Geological Society, London, Memoirs
ISSN / EISSN : 0435-4052 / 2041-4722
Published by: Geological Society of London (10.1144)
Total articles ≅ 1,441
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Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m57-2020-20
The Finnmark Platform Composite Tectono-Sedimentary Element (CTSE), located in the southern Barents Sea, is a northward-dipping monoclinal structural unit. It covers most of the southern Norwegian Barents Sea where it borders the Norwegian Mainland. Except for the different age of basement, the CTSE extends eastwards into the Kola Monocline on the Russian part of the Barents Sea. The general water depth varies between 200-350 m, and the sea bottom is influenced by Plio-Pleistocene glaciations. A high frequency of scour marks and deposition of moraine materials exists on the platform areas. Successively older strata sub-crop below the Upper Regional Unconformity (URU, which was) formed by several glacial periods. Basement rocks of Neoproterozoic age are heavily affected by the Caledonian Orogeny, and previously by the Timanide tectonic compression in the easternmost part of the Finnmark Platform CTSE. Depth to crystalline basement varies considerably and is estimated to be from 4-5 to 10 km. Following the Caledonian orogenesis, the Finnmark Platform was affected by Lower to Middle Carboniferous rifting, sediment input from the Uralian Orogen in the east, the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous rift phase and the Late Plio-Pleistocene isostatic uplift. A total of 8 exploration wells drilled different targets on the platform. Two minor discoveries have been made proving presence of both oil and gas and potential sandstone reservoirs of good quality identified in the Visean, Induan, Anisian and Carnian intervals. In addition, thick sequences of Perm-Carboniferous carbonates and spiculitic chert are proven in the eastern Platform area. The deep reservoirs are believed to be charged from Paleozoic sources. A western extension of the Domanik source rocks well documented in the Timan-Pechora Basin may exist towards the eastern part of the Finnmark Platform. In the westernmost part, charge from juxtaposed down-faulted basins may be possible.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m58-2021-4
Significant developments in soil erosion research for the period 1950-2000 are reviewed. The main emphasis is on work in Western Europe and North America. We highlight work on process studies in splash, rill and gully erosion. Important developments also occurred in monitoring, measuring, and modelling erosion as well as recording and understanding rates of erosion. We concentrate on cultivated and bare soils and have included badlands and peatland erosion in our review.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m57-2020-6
The Franklinian margin composite tectono-sedimentary element (CTSE) in North Greenland is dominated by Neoproterozoic - lowermost Devonian sedimentary strata that include early syn-rift through passive margin TSEs of mixed carbonate and siliciclastic facies. The sedimentary successions are well exposed in much of northern Greenland, but locally were strongly affected by the Ellesmerian Orogeny, resulting in a fold and thrust belt that deformed the northernmost exposures. An exposed palaeo-oilfield attests to the petroleum potential of the basin. Several formations have good source potential and several others have good reservoir properties. Palaeo-heat flow indicators show that temperatures increase to the north, where much of the basin is over-mature. Because of the remoteness of the area and the restricted locations where petroleum potential is likely to remain, the basin is not currently a target for exploration.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m56-2021-26
This chapter reviews the geochemistry and petrology of mantle peridotite xenoliths from across Antarctica, including parameters that are of most relevance to geophysical studies. This Memoir is the first time such a complete overview of the chemistry of Antarctic mantle xenoliths has been available and Antarctica should no longer be the ignored continent in studies of mantle xenoliths in volcanic rocks. Xenoliths indicate that the chemistry, heat flow and water content of the Antarctic lithospheric mantle varies regionally at scales of one to thousands of kilometres. The prevalence of variability in xenoliths suggests that the Antarctic mantle is ubiquitously heterogeneous. This has important, yet unquantified, implications for interpreting geophysical data and for reference Earth models used in Antarctic geophysical studies. Information about and interpretations of Antarctic mantle xenoliths can be linked to studies from once adjacent continental blocks in Africa, India, Australia, New Zealand and South America. Together, this can improve understanding of the mantle contribution to glacial isostatic adjustment and geodynamic models to show how the Antarctic mantle fits with adjacent continents in the puzzle of lithospheric blocks. Numerous, fundamental and important research questions remain unanswered making further study of the Antarctic mantle an exciting prospect for future research.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m58-2021-5
This chapter reviews research on solutes by fluvial geomorphologists in the period 1965 to 2000; growing links with biogeochemical research are emphasised later in the chapter. Brief reference is necessarily made to some research from before and after the study period. In relation to solutes, early research sought to relate short-term process observations to long-term landform evolution. However, very quickly, research moved into much more applied fields, less concerned with landforms and more with biogeochemical processes. The drainage basin became the focus of research with a wide range of interest including nutrient loss from agricultural and forested landscapes to dissolved organic carbon export from peatlands. In particular, the terrestrial-aquatic ecotone became a focus for research, emphasising the distinctive processes operating in the riparian zone and their contribution to river water protection from land-derived pollutants. By the end of the period, the scale and range of fluvial geomorphology had been greatly transformed from what it had been in 1965, providing a distinctive contribution to the broader field of biogeochemistry as well as an ongoing contribution to the study of Earth surface processes and landforms.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m58-2021-1
Rock properties are a crucial control of landform development. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the progress that was made in studying rock properties in general and then to discuss developments in the study of landforms in three main rock types: granite, limestone and sandstone. From the mid-1960s onwards, geomorphology witnessed an increasing concern with the quantification of rock properties and their relationship to landforms and landscape evolution. Japanese geomorphologists led in this endeavour. Studies crossed a range of scales from those of a large size, that were susceptible to field measurements, and those of small size that involved laboratory studies. Among the basic characteristics of rocks that have been studied are fracturing and jointing, rock mass strength, hardness as determined by the Schmidt Hammer, resistance as determined by laboratory simulations, slaking susceptibility, porosity, water absorption capacity, water content and permeability, and petrological thin section analyses. The investigation of forms and processes in granite, limestone and sandstone areas has shown the value of combined geological and geographical approaches, and the increasing internationalization of studies.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m56-2021-22
Geodynamic processes in Antarctica such as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and post-seismic deformation are measured by geodetic observations such as GNSS and satellite gravimetry. GNSS measurements have been comprising continuous measurements as well as episodic measurements since the mid-1990s. The estimated velocities typically reach an accuracy of 1 mm/a for horizontal and 2 mm/a for vertical velocities. However, the elastic deformation due to present-day ice-load change needs to be considered accordingly. Space gravimetry derives mass changes from small variations in the inter-satellite distance of a pair of satellites, starting with the GRACE satellite mission in 2002 and continuing with the GRACE-FO mission launched in 2018. The spatial resolution of the measurements is low (about 300 km) but the measurement error is homogeneous across Antarctica. The estimated trends contain signals from ice mass change, local and global GIA signal. To combine the strengths of the individual data sets statistical combinations of GNSS, GRACE and satellite altimetry data have been developed. These combinations rely on realistic error estimates and assumptions of snow density. Nevertheless, they capture signal that is missing from geodynamic forward models such as the large uplift in the Amundsen Sea sector due to low-viscous response to century-scale ice-mass changes.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m56-2020-19
The Antarctic mantle and lithosphere are known to have large lateral contrasts in seismic velocity and tectonic history. These contrasts suggest differences in the response time scale of mantle flow across the continent, similar to those documented between the northeastern and southwestern upper mantle of North America. Glacial isostatic adjustment and geodynamical modeling rely on independent estimates of lateral variability in effective viscosity. Recent improvements in imaging techniques and the distribution of seismic stations now allow resolution of both lateral and vertical variability of seismic velocity, making detailed inferences about lateral viscosity variations possible. Geodetic and paleo sea-level investigations of Antarctica provide quantitative ways of independently assessing the three-dimensional mantle viscosity structure. While observational and causal connections between inferred lateral viscosity variability and seismic velocity changes are qualitatively reconciled, significant improvements in the quantitative relations between effective viscosity anomalies and those imaged by P- and S-wave tomography have remained elusive. Here we describe several methods for estimating effective viscosity from S-wave velocity. We then present and compare maps of the viscosity variability beneath Antarctica based on the recent S-wave velocity model ANT-20 using three different approaches.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m58-2021-14
The advances in understanding of Quaternary geomorphology in the latter half of the 20th Century were closely linked with the improved knowledge of Quaternary climatic fluctuation, principally derived from isotopic evidence from ocean and ice cores. An important goal was finding terrestrial sedimentary records that can be correlated with the globally applicable isotopic sequence. From a geomorphological viewpoint, river terraces are paramount, particularly since they can provide semi-continuous sequences that record palaeoclimate and landscape evolution throughout the Quaternary, as well as the interaction of rivers with glaciation, sea-level change and notable geomorphological events. In coastal areas, shoreline terraces and raised beaches can provide similar sequences. The chapter discusses the progress made in understanding these archives and, in particular, the various mechanisms for dating and correlation, as well as touching upon contributions from other environments, namely slopes and karstic systems, as well as the role of soils in deciphering geomorphological evidence.
Geological Society, London, Memoirs; https://doi.org/10.1144/m57-2018-26
The Arctic Alaska region includes three composite tectono-sedimentary elements (CTSEs): the (1) Arctic Alaska Basin (AAB), (2) Hanna Trough (HT), and (3) Beaufortian Rifted Margin (BRM) CTSEs. These CTSEs comprise Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) strata beneath much of the Alaska North Slope, the Chukchi Sea and westernmost North Slope, and Beaufort Sea, respectively. These sedimentary successions rest on Devonian and older sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, considered economic basement, and are overlain by Cretaceous to Cenozoic syn- and post-tectonic strata deposited in the foreland of the Chukotka and Brooks Range orogens and in the Amerasia Basin. (1) The Mississippian-Neocomian AAB CTSE includes two TSEs: (a) The Ellesmerian Platform TSE comprises mainly shelf strata of Mississippian to Middle Jurassic age and includes a relatively undeformed domain in the north and a fold-and-thrust domain in the south. (b) The Beaufortian Rift Shoulder TSE includes Middle Jurassic to Neocomian deposits related to rift-shoulder uplift. (2) The HT CTSE includes four TSEs: (a) The Ellesmerian Syn-Rift TSE comprises Late Devonian(?) to Middle Mississippian growth strata deposited in grabens and half grabens during intracontinental rifting. (b) The Ellesmerian-Beaufortian Sag-Basin TSE comprises Middle Mississippian to Upper Triassic strata deposited in a sag basin following cessation of rifting. (c) The Beaufortian Syn-Rift TSE comprises Jurassic to Neocomian graben-fill deposits related to rifting in the Amerasia and North Chukchi Basins. (d) The Beaufortian Rift-Shoulder TSE comprises Jurassic to Neocomian strata related to rifting and deposited outside rift basins. (3) The BRM CTSE includes two TSEs: (a) The Beaufortian Syn-Rift TSE comprises Middle Jurassic to Neocomian syn-rift strata deposited on attenuated continental crust associated with opening of the Amerasia Basin. (b) The Ellesmerian Platform TSE comprises mainly shelf strata of Mississippian to Middle Jurassic age that lie beneath Beaufortian syn-rift strata. The AAB, HT, and BRM CTSEs contain oil-prone source rocks in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous strata and proven reservoir rocks spanning Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous strata. A structurally high-standing area in the northern AAB CTSE, northern HT CTSE, and southernmost BRM CTSE lies in the oil window whereas all other areas lie in the gas window. Known hydrocarbon accumulations in the three CTSEs total more than 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent and yet-to-find estimates suggest a similar volume remains to be discovered.