Atmospheric and Climate Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-0414 / 2160-0422
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 538
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Latest articles in this journal

Andry Harifidy Ramanantsoa, Elisabeth Blanc, Gérard Rambolamanana, Andriniaina Tahina Rakotoarisoa, Fanomezana Randrianarinosy, Jean Bernardo Andrianaivoarisoa
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 297-312;

Noise due to surface wind and temperature is a problem in infrasound. Efficiency of IMS network concerns scientists. It is obvious to find the causes of deficiencies of detection of infrasound station by studying background noise power with respect to the surface wind and the temperature. Data measured by MB2000 microbarometer of infrasound station I33MG are used for the study. Infrasound records are separated into 4 frequency bands centered respectively at: 1 Hz, 0.25 Hz, 0.0625 Hz and 0.0156 Hz. Effects of surface wind and temperature are studied by plotting the variations of the background noise power with respect to the temperature or wind speed in the four considered frequency bands and compared with the median of background noise power. The influence of temperature is manifested by a reduction in the number of low-frequency detection. The surface wind reduces the number of detection at a high frequency. An exponential function is proposed to predict the variations of the noise power in different observation frequencies and temperature and wind conditions. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the CTBTO Preparatory Commission.
Mats Lindgren
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 264-269;

Energy used for industrial production, buildings and transport will be accumulated in Atmosphere and Earth land. Global use of energy is known and documented for a long period of time and proportion of fossil and renewable energy is also known. Calculated accumulated energy in Earth land from 1971 to 2018 corresponds to 40% of IPCC Global Energy Inventory and calculated Atmosphere temperature increase from 1971 to 2018 corresponds to 100% of actual measurements.
Tesemash Abebe, Leta Bekele, Misrak Tamire Hessebo
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 283-296;

Climate change is one environmental threat that poses great challenges to the future development prospects of Ethiopia. The study used the statistically downscaled daily data in 30-years intervals from the second generation of the Earth System Model (CanESM2) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs): RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for three future time slices; near-term (2010-2039), mid-century (2040-2069) and end-century (2071-2099) were generated. The observed data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation are a good simulation with the modeled data during the calibration and validation periods using the correlation coefficient (R2), the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The projected annual minimum and maximum temperatures are expected to increase by 0.091°C, 0.517°C, and 0.73°C and 0.072°C, 0.245°C, and 0.358°C in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under the intermediate scenario, respectively. Under RCP8.5, the annual minimum and maximum temperatures are expected to increase by 0.192°C, 0.409°C, and 0.708°C, 0.402°C, 4.352°C, and 8.750°C in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively. Besides, the precipitation is expected to increase under intermediate and high emission scenarios by 1.314%, 7.643%, and 12.239%, and 1.269%, 10.316% and 26.298% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively. Temperature and precipitation are projected to increase in total amounts under all-time slices and emissions pathways. In both emission scenarios, the greatest changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation are predicted by the end of the century. This implies climate smart actions in development policies and activities need to consider locally downscale expected climatic changes.
Richard Ayodeji Balogun, Elijah Adesanya Adefisan, Zechariah Debo Adeyewa, Emmanuel Chilekwu Okogbue, Ademola Akinbobola
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 74-85;

The need to investigate diurnal weather cycles in West Africa originates from the fact that complex interactions often result between mesoscale and synoptic weather processes. This study investigates diurnal cycles of rainfall and convective properties using six (6) hour interval data from the ERA-Interim and derived products from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). Results showed that the land-ocean warming contrast is more strongly sensitive to the seasonal cycle, being very weak during March-May (MAM) but clearly spelled out during June-September (JJAS). Dipoles of wind convergence/divergence and wet/dry precipitation, between CASS and Nigeria Savannah zones, were identified in the morning and evening hours of MAM, whereas distinct night and day anomalies, same location in CASS, were found to be consistent during the JJAS season. The locations of flash count and system sizes agree with the climatology of convective properties, that morning and day-time hours are dominated by stratiform precipitation and small system sizes. Most results clearly showed that the eastern locations of Sudano and Sahel are consistently dry because rainfall and precipitation features are predominantly few. Very unique results about the dipole of wind and precipitation between two zones and the unusual dry zones of Sudan and Sahel have been found. Results presented had shown the importance of diurnal variation in understanding precipitation, flash count, system sizes patterns at diurnal scales, and understanding land-ocean contrast, precipitation and wind field anomaly at diurnal scales.
Nayara Arroxelas dos Santos Siqueira, Anderlan Henrique Batista Siqueira, Augusto José Pereira Filho
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 383-408;

This study comprises a climatology of the spatial variability of precipitation over the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB), characterized by its geographic heterogeneity. The different rainfall regimes in the region were analyzed through statistical and spectral analyses. Measured precipitation data, Pacific Decennial Climate indexes, ENSO, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic dipole, and the sunspot cycle over 65 years were used. The rainfall data were filtered and filled in using the regional weighting method. The spatial and temporal variability of precipitation along the SFRB is remarkable. A pattern was observed along with the time series of precipitation over the SFRB. The cluster analysis identified four homogeneous regions in the SFRB and explained 87.4% of the total variance of the average monthly rainfall of the 199 rain gauges. The Cross-wavelet analysis identified the relationship between the precipitation data series and the climatic indexes that are analyzed in this work.
Naser W. Alnaser, Roger Flanagan, Lawrence Kazmerski, Ali A. Sayigh, Munir H. Nayfeh, Waheeb E. Alnaser
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 441-461;

It is becoming clear that Climate Change is getting severe. It was reported that the improved ocean heat measurements have a rate of warming upwards from 4 to 5 Hiroshima bombs liberated heat per second or 388,800 per day. It was reported also that our climate has accumulated the equivalent of a total of more than 2.8 billion Hiroshima bombs’ worth of heat since 1998. Despite this global concern about the effect of global change on environment, it is believed that the problem is much more severe and with greater impact on all facets of life. The effect of Climate Change, especially with a 1℃ increase in global temperature (from 14℃ to 15℃ ) is equivalent to the heat liberated from explosion of about 300 million Hiroshima of atomic bomb. This is why this CoP 26 becomes more serious and had targeted year 2060 as a year of zero CO2 emission. This paper discusses the impact of climate change on ten sectors; water, water desalination, energy, renewable energy supply, health, society, agriculture, economy, industry, and built environment.
Didier Ntwali, Getachew Dubache, Faustin Katchele Ogou
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 588-602;

This study evaluates the vertical profiles of aerosol and cloud optical properties in 40 dominated dust and smoke regions in Western-Northern Africa (WNA) and Central-Southern Africa (CSA), respectively, from the surface to 10km and from 2008 to 2011 based on LIVAS (LIdar climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for space-based lidar simulation studies). Aerosol extinction (AE), aerosol backscatter (AB), and aerosol depolarization (AD) generally increase from the surface to 1.2 km and decrease from 1.2 km to the upper layers in both WNA and CSA. AE and AB in CSA (maximum of 0.13 km-1, 0.14 km-1, 0.0021 km-1‧sr-1, 0.0033 km-1‧sr-1) are higher than in WNA (maximum of 0.07 km-1, 0.08 km-1, 0.0017 km-1‧sr-1, 0.0015 km-1‧sr-1) at 532 and 1064 nm respectively. AD in WNA (maximum of 0.25) is significantly higher than in CSA (maximum of 0.05). There is a smooth change with the height of cloud extinction and backscatter in WNA and CSA, while there is a remarkable increase of cloud depolarization with height, whereby it is high in CSA and low in WNA due to high and low fraction of cirrus respectively. Altocumulus has the highest extinction in NA (0.0139 km-1), CA (0.058 km-1), WA (0.013 km-1), while low overcast transparent (0.76 km-1) below 1 km in SA. The major findings of this study may contribute to the improvement of our understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction studies in dominated dust and smoke aerosol regions.
Marilia Hagen, Anibal Azevedo
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 564-587;

This paper investigated the information about Ice sheet melt and Ozone hole variations during three solar cycles. After performing the inquiry on the data, the final results pointed out that both phenomena varying accord with Earth’s seasonality. The sea melt extension depends on the season and if the ocean waters are warmer around the polar caps. We checked the suggestion that anthropogenic perturbations could influence the variations in both phenomena.
Athari Almutawa, Samson Roeland
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 532-563;

This study employs multi-magnetic parametric methods as proxies to measure particulate matter (PM) concentration and spread in Kuwait. It examines the reliability of biomonitoring receptors in the assessment of atmospheric air quality through the utilization of passive biomonitoring methodology using cleaned and non-cleaned Phoenix dactylifera leaves and active biomonitoring through the application of dust samplers in the study area. Four radial sampling areas are located at 2, 6, 10, 14 km from Kuwait’s city center with 10 sampling degree points selected from each radial area, and the closest palm tree in the vicinity to the preselected sampling point with a height of 4 m were sampled. Using a compass, the 4 azithumal points were pin pointed on the selected tree and a 2 × 2 cm dust sampler was attached to each direction at a height of 2 m. The dust sampler was made of clear plastic paper attached with double sided tape. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM), Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), Hard Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (HIRM), Soft Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SOFT), HIRM%, soft IRM% and s-ratio were determined for P. dactylifera and dust samplers. Magnetic parameters were mapped to assess the spatial variation of air quality in Kuwait and the values between dust samplers and P. dactylifera. Results indicate that the highest magnetic concentration values for NRM and SIRM for P. dactylifera occurred near Kuwait bay and that the majority of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite most likely from anthropogenic sources. The results of the interpolation models for P. dactylifera and dust samplers as well as the overall mean for dust samplers distinguished short-term PM deposition and concentration and how it is impacted by wind direction in comparison to P. dactylifera which identifies long-term pollution impacts pin pointing PM sources and hotspots.
Solomon Gunta, Hejamady Gangadhara Bhat, Busnur Rachotappa Manjunatha
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Volume 12, pp 475-492;

In this study, we unveil atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the large-scale tropical teleconnections using National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset. Composite analyses have been performed to know the impact of large-scale tropical circulations on the Horn of Africa. The composite analysis performed at the geopotential height of 850 Mb and 200 Mb, and precipitation rate (mm/day) during six strong El Niño and La Niña episodes revealed that the large-scale tropical variability induced climate anomalies in space and time. A substantial decrease in upper-level height (200 Mb) has been observed in the study area during El Niño composite years as compared to the La Niña years. During El Niño conditions, the upper-level divergence initiates low-level vertical motion, thereby enhancing convection, however, during La Niña composite years, nearly contrasting situations are noticed in Belg (February to May) season in Ethiopia. However, geopotential height anomalies at 850 Mb are above-normal during the strong El Niño years, suggesting suppressed convection due to vertical shrinking and enhancement of divergence at the lower level. Compared to the Belg (February to May), geopotential anomalies were generally positive during the Kiremt (June to September) season, thereby suppressing the rainfall, particularly in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Part of Kenya. In contrast, an increase in rainfall was observed during the Belg season (February to May).
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