Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1541-9312 / 1071-1813
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
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Latest articles in this journal

Quentin Humphrey, Manoj Srinivasan, Syed T. Mubarrat, Suman K. Chowdhury
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 477-481;

In this study, we developed and validated a full-body musculoskeletal model in OpenSim to estimate muscle and joint forces while performing various motor tasks using a virtual reality (VR) system. We compared the results from our developed full-body musculoskeletal model to those from previous studies by simulating kinematic and kinetic data of participants performing pick-and-place lifting tasks using with and without a physically interactive VR system. Results showed that scaling errors between the two environments are comparable, while the overall errors were consistent with previous studies. Overall, the results from the inverse dynamic simulations showed the promise of our developed OpenSim models in determining potential intervention or prevention strategies to reduce the musculoskeletal injury incidences while simulating human-device interaction tasks.
Ben Noah, Arathi Sethumadhavan, Josh Lovejoy, David Mondello
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 1448-1452;

Text-to-Speech (TTS) technologies have provided ways to produce acoustic approximations of human voices. However, recent advancements in machine learning (i.e., neural network TTS) have helped move beyond coarse mimicry and towards more natural-sounding speech. With only a small collection of recorded utterances, it is now possible to generate wholly synthetic voices indistinguishable from those of human speakers. While these new approaches to speech synthesis can help facilitate more seamless experiences with artificial agents, they also lower the barrier to entry for those seeking to perpetrate deception. As such, in the development of these technologies, it is important to anticipate potential harms and devise strategies to help mitigate against misuse. This paper presents findings from a 360-person survey that assessed public perceptions of synthetic voices, with a particular focus on how voice type and social scenarios impact ratings of trust. Findings have implications for the responsible deployment of synthetic speech technologies.
Ankur Deka, Katia Sycara, Phillip Walker, Huao Li, Michael Lewis
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 1152-1156;

Control of robotic swarms through control over a leader(s) has become the dominant approach to supervisory control over these largely autonomous systems. Resilience in the face of attrition is one of the primary advantages attributed to swarms yet the presence of leader(s) makes them vulnerable to decapitation. Algorithms which allow a swarm to hide its leader are a promising solution. We present a novel approach in which neural networks, NNs, trained in a graph neural network, GNN, replace conventional controllers making them more amenable to training. Swarms and an adversary intent of finding the leader were trained and tested in 4 phases: 1-swarm to follow leader, 2-adversary to recognize leader, 3-swarm to hide leader from adversary, and 4-swarm and adversary compete to hide and recognize the leader. While the NN adversary was more successful in identifying leaders without deception, humans did better in conditions in which the swarm was trained to hide its leader from the NN adversary. The study illustrates difficulties likely to emerge in arms races between machine learners and the potential role humans may play in moderating them.
Hannah Van Staveren, Jason Young
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 1505-1509;

Case law has questioned the enforceability of waivers due to deficiencies in two categories: whether the defendant took reasonable steps to bring notice of the waiver and its contents to the attention of the plaintiff, and whether the waiver contained key design flaws. This report presents a case study on an accident at a recreational sports facility. An analysis was conducted on two versions of the facility’s waiver from a human factors perspective. The analysis reveals the application of forensic human factors concepts to waiver design and the influence that improperly designed waivers can have on sports and recreational injury lawsuits.
Sungho Kim, May Jorella Lazaro, Hyunki Jung, Myung Hwan Yun, Yohan Kang
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 1421-1424;

Leans illusion is a type of Spatial Disorientation (SD) that pilots often experience which can adversely affect flight performance. For pilots’ flight safety, research on how to effectively overcome SD such as leans illusion is important. The purpose of this study is to identify the overcoming effect of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) technology on leans illusion. Twenty-one Air Force pilots participated in a flight simulation experiment where leans illusion was induced through a specialized SD simulator. In the with-GVS condition, GVS was given during the roll-out phase. Data was analyzed using roll angle error and subjective SD scales by two conditions (with-GVS, without-GVS). Results showed that both the roll angle error and the subjective SD scale scores were found to be lower in the with-GVS condition than in the without-GVS condition. This study suggests that the use of GVS technology can potentially contribute in overcoming leans illusion.
Andrew C. Griggs, Jordan E. Rogers, Logan M. Gisick, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Joseph R. Keebler, Tara N. Cohen
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 122-127;

Today’s workforce is dependent on teams. Organizations are interested in positively influencing antecedents to team effectiveness such as team composition. While many factors have been studied thoroughly concerning team composition and effectiveness, team roles have not received comparable attention. Team roles refer to groups of generalizable, goal-directed behaviors that support team performance. Current team role assessments are reliant on surveys and peer ratings. To explore avenues that would enable comparisons between survey-based measures of team roles with benchmarks of observable behavior, we developed a behavior observation tool based on a team role taxonomy known as Team Role Experience and Orientation (TREO). We present the first iteration of this tool based on our review of team role literature, results of an inter-rater reliability assessment, and discuss its potential impact concerning future research and organizational utility. More work is needed to develop a construct-valid behavioral team role assessment.
Ken Chen, Karen B. Chen, Edward P. Fitts
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 101-105;

While the psychophysics of weight perception may help assess the effort needed in manual material handling tasks, the perception of weight is subjective and not necessarily accurate. The purpose of this study was to examine weight perception during standing and walking. Participants (n=10) performed a series of weight comparison trials against a reference load while holding loads (standing) or carrying loads (walking). Polynomial logistic regression models were built to examine the effects of walking, box weight ratio, and reference weight level on the probability of detecting a weight difference. The results showed that weight ratio and reference weight level had statistically significant effects on the detection probability while walking did not have a significant effect. Findings from this study can help inform the design of subjective evaluation of job demands involving motion, and it can be further extended to the gradual increase in load of strengthening tasks in therapeutic exercises.
Holly Handley, Deborah Thompson
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 690-694;

This paper describes a methodology to design computational models to evaluate the workload for driving tasks. A computational model was configured for a driving scenario used in a pilot study that included a secondary task at varying levels of difficulty to increase the driver’s workload. The computational model results provided a workload analysis of the concurrent driving tasks. This analysis can be used to explain the experimental findings from subject experiments and to evaluate the workload trade-offs between primary and secondary driving tasks.
Kyra B. Phillips, Kelly N. Byrne, Branden S. Kolarik, Audra K. Krake, Young C. Bui, David A. Krauss
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 65, pp 1302-1306;

Since COVID-19 transmission accelerated in the United States in March 2020, guidelines have recommended that individuals wear masks and limit close contact by remaining at least six feet away from others, even while outdoors. Such behavior is important to help slow the spread of the global pandemic; however, it may require pedestrians to make critical decisions about entering a roadway in order to avoid others, potentially creating hazardous situations for both themselves and for drivers. In this survey study, we found that while overall patterns of self-reported pedestrian activity remained largely consistent over time, participants indicated increased willingness to enter active roadways when encountering unmasked pedestrians since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Participants also rated the risks of encountering unmasked pedestrians as greater than those associated with entering a street, though the perceived risk of passing an unmasked pedestrian on the sidewalk decreased over time.
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