Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2544-9214 / 2544-9737
Published by: University of Bialystok (10.15290)
Total articles ≅ 46

Latest articles in this journal

Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 5, pp 39-54; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2021.05.01.04

The text is devoted to the choice of the paradigm of discussion on the right of Poland to obtain compensation from Germany in connection with the Second World War. In the opinion of the author the main failure of the hitherto discussion on the rights of Poland vis-a-vis Germany is a very infrequent reference to the rules on state responsibility. They are simple and lead to a very simple conclusion – namely the obligation of international law to pay a compensation which would wipe out all the consequences of the breach of international law. The author analyses in more detail the influence of the Potsdam Agreement and the 1953 declaration of the government of the Polish People’s Republic. In his opinion the Potsdam Agreement had no adverse effect on the scope of the Polish rights. While it is impossible to deny such an influence of the 1953 declaration, the author shows that even on a very wide interpretation it cannot be seen as a definitive end of all rights of Poland. The main message is that it is the set of psychological errors on the Polish side which make the discussion on the Polish rights so difficult and unfruitful.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 5, pp 17-27; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2021.05.01.02

As the problem of global warming and subsequent climate change becomes more and more pronounced, causing a lot of difficulties for the communities all over the world, and for the whole humankind as well, the need to focus on some of the aspects of such state off affairs arises among researchers and in the political discourse. Some of the problems that sprung out of the changes in our environment create the need for a new legal solutions, or the need to at least redefine the ones that are already set in place. One of such problems is the phenomenon of „climate refugees”. Droughts, food insecurity, degradation of drinking water, rising sea levels, storm surges and infectious diseases, all of which could be linked (directly or indirectly) to the changes brought about by the global warming and all of those can be reasons that could force people out of their habitual homes in search of better living conditions, and even due to the need to save their health and life. Having that in mind, this article raises the issue of so called climate refugees, people displaced due to the negative changes taking place in the environment, which, based on scientific reports, may be related to the negative impact of a human activity, both of sudden and long-term occurrence. The text presents proposals for defining the discussed phenomenon and addresses the issue of the lack of an appropriate legal framework regulating the discussed topic in the UN and on the EU level.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 5, pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2021.05.01.03

This article focuses on the issue of language as an interstate migration barrier in India. Nowadays, in the era of progressive globalization, when the term “global village” is accurate as never before, more and more attention is paid to the problems regarding migrations. As the result of its internal diversity and multilingualism - Indian society struggles with interstate migration barrier that is nearly non-existent in other countries. Language barrier. There are more than twenty different regional languages being used across India as official languages of particular states, but none of them could be described as the “national” language. As a consequence of that, many Indians are heavily limited in choosing their place of living and managing their education and career. The article provides detailed analysis of the roots of the problem, both historical and legal ones, as well as the evaluation of legislative measures taken in order to resolve it. The paper refers to multiple reports, statistics, and laws regarding discussed matter. Furthermore, this work also highlights the role of both legislature and society in the ongoing process of linguistic transformation.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 5, pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2021.05.01.01

International organizations, for the purpose of further considerations are these established by multilateral treaties constituting their internal legal order and establishing legal personality for them, which is independent and separate from their member states. The emphasis in this article is on the UN and its Specialized Agencies. Since in practice their constituent instruments are interpreted on the daily basis in the continuous process of performing their functions and filling the gaps, some of extensive interpretations may lead to informal modifications of the constitutional instruments. To examine whether there are any limits to the dynamic / evolutive (extensive) interpretations is of grave significance both for international law doctrine and practice, as well as political reality. In conclusion: the Report and the IDI Resolution adopted on 4th September, 2021, are the good ground for better understanding of recent developments in the daily lives of the UN System.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 5, pp 55-70; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2021.05.01.05

The aim of the publication is to assess the current legal solution within the scope of placing the notion of an agricultural holding as a basic conceptual category of the agricultural law in the Civil Code. This problem is directly connected with the postulate of coherence of the whole system of private law when it comes to the most important structural elements or just the understanding of basic notions. The statutory regulation of trade in agricultural real estate and agricultural holdings should be a code regulation, and the location of the definition of an agricultural holding in the Civil Code should be conducive to strengthening ownership. In the dilemma whether to keep in the Civil Code the regulation of trade in agricultural land (including its conceptual network with an agricultural holding at the forefront) or to transfer it to a special act (or perhaps even to the Agricultural Code), it is impossible to point to a just and possible solution. On the basis of arguments of teleological nature, especially from the scope of legislative policy, one should definitely opt for keeping the regulation of trade in agricultural land in the Civil Code.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 4, pp 69-86; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2020.04.02.04

The aim of this article is to show the high level of corruption offences and the ineffectiveness of the existing legal and institutional solutions in the Balkan states, which are part of the Three-Seas initiative. The effectiveness of the regulations in force in these countries deviates from the standards set by the European Union. This has implications for the success of the Three-Seas-Initiative. The current state of affairs is the result of clashing ideas about the membership of Balkan countries in a particular sphere of influence. The services of the Russian Federation (GRU or SWR) play a significant role in maintaining the current status quo. Observation of corruption offences in the Balkans shows that the bodies set up to investigate corruption offences do not have effective powers to prevent, detect and prosecute such offences. An evaluation of the regulations in force in this area shows that they are ineffective. A solution which would ensure that the Balkans meet European standards on preventing and combating corruption could be theimplementation of the institutional model of the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau in force in the Republic of Poland by reforming the Balkan anti-corruption services.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 4, pp 49-74; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2020.04.01.03

Initial teacher education has gone through some radical changes in the past two decades: the two-cycled, Bologna-type system was introduced in 2006, but a few years later, in 2013 it was restored to the so-called undivided system. In resonance with international trends and national processes and developments, these reforms resulted in the appearance of some new elements in teacher education such as the mentoring system or the use of portfolios, while some other existing components with longer traditions (e.g. the pillar of practice schools) have gained even more importance. This paper aims to summarize and reflect on these changes and elements of initial teacher education through a critical pair of lenses, focusing on teacher preparation for lower and upper secondary education (ISCED levels 2 and 3) by contextualizing teacher education and revealing the challenges and progressive elements.
, Aleksandër Moisiu University of Durrës, , Epoka University
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 4, pp 115-134; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2020.04.01.06

The purpose of this study is to analyse the legislative measures and their implementation regarding the participation of children, parents and teachers in creating an educational program in pre-university education system, as a need for better involvement in school of all the actors, as well as the need for the children’s wellbeing. In addition, the study aims to bring parents’ and teachers’ views on the obstacles they face when they try to collaborate and participate in school life and in designing an educational program. Qualitative methods are used to achieve the aim of this study. The data were collected through document analysis (legislation, strategies, and regulations) for analysing how the law addresses participation of children, parents and teachers’ in school and through semi-structured interviews with parents and teachers from two primary schools so that they can state their perceptions on participation in school life. Each of them was posed 12 different interview questions. After evaluating the responses, some important issues were identified. The participation of children, parents and teachers in Albanian education system has changed in recent years, even promoted as a key that leads to success. However, because of the monist system, where such participation was neither legally recognised nor culturally accepted, this trinomial collaboration has not been easily introduced and integrated in the Albanian educational system. However, parents do not feel very involved in school life, or appreciated when they try to get involved, even though it is legally admitted the need for the collaboration between family and school. They neither take part in the approval of the curricula of the educational institution, nor in the selection of school textbooks as provided by the law. Research has shown that schools as bureaucratic and conservative institutions need to have clear written policies to encourage the participation of the parents and children when drafting an education program. However, when teachers were asked about parents’ participation in school, they said that in many cases parents neglect the collaboration with the school and appear usually when there are problems or troubles, while the participation of children in creating an educational program is still lagging behind.
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, Volume 4, pp 75-96; https://doi.org/10.15290/eejtr.2020.04.01.04

The focus of the project undertaken is to comprehend, what is the research magistracy in education in the twenty-first century. Since the 1990s, when the master’s level of training first appeared in the Russian education system, a search was made for its place and role in the system of training highly qualified personnel for the education system. The central problem of the current stage of the master education development is a triple conjunction: understanding the relationship between research and educational activities; the reflection of the contexts, conditions and limitations of research activity in the field of education; and the creation of new research programs based on humanitarian discourses in the second half of the twentieth century. The conceptual foundations of the project were built in connection with the ideas of T. Kuhn’s “scientific paradigms” and I. Lakatos’s “research programs”, which made it possible to establish a correspondence between different educational values and the type of research practices; the field approach of P. Bourdieu, which allows the models and resources of research activity to be structured; and structural psychoanalysis by J. Lacan, which provides a new look at research activity. As a result of the article, a generalized image of the developed master’s program “Interdisciplinary Studies in Education” is formulated.
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