BMC Oral Health

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ISSN / EISSN : 1472-6831 / 1472-6831
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
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Mohamed Abd‑Ellatif El‑Patal, , Walaa Shipl, Ibrahim Barakat, Eman M. I. Youssef, Shahinaz El Attar, Adel Fathi, Alaa A. Abdallah
Published: 3 October 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02478-7

Abstract:
Background: Gingivitis is a reversible condition; however, if left untreated, it progresses to periodontitis, which a serious infection that leads to bone destruction. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) measurement may be of value in the early assessment of gingivitis in children, thereby minimizing risk of tooth loss. Objectives: In this observational study, we assessed salivary and serum concentrations of suPAR for the diagnosis of gingivitis and correlation of salivary suPAR with the periodontal clinical parameters. Methods: Ninety children participated in the study, with 20 healthy subjects as controls and 70 patients with gingivitis. The gingivitis group was divided into mild, moderate, and severe cases. According to the gingival index (GI), salivary and serum samples were analyzed for the suPAR and C-reactive protein levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The salivary suPAR was significantly higher in patients with gingivitis (10.8 ± 2.9 ng/mL) than in the control group (7.0 ± 1.1 ng/mL) as P < 0.001. SuPAR was correlated with gingivitis severity. It was 7.7 ± 1.5 1 ng/mL in mild cases, 10.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL in moderate cases, and 14.4 ± 0.9 ng/mL in severe cases. The difference was significantly high (P < 0.001) between the groups; however, the difference between the mild cases and the control was nonsignificant as P < 0.066. The salivary suPAR was correlated with periodontal clinical parameters, which included GI and simple oral hygiene index (SOHI). Conversely the serum suPAR was not correlated with the salivary suPAR or the periodontal clinical parameters. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that the salivary suPAR is increased in proportionate with the degree of severity of gingivitis in children. Moreover, salivary suPAR was correlated with the periodontal clinical parameters.
Carl A. Maida, Di Di Xiong, Marvin Marcus, Linyu Zhou, Yilan Huang, Yuetong Lyu, Jie Shen, Antonia Osuna-Garcia,
Published: 3 October 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02399-5

Abstract:
Background: This scoping review reports on studies that collect survey data using quantitative research to measure self-reported oral health status outcome measures. The objective of this review is to categorize measures used to evaluate self-reported oral health status and oral health quality of life used in surveys of general populations. Methods: The review is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) with the search on four online bibliographic databases. The criteria include (1) peer-reviewed articles, (2) papers published between 2011 and 2021, (3) only studies using quantitative methods, and (4) containing outcome measures of self-assessed oral health status, and/or oral health-related quality of life. All survey data collection methods are assessed and papers whose methods employ newer technological approaches are also identified. Results: Of the 2981 unduplicated papers, 239 meet the eligibility criteria. Half of the papers use impact scores such as the OHIP-14; 10% use functional measures, such as the GOHAI, and 26% use two or more measures while 8% use rating scales of oral health status. The review identifies four data collection methods: in-person, mail-in, Internet-based, and telephone surveys. Most (86%) employ in-person surveys, and 39% are conducted in Asia-Pacific and Middle East countries with 8% in North America. Sixty-six percent of the studies recruit participants directly from clinics and schools, where the surveys were carried out. The top three sampling methods are convenience sampling (52%), simple random sampling (12%), and stratified sampling (12%). Among the four data collection methods, in-person surveys have the highest response rate (91%), while the lowest response rate occurs in Internet-based surveys (37%). Telephone surveys are used to cover a wider population compared to other data collection methods. There are two noteworthy approaches: 1) sample selection where researchers employ different platforms to access subjects, and 2) mode of interaction with subjects, with the use of computers to collect self-reported data. Conclusion: The study provides an assessment of oral health outcome measures, including subject-reported oral health status and notes newly emerging computer technological approaches recently used in surveys conducted on general populations. These newer applications, though rarely used, hold promise for both researchers and the various populations that use or need oral health care.
Satomi Shirawachi, , Tomoya Naruse, Yohei Takahasi, Jun Nakanishi, Satoru Shindo, Hideki Shiba
Published: 3 October 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02467-w

Abstract:
Background: The relationship between internal root resorption and oxidative stress has not yet been reported. This study aimed to add molecular insight into internal root resorption. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an inducer of oxidative stress on the calcification ability of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) and the involvement of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3). Material and methods: hDPCs (Lonza, Basel, Switzerland) were exposed to H2O2. Cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were then evaluated. To investigate the effect of H2O2 on the calcification ability of hDPCs, real-time PCR for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA expression, ALP staining, and Alizarin red staining were performed. Data were compared with those of hDPCs pretreated with 2-aminoethyldiphenylborate (2-APB), which is an IP3 receptor inhibitor. Results: H2O2 at concentrations above 250 µM significantly reduced cell viability (P < 0.01). More ROS production occurred in 100 µM H2O2-treated hDPCs than in control cells (P < 0.01). 2-APB significantly decreased the production (P < 0.05). H2O2-treated hDPCs showed significant reductions in ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.01), ALP activity (P < 0.01), and mineralized nodule deposition compared with negative control cells (P < 0.01). 2-APB significantly inhibited these reductions (P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Data are representative of three independent experiments with three replicates for each treatment and values are expressed as means ± SD. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study documenting the involvement of IP3 signaling in the calcification ability of human dental pulp cells impaired by H2O2.
Allahyar Geramy, Amir Reza Geramy,
Published: 2 October 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02476-9

Abstract:
Introduction: Orthodontic tooth movement is a basic theme in an orthodontic treatment. According to Nägerl, A nearer force application to the center of resistance will bring a farther center of rotation to the center of resistance. The main goal of this study was to evaluate this theory of proportionality by Finite element method (FEM) and find out its applicability in a bone loss situation. Materials and methods: Three 3D FEM of an upper central incisor were designed in Solidworks 2016, the first one with a healthy bone height (model 1), with 3 mm of bone loss (model 2) and with 4.5 mm of bone loss (model 3). An 0.5 N force was applied in different predefined locations on the labial surface of the crown in model 2. This was 0.2 N for the model 3. The exact location of the center of resistance (Cres), center of rotation (Crot) for each force application point was calculated using a C++ code specially design for this study in all models. Results: An apical shift of the Cres positions were shown in gradual steps of bone loss from 7.9708 mm incisal from the apex to 6.6292 mm in model 2 and 5.6105 mm in model 3. Modification of the location of the Crot in different force magnitudes and points of force applications were shown whit a constant a*b. Conclusion: In healthy teeth and teeth with alveolar bone loss, Cres located in the apical third of the root. The product of the distance between the point of force application and Cres (“a”) and the Cres and Crot (“b”) is constant, thus; Nägerl theory is applicable in both healthy and reduced bone height. In this way, applying a single force nearer to the cervical point will result in a more apical location of the Crot, reducing the angle change in the long axis of the tooth.
Alimujiang Wushou, Yan Zheng, Yu Han, ,
Published: 2 October 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02473-y

Abstract:
Background: Impaction of mandibular third molars (M3) is one of the most common diseases. Extraction of M3 usually exacerbates osseous defects at the distal aspect of the adjacent second molar (M2). BonMaker® ATB has been cited as a novel autogenous bone grafting material. The aim of this pilot study was to introduce a novel method for repairing the distal osseous defects of M2 after the surgical removal of M3 with autogenous tooth graft powder (ATGP). Method: A total of five patients were enrolled in this prospective split-mouth clinical pilot study. Four impacted wisdom teeth were extracted bilaterally from each patient with proximal alveolar bone loss ≥ 5 mm of M3. The ATGP was prepared chairside from two extracted one side third molars and randomly implanted in one of the M3 extraction sockets, and the other side was treated with a blank and considered the control site. Patients were followed up at 6 months. Results: The five patients included three males and two females. Their ages ranged from 25 to 30 years, with a median of 27 years. Primary wound healing without complications was achieved in all the patients. There was a greater tendency for swelling of the cheeks and trismus to occur at the experimental site on the third postoperative day. Compared with the control site, the experimental site exhibited progressive bone filling and ossification in the sixth postoperative month. Moreover, the probing pocket depth of the experimental site was lower than that of the control site. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that ATGP effectively and economically repairs distal osseous defects of M2. Further study is required to validate the effectiveness with a larger study population.
Ruiyu Wang, Ruiye Bi, Yao Liu, Pinyin Cao, Bassam Abotaleb,
Published: 1 October 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02469-8

Abstract:
Background: This study aimed to quantify the morphological changes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs after disc repositioning surgery using the three-dimensional (3D) modeling. Methods: Thirty patients who diagnosed with unilateral ADDwoR were included to compare the morphological differences between ADDWoR discs and normal discs, and fifteen patients who experienced unilateral or bilateral disc repositioning surgery were included to analyze the morphological changes before and after disc repositioning surgery. Disc 3D reconstruction and analyses were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Results: In the unilateral ADDwoR patients, volume, superficial area, length, and maximum longitudinal-sectional area of the ADDwoR disc were significantly smaller compared with the non-affected discs. However, there was no significant difference in width and cross-sectional areas between ADDwoR discs and non-affected discs. In patients who subjected to disc repositioning surgery, disc volume, superficial area, length, width and maximum longitudinal-sectional area of TMJ discs were markedly increased 6 months after surgery. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the TMJ discs tended to be morphologically smaller in volume and shorter in length under ADDwoR status. Importantly, the ADDwoR discs tended to morphologically recover toward non-affected discs after 6 months follow-up following TMJ disc repositioning surgery.
Wen-Tao Zhang, Kang-Jie Cheng, Yun-Feng Liu, Russell Wang, Yun-Fang Chen, Yu-De Ding, ,
Published: 30 September 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02465-y

Abstract:
Background: The combination of a prosthetic index with Morse taper connection was developed, with the purpose of making prosthetic procedures more precise. However, the presence of the index may compromise the mechanical performance of the abutment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of prosthetic index on stress distribution in implant–abutment-screw system and peri-implant bone by using the 3D finite element methodology. Methods: Two commercial dental implant systems with different implant–abutment connections were used: the Morse taper connection with platform switching (MT-PS) implant system and the internal hex connection with platform matching (IH-PM) implant system. Meanwhile, there are two different designs of Morse taper connection abutment, namely, abutments with or without index. Consequently, three different models were developed and evaluated: (1) MT-PS indexed, (2) MT-PS non-indexed, and (3) IH-PM. These models were inserted into a bone block. Vertical and oblique forces of 100 N were applied to each abutment to simulate occlusal loadings. Results: For the MT-PS implant system, the maximum stress was always concentrated in the abutment neck under both vertical and oblique loading. Moreover, the maximum von Mises stress in the neck of the MT-PS abutment with index even exceed the yield strength of titanium alloy under the oblique loading. For the IH-PM implant system, however, the maximum stress was always located at the implant. Additionally, the MT-PS implant system has a significantly higher stress level in the abutment neck and a lower stress level around the peri-implant bone compared to the IH-PM implant system. The combined average maximum stress from vertical and oblique loads is 2.04 times higher in the MT-PS indexed model, and 1.82 times for the MT-PS non-indexed model than that of the IH-PM model. Conclusions: MT-PS with index will cause higher stress concentration on the abutment neck than that of without index, which is more prone to mechanical complications. Nevertheless, MT-PS decreases stress within cancellous bone and may contribute to limiting crestal bone resorption.
Maha M. Ebaya, Ashraf I. Ali, Huda Abed El-Haliem,
Published: 27 September 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02423-8

Abstract:
Background: The blending ability of universal shade composites and their stability in the oral environment are of great concern in restoring anterior teeth. This study aims to evaluate and compare the color stability and surface roughness of two single-shade composite restorations, ormocer-based composite (OBC) and methacrylate resin-based composite (RBC), after storing them in different staining media. Materials and methods: In this study, two universal shade composite restorative materials were tested: a nanohybrid OBC (Admira fusion X-tra, Voco) and a supra-nanofilled RBC (Omnichroma, Toukyama). In total, 60 cylindrical centralized cavities (diameter: 5 mm, depth: 2 mm) were prepared in sound extracted-human central incisors and divided into two equal groups according to the restorative material used (n = 30). According to the storage media, the teeth of each group were divided into three subgroups (n = 10): artificial saliva, black tea, and cola. The restoration color was evaluated for all teeth at baseline and after four weeks of storage. The color stability (∆E) was measured using a reflective spectrophotometer (X-Rite, model RM200QC, Neu-Isenburg, Germany). The surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated using three-dimensional optical profilometry (Wyko, Model NT 1100, Veeco, Tucson, USA). Additionally, the extracted data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results: In the baseline evaluation, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to color matching or surface roughness results between the two studied restorative materials. However, the differences were statistically significant after storing them in different media. Conclusion: Universal composites showed satisfactory color matching with different teeth colors and accepted surface smoothness, whereas the aging procedure exerted a negative effect on their color stability and surface characteristics.
Paul Akhigbe, Nneka M. Chukwumah, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Kimon Divaris, Ozoemene Obuekwe, Augustine Omoigberale, Elima Jedy-Agba, Michael Kim, Manhattan E. Charurat, Vincent P. Richards, et al.
Published: 27 September 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02421-w

Abstract:
Background: HIV infection and its management confer a substantial health burden to affected individuals and have been associated with increased risk of oral and dental diseases. In this study, we sought to quantify HIV-associated differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the primary and permanent dentition of 4–11-year-old Nigerian Children. Methods: We used clinical, laboratory, demographic, and behavioral data obtained from an ongoing cohort study of age-matched HIV-infected (HI, n = 181), HIV-exposed-but-uninfected (HEU, n = 177), and HIV-unexposed-and-uninfected (HUU, n = 186) children. Measures of dental caries experience (i.e., prevalence and severity) were based on dmft/DMFT indices recorded by trained and calibrated clinical examiners. Differences in primary and permanent dentition caries experience between HI, HEU, and HUU were estimated using multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression modeling. Results: HI children had significantly higher caries experience (33%) compared to HEU (15%) and HUU (22%) children. This difference persisted in fully adjusted analyses [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–2.6], was most pronounced in the permanent dentition (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.2–9.5), and mirrored differences in caries severity. While molars were predominantly affected in both primary and permanent dentitions, caries lesion patterns differed between dentitions. Caries severity was significantly associated with hypoplastic primary teeth, gingival inflammation, and lower CD4 counts. Conclusions: We found that the higher prevalence and severity of dental caries among HI children was driven by increased burden of permanent dentition caries compared to their uninfected counterparts. The dentition-specific associations identified in this study highlight the need to design and implement age-specific caries prevention strategies. These may include intensified oral hygiene regimens aimed at mitigating the cariogenic impact of hyposalivation among HI children. Similarly, the long-lasting impacts of developmental defects of the enamel in the primary and permanent dentitions must not be ignored.
Hiroaki Arima, Akintije Simba Calliope, Hideki Fukuda, Theoneste Nzaramba, Marie Goretti Mukakarake, Takayuki Wada, Takashi Yorifuji, Leon Mutesa,
Published: 26 September 2022
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 22, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02443-4

Abstract:
Background: Since 1996, many studies have reported that periodontal disease during pregnancy may be a risk factor for preterm birth and low birth weight; however, in Africa, periodontal disease is considered a non-high-priority disease. In addition, there are few dental facilities in rural Rwanda; thus, the oral condition of pregnant women has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the tooth brushing habits of pregnant women in rural Rwanda and evaluate whether periodontal bacteria in the oral cavity of pregnant women are related to birth outcomes or oral cleaning habits. Methods: A questionnaire survey and saliva collection were conducted for pregnant women in the catchment area population of Mibilizi Hospital located in the western part of Rwanda. Real-time PCR was performed to quantitatively detect total bacteria and 4 species of periodontal bacteria. The relationship of the copy number of each bacterium and birth outcomes or oral cleaning habits was statistically analyzed. Results: Among the participants, high copy numbers of total bacteria, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were correlated with lower birth weight (p = 0.0032, 0.0212, 0.0288, respectively). The sex ratio at birth was higher in women who had high copy numbers of Porphyromonas gingivalis and T. denticola during pregnancy (p = 0.0268, 0.0043). Furthermore, regarding the correlation between oral cleaning habits and the amount of bacteria, the more frequently teeth were brushed, the lower the level of P. gingivalis (p = 0.0061); the more frequently the brush was replaced, the lower the levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia (p = 0.0153, 0.0029). Conclusions: This study suggested that improving tooth brushing habits may reduce the risk of periodontal disease among pregnant women in rural Rwanda. It also indicated that the amount of bacteria is associated with various birth outcomes according to the bacterial species. Both access to dental clinics and the oral cleaning habits of pregnant women should be important considerations in efforts to alleviate reproductive-related outcomes in rural Africa.
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