Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2473-1889 / 2473-1900
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 93
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Yan Gao, Zuwen Wang, Xiuli Shao, Dichen Tan, Erping Liu
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 6, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2021.61001

Abstract:
At present, in the workover operations of old gas wells in the Changqing Gas Field, due to years of exploitation in the production layer, pressure deficits, and general leakage during the well killing, the well must be plugged before the well can be killed. In particular, the fracture-cavity type fractures of the lower paleocarbonate reservoirs have serious leakage. Traditional plugging materials and traditional plugging materials and methods have some limitations in dealing with leakage problems. Therefore, a composite plugging system using polymer solution as the base carrier fluid, multi-particle size rigid particles, expandable particles and modified fibers is developed. Its formula is: water + 2% polyacrylamide + 0.1% N, N-methylene bisacrylamide polymer gel is the base carrier fluid; the formulation of the particle plugging agent was continuously optimized through the CDL-II high temperature and high pressure dynamic and static plugging ability to plug the core. The final formulation of the plugging agent is: 1) 20% rigid particles (5 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm CCP-3 ratio 4:2:1) + 1% 3 mm expanded particles SMK-1 + 1% 1 ~ 2 mm fiber SRXW-10; 2) 20% rigid particles (3 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.05 mm CCP-3 ratio 3:2:1) + 1% 3 mm expanded particles SMK-1 + 1% 1 ~ 2 mm fiber SRXW-10. The water swelling multiples of the granular plugging agent in salt water are all above 7 times, which meets the requirements of leak-proof plugging operations under high salinity; 3% HCl is selected as the gel breaker, and the plugging system has a gel breaking rate of 95%; through the water plugging and profile control experimental system, the sand-filled pipe is used to simulate the plugging effect under high temperature and high pressure, and the plugging system can be sealed for 5 days at a high temperature of 110°C and a high pressure of 20 MPa to achieve a good plugging of the formation. It is expected that the developed plugging system has a good application prospect in future workover operations.
Ayman Al Rassas, Shaoran Ren, Renyuan Sun, Atif Zafar, Safea Moharam, Zhenliang Guan, Alalimi Ahmed, Mohammed Alomaisi
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 54-72; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.52006

Abstract:
Three-dimensional geological modeling of reservoirs is an essential tool to predict reservoir performance and improve the understanding of reservoir uniqueness in Es1 formation. The paper focuses on the use of petrel software to build three-dimensional reservoir geological model which characterizes and assesses block Nv32 that located in the west of the Shenvsi oilfield in the south of Cangzhou city, Hebei province of China, and has an oil-bearing area of 1.4 km2. This study is depending on integration data from well logs of 22 wells which provided from geology, geophysics, and petrophysics to identify and provide precise depict of the subsurface internal structure and the reservoir heterogeneity. Input data was used to build the structural model, sedimentary facies model, petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, saturation, and N/G model, and finally to determine the reservoir volume. The lithological facies were simulated using the assigned value method. Moreover, Petrophysical properties (Porosity, permeability, oil saturation and net to gross) were constructed for each zone using the Sequential Gaussian Simulation method to guide the distribution of petrophysical properties of Es1 formation, block Nv32. Statistical analysis of the porosity, permeability, oil saturation and N/G model present that the porosity occurrence distribution is mainly concern between 0.2% - 36.39% of block Nv32 with an average porosity value of 17.5%, permeability between 0.017 mD to 974.8 mD, having an average permeability of 59.44 mD, oil saturation between 0.00 to 0.95 having an average value of 0.22, and N/G is mainly concentrated between 0.01 to 1.00 within an average value of 0.61. This research has indicated the reliability of the three-dimensional model technique as a suitable tool to provide a sufficient understanding of petrophysical distribution. The south-western and north-western indicate that oilfield is very promising an exploratory well should be drilled to find out the thickness and size of the reservoir.
Atif Zafar, Yuliang Su, Wendong Wang, Syed Ghufran Alam, Danish Khan, Muhammad Yasir, Ayman Alrassas, Ishaq Ahmad
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 46-53; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.52005

Abstract:
In-situ conversion of process of oil shale has been technically proven as a pilot field project. Gradually heating the reservoir by using subsurface electric heaters converts the oil shale reservoir kerogen into oil, gas and other producible components. This process also enhances the internal energy of the porous media as well as the subsurface fluid. Heat is transmitted in the reservoir within each fluid by different processes i.e. , due to the flow of fluid called advective process, and due to molecular diffusion where dispersive and diffusive processes take place. Heat transfer through conduction and convection mechanisms in the porous media are modeled mathematically and numerically incorporating the advective, dispersive and diffusive processes in the reservoir. The results show the production of oil and gas as a result of conversion of kerogen due to modeled heat dissipation.
Anthony Kerunwa
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 103-116; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.53009

Abstract:
The combination of injection of lower saline brine and surfactant will increase recovery in sandstone rocks than either when any of the techniques is singly applied. In this work, core IFT test, pH test, flooding experiments and measurement of dispersion were performed on four core samples which were grouped into two: group A, which were not fired at a temperature of 500°C for 24 hours and group B which were fired. Two low saline brines were prepared: LS1 which was derived by the dilution of seawater four times and LS2 which was derived by ten times diluting the seawater. The surfactant used was ethoxylated alcohol surfactant. Coreflood experiments were then performed on the rock sample starting with the injection of low saline followed by low saline brine combined with surfactant (LSS). Results from the experiments show that with the injection of LS1 brine and LSS1 higher increment in recoveries were obtained for group B than for group A cores. The same trend was also noticed with the injection of LS2 and LSS2. From the results, LS1 gave higher increment in oil recovery than LS2. Also LSS1 gave higher recoveries when compared with LSS2. In all the cases tested, core samples which were fired gave higher recoveries even though they had low permeabilities of 993 md for sample 3 and 1017 md for sample 4 than those which were not fired with higher permeabilities of 1050 md and 1055 md for samples 1 and 2 with respectively. This was attributed to the alteration of wettability as well as that of permeability caused by sample firing. The dispersion profiles of the rock samples show that all samples are homogeneous.
Qingwen Zeng, Peng Fu, Lei Meng, Hua Shi, Hong Zhou, Weichu Yu
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 131-143; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.53011

Abstract:
The Sulige gas field is a typical low-pressure low-permeability tight sandstone gas reservoir. The reservoir has poor seepage capacity, strong heterogeneity, high mineralization of formation water and extremely scarce water resources on the site. These unfavorable factors have brought great difficulties to the on-site mining process. Now, a nano-composite green environmental protection slick water fracturing fluid system CQFR can be quickly dissolved because of the larger specific surface area, and the small molecular size makes the damage to the reservoir less than 5%, and the average drag reduction effect can reach more than 73%. It can quickly and well dissolve and maintain performance under high salinity conditions and fracturing flowback fluids. It responds well to the complex reservoir conditions on the construction site and makes the flowback fluid recyable, which greatly reduces the consumption of water resources on the construction site and effectively improves the construction efficiency and economic benefits.
Aris Buntoro, Mohammad Nurcholis, Basuki Rahmad, Allen Haryanto Lukmana
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 215-229; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.54017

Abstract:
Sillimanite is a brittle mineral as a metamorphic mineral product which is generally derived from clay, along with an increase in pressure and high temperature (600°C - 900°C), and kaliophilite is also a brittle mineral as a potassium bearing in the sand-shale series, which contributes to the clay diagenesis process. In the development of shale hydrocarbon in the Brownshale formation in the Bengkalis Trough, Central Sumatra Basin, using the correlation of the XRD (bulk and clay oriented), TOC, Ro, and MBT analysis results from the drill cuttings of well BS-03, so that the fracable zone interval can be determined. From this correlation, it shows that the presence of sillimanite and kaliophilite minerals as minor minerals greatly affects the changes in shale character and hydrocarbon generation, where at depth intervals of 10,780 ft downward (sand series-shale) there is an interesting phenomenon, i.e. low MBT, low TOC, and high Ro, so it is believed that the depth interval of 10,780 ft downward is a fracable zone interval (brittle shale) which is a good candidate for hydraulic fracking planning, while the upper depth interval is a fracture barrier.
Zengwei Chen, Yongxue Lin, Ninghui Dou, Chao Xiao, Hua’An Zhou, Yu Deng, Yuqiao Zhou, Song Wang, Dichen Tan, Huaiyuan Long
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 165-175; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.54013

Abstract:
With the enhancement of environmental protection awareness, the requirements on drilling fluid are increasingly strict, and the use of ordinary oil-based drilling fluid has been strictly restricted. In order to solve the environmental protection and oil-gas reservoir protection problems of offshore oil drilling, a new synthetic basic drilling fluid system is developed. The basic formula is as follows: a basic fluid (80% Linear a-olefin + 20% Simulated seawater) + 2.5% nano organobentonite + 3.5% emulsifier RHJ-5# + 2.5% fluid loss agent SDJ-1 + 1.5% CaO + the right amount of oil wetting barite to adjust the density, and a multifunctional oil and gas formation protective agent YRZ has been developed. The performance was evaluated using a high-low-high-temperature rheometer, a high-temperature and high-pressure demulsification voltage tester, and a high-temperature and high-pressure dynamic fluid loss meter. The results show that the developed synthetic based drilling fluid has good rheological property, demulsification voltage ≥ 500 V, temperature resistance up to 160°C, high temperature and high pressure filtration loss < 3.5 mL. After adding 2% - 5% YRZ into the basic formula of synthetic based drilling fluid, the permeability recovery value exceeds 90% and the reservoir protection effect is excellent. The new synthetic deepwater drilling fluid is expected to have a good application prospect in offshore deepwater drilling.
Linlin Wang, Yongbiao Wang
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 16-25; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.51002

Abstract:
Sequential indicator simulation is a commonly used method for discrete variable simulation in 3D geological modeling and a widely used stochastic simulation method, which can be used not only for continuous variable simulation but also for discrete variable simulation. In this paper, the X Oilfield in the western South China Sea is taken as an example to compare the sequential indicator simulation method and the Indicator Kriging interpolation method. The results of the final comparison show that the results of the lithofacies model established by the Indicator Kriging deterministic interpolation method are overly smooth, and its coincidence rate with the geological statistical results is not high, thus cannot well reflect the heterogeneity of the underground reservoir, while the simulation results of the lithofacies model established by the sequential indicator stochastic simulation method can fit well with the statistical law of the well, which has eliminated the smoothing effect of Kriging interpolation, thus can better reflect the heterogeneity of the underground reservoir. Therefore, the sequential indicator simulation is more suitable for the characterization of sand bodies and the study of reservoir heterogeneity.
Dichen Tan, Zhu Zhu, Huaiyuan Long, Song Wang, Haoren Wang
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 26-34; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.51003

Abstract:
With the in-depth development of the Sargiz oilfield in Kazakhstan, oil layer protection plays an extremely important role in the development process. The petrological characteristics and pore types of the reservoir were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The average face ratio of the reservoir was 19.30%. The main pore type was intergranular pore and the face rate was 17.52%. The total amount of clay minerals in the reservoir core is 7% - 10%, and the clay minerals are mainly illite, Yimeng, kaolinite and chlorite; the shale content of the main oil-bearing layer is about 3% - 10%. Refer to relevant industry standards for speed, water, stress, acid, and alkali sensitivity experiments to study the potential damage mechanism of the reservoir. According to the above experiments, the oilfield reservoirs have no speed-sensitive damage and are weakly water-sensitive reservoirs; the reservoirs are highly stress-sensitive and easy to produce sand when the stress changes; they have moderately weak acid sensitivity and weak-medium weak alkaline.
Ming Yang, Cunliang Chen, Yu Wang, Xiaohui Wu, Dong Ma
Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, Volume 5, pp 35-45; doi:10.4236/ojogas.2020.52004

Abstract:
This paper proposed a method of injection-production system adjustment to solve the problem that the water flooding effect was restricted because of the horizontal and vertical contradictions during the development process of fault block reservoirs. Considering the heterogeneity of reservoir, the Buckley-Leverett water flooding theory was applied to establish the relationship between the recovery and cumulative water injection. In order to achieve the goal of vertically balanced recovery of each section, the calculation method of vertical sectional injection allocation was proposed. The planar triangular seepage unit was assumed and sweep coefficients of different oil-water distribution patterns were characterized using multi-flow tube method. In order to balance and maximize the plane sweep coefficient, the calculation method of plane production system optimization was obtained. Then the injection-production system stereoscopic adjustment method based on equilibrium displacement was proposed with vertical sectional injection allocation and plane production system optimization. This method was applied to injection and production adjustment of BZ oilfield in southern Bohai. The effect of water control and oil increase was obvious. This method can greatly improve the effect of water flooding of offshore fault block reservoirs with the adjustment of injection-production system.
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