Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops

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EISSN : 0971-3328
Published by: Phoenix Research Publishers (10.25081)
Total articles ≅ 86
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T R Haritha, K S Gopal
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6884

Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microbial inoculants consortia on ginger under field conditions. Three biofertilizers comprising of Azospirillum lipoferum (nitrogen fixer KAU-AZO), Bacillus megaterium (phosphate solubilizer KAU-PSB), Bacillus sporothermodurans (potash solubilizer KAU-KSB) and two biocontrol agents namely, Pseudomonas fluorescen (KAU-PF) and Trichoderma viride (KAU-TV) were used in the study. Compatibility studies revealed that all the isolates were compatible with each other. However, P. fluorescens and T. viride were incompatible with each other under in vitro. Under field evaluation, consortia of microbial inoculants performed better than the single inoculants in terms of yield and disease management. The organic Adhoc package recorded the minimum incidence of rhizome rot (2.09 %) among all the treatments. However, KAU-AZO + KAU-PSB + KAU-KSB + KAU-TV recorded the minimum rhizome rot (5.23%) incidence among the consortia. In the case of Rhizoctonia leaf blight disease, consortia of KAU-AZO + KAU-PSB + KAU-KSB + KAU-PF showed the minimum incidence (5.21%). In general, consortium of A. lipoferum, B. megaterium (PSB), B. sporothermodurans (KSB) and T. viride was the most efficient for plant growth promotion and disease management in ginger.
G S Thanuja, B Srinivasulu, K M Yuvaraj, K. Giridhar
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 100-106; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6576

Abstract:
Experiments were conducted for two consecutive years during 2017-19 to study the effect of organic manures, PGPR and micronutrients on yield and quality of ajwain seed. Farm yard manure (FYM) and vermicompost (VC) were used as organic sources at 50% and 75% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) as basal dose. PGPRs namely Azospirillum lipoferum, Bacillus megaterium and Frateuria aurantia were used for seed priming. Micronutrients namely ZnSO4 and Fe2SO4 were applied thrice as foliar application @ 0.5% first before flowering, second at 50% flowering and third during grain formation. The results revealed that highest number of umbels plant-1, umbellets umbel-1, number of fruits umbellet-1, seed yield plant-1, seed yield hectare-1, straw yield, biological yield, test weight of seeds and essential oil yield were recorded with the application of 50% RDN through VC, which was on par with 50% RDN through FYM, seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc with respect to their individual effect. Maximum essential oil content, fixed oil content and thymol content were also observed in case of application of 50% RDN through VC, seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc individually. Highest Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 3.33 was recorded with combined application of 50% of RDN through FYM along with seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar spray of Zn at 0.5%. The integrated use of organic manures, PGPRs and micronutrients could also exert significant influence on yield and quality of Ajwain. It was observed that highest seed yield, yield attributing characters and essential oil yield and quality parameters were recorded with combined application of 50% of RDN through vermicompost along with seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc which was statistically on par with application of 50% of RDN through FYM along with seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc.
S J Eapen
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.7153

Abstract:
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019 from Wuhan in China, had reached the stage of a pandemic. To date (28.06.2021), there are more than 181.9 million confirmed cases of the disease in the world. Even though vaccines have been developed, antiviral drugs are yet to be developed for management and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Since several medicinal plants are used in traditional medicines, though with controversial efficacy claims, they can be considered as sources of new antiviral drug compounds against emerging viruses. In this context, spices are noteworthy as their anti-oxidant, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory properties are well studied and documented. The emerging scientific literature includes a number of papers on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of spice extracts and specific compounds proven through different types of laboratory experiments. Here, the information pertaining to anti-viral properties of spice-based phytochemicals or natural compounds (not crude extracts) is summarized in this review. Spice-based compounds discussed here are an option for testing in COVID-19 patients though we don’t have strong data to support their active recommendation. Because of their natural origin, safety, and low cost, they can be a viable option in our fight against viruses and this compilation may be useful for planning and designing more robust experiments in future.
P C Tripathi, H M Jadhav, A A Qureshi, V Sankar, V Mahajan, K E Lawande
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6571

Abstract:
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important constituent of many of traditional medicines. The nutrient composition and biochemical ingredients of garlic vary among varieties and locations. The current experiment was conducted with 35 genotypes of garlic to study variation in morphological and biochemical properties among these genotypes. The weight of bulbs ranged from 6.9 g to 22.6 g. Highest number of clove bulb-1 was recorded in collection -286 (44.6) followed by GG-2 (40.6). Clove weight was higher in collection - 316 (1.41 g). The dry weight ranged from 28.6 per cent to 38.65 per cent. Highest total soluble solids were found in collection -79 (35.1°Brix). Potassium, iron and zinc content were higher in GG-2 (1.70%, 47 ppm and 19.2 ppm, respectively). Sulphur and copper content were higher in G-41. Manganese content ranged from 6.90 to 23.1 ppm. Highest anthocyanin pigment was found in the peel of cv. Godavari (5.35 mg). There was not much difference in anthocyanin content in pulp of purple and white colour varieties. Pyruvic acid content ranged from 20.9 µ mol ml-1 to 24.9 µ mol ml-1. Over all cvs. G-50, G-41, collection -316 were found superior over others.
A Indhushree, A Kuruvila
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 34-41; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6525

Abstract:
Market price volatility, the major challenge faced by the cardamom exporters greatly hinders the investment and destabilizes the earning of small holders. The present study attempted to analyse the price transmission between Indian and international markets and study the supply response of small cardamom to changes in price. The co-movement of prices of small cardamom exist between the Indian and international markets after trade liberalisation and the price transmission has been from the international market to the Indian market. The short-run disequilibrium has been found between the Indian and international prices of cardamom, which got corrected with varying speed of adjustment. The positive and significant elasticity of supply of small cardamom with respect to its own two year lagged price has been established. Crop specific price stabilization mechanism would help to overcome the wide fluctuations in prices of small cardamom.
D Goswami, M B Syiem
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 69-80; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6586

Abstract:
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria benefit plants by producing phytohormones and acquiring vital nutrients from soil. They also form a shield against potential phytopathogens with the production of antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocin, biosurfactants etc. In the present study, among various rhizobacteria isolated from ginger rhizosphere, the isolate identified as Bacillus altitudinis VS7 that showed a potent biosurfactant producing ability in the preliminary tests was selected for the further study. Compositional analyses indicated that the biosurfactant produced by VS7 was a surfactin like compound, a cyclic lipopeptide. In both microtitre plate and mycelium growth inhibition studies, the biosurfactant showed dose dependent antagonistic activities against Pythium aphanidermatum that causes soft rot in ginger. Although there are reports of biocontrol activity of various rhizobacteria against soft rot in ginger, this is the firstinformation regarding biocontrol activity of a biosurfactant produced by the rhizobacterium B. altitudinis VS7 against P. aphanidermatum.
P Sruthi, M M Naidu
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.7049

Abstract:
Ionizing radiations are detrimental to the biological system. Exposure to ionizing radiations results in many chronic diseases including cancer. It may cause dysfunctions to almost all organs of the body depending on the total dose, duration and site of irradiation. Apart from its bad effect, radiotherapy is now extensively used for the treatment of several kinds of cancers. Still, the key disadvantage in the procedure is that normal cell, in the surrounding area of the tumor, also receiving radiation doses similar to the tumor, leads to undesirable side effects and risk to patients. Curcumin has been found to protect harmful effects of ionizing radiation. So, it can be beneficial during radiotherapy of cancer. Curcumin helps to kill tumor cells effectively by enhancing the effect of radiation. It also protects normal cells against the harmful effects of radiation. Pre clinical studies are expected to lead to clinical trials to prove the potential of this age-old golden spice for treating cancer patients. This review summarizes the protective effect of curcumin against harmful radiations.
A A Khan, M K Shahid
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6855

Abstract:
Use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation to increase the hygienic quality of spices is increasing worldwide. Among several detection methods, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is one of the reliable techniques for irradiated foods containing some hard and dried parts. Spices are therefore candidates of such a method and radiation treated spices can be detected. The purpose of the present work was to identify the radiation treatment of spices like cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and rosemary using the sensitive technique of ESR spectroscopy. The spice samples were irradiated to 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilogray (kGy) or unirradiated and the samples were dried in vacuum oven and were placed into quartztubes for ESR measurement. On measurements, the unirradiated samples were found to show the ESR-signal at g-value of 2.004 that is typical in case of plant foods containing cellulose. Whereas, the irradiated samples showed a formation of a new paramagnetic structure that appeared in the form of a triplet-signal, attributed to radiation-induced cellulose radical. The clear difference between the nature of ESR signals in case of unirradiated and irradiated samples provided the evidence of the radiation treatment of spices samples. It is therefore concluded that radiation treatment of spices can be identified using sensitive ESR spectroscopy during a storage period of three to ten months.
K C Veny Krishna, M K Dhanya, M Joy, N S Radhika, B Aparna
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6845

Abstract:
Cardamom plantations are subjected to constant threat due to the Fusarium rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht which is pronounced during summer months. The current study deals with the identification of an effective and ecofriendly management practice for the disease through the use of biocontrol agents. Survey conducted between February and May 2019 revealed maximum disease severity and incidence in Pampadumpara panchayat of Nedumkandam block (84.40% and 100%) and minimum in Erattaar panchayat of Kattappanablock (50.40% and 60.00%). A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of three bioagents (Glomus fasciculatum, Trichoderma asperellum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) individually as well as in combinations. Root inoculation of G. fasciculatum with basal application and spray with P. fluorescens as well as root inoculation of G. fasciculatum along with basal application of T. asperellum and P. fluorescens spray were identifiedto be effective against the disease. Disease suppression by the above bioagents was facilitated by reduced pathogen antagonist ratio in the soil, high level of mycorrhizal colonization in the roots and enhanced biochemical activity of defense enzymes like peroxidase, poly phenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the plants.
M K Rincy, R Praveena, S J Eapen
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 117-125; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6923

Abstract:
Pochonia chlamydosporia, is one of the most promising biological control agents for managing phytoparasitic nematodes. Isolation and enumeration of viable colonies of P. chlamydosporia from soil and other substrates without contamination is a major limitation, when commonly available nutrient media are used. Development of a suitable selective/semi-selective media by incorporating one or more inhibitors of microbial growth can facilitate isolation of the fungus. In vitro studies were carried out to test the compatibility of commonly used pesticides, namely, metalaxyl, metalaxyl-mancozeb, carbendazim, copper oxychloride, and chlorpyrifos with P. chlamydosporia. The fungus showed relatively high tolerance to higher doses of metalaxyl and carbendazim and was used in the modified medium for better suppression of other soil borne fungi. In the present study, Kerry’s semi-selective medium was modified and evaluated by counting the viable fungal propagules in different substrates (rice, farmyard manure, maize, rice bran, barley, and sorghum) and soil artificially inoculated with the fungus. The results showed that the modified Kerry’s semi-selective medium can effectively be used for isolation and quantification of P. chlamydosporia in routine studies.
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