures to control them. It has been established that the main factors characteristics of a good sanitary pipework system are that it must prevent the transmission of foul air into the building, minimize blockages, provide efficient conveyance of discharge from sanitary appliances and minimize the risk of flooding to any part of a building. However, due to the nature and properties of sanitary appliance discharge, the flow being a three-phase flow which is simplified to two-phase for design computations and discharge being probabilistic, air variations in the horizontal appliance pipe result in phenomenon in which the sanitary network fails to perform as designed and installed to prevent or minimize aforementioned circumstances. It has been established that the main factors to be discussed leading to air pressure fluctuations in the appliance branch pipe are water traps, bend structures, pipe diameter, pipe slope and length, angle and connection mode and ventilation conditions. These factors’ associated control measures have also been presented. However, factors pertaining to concentration of appliance discharge have not been discussed. The result of this discussion will enable designers and installers of sanitary pipework to incorporate measures to control air pressure fluctuations in appliance branch pipes inside buildings.
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