Ophthalmology in Russia
ISSN / EISSN : 1816-5095 / 2500-0845
Current Publisher: PE Polunina Elizareta Gennadievna (10.18008)
Total articles ≅ 381
Latest articles in this journal
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-811-816
Purpose: tо evaluate effectiveness of cataractogenesis prophylaxis in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) after vitrectomy based on the pirenoxin use.Patients and мethods. The study included 72 patients (64.5 ± 6.4 years old; 31 men, 41 women) with ERM before and after 25G microinvasive vitrectomy with removal of ERM. The 1-st group patients (36 eyes) received pirenoxin instillation (Catalin®; 3 times a day, 6 months) in addition to the standard pharmacological support. The 2-nd group patients received only standard therapy. All patients underwent: standard ophthalmologic examination; lens state photoregistration with an assessment of lens opacities intensity (LOCS-III classification) with the calculation of the cataract development index (CDI). These were control points: examination before vitrectomy and 5 months after surgery. At control points, the incidence of lens opacities in the observation groups was also evaluated. Statistical analysis included: calculation of the mean and its standard deviation (M ± s); assessment of the significance of differences in control points with each group (Wilcoxon's T-test) and between groups (Mann—Whitney U-test); Pearson xi-square test.Results: In the 1-st group (pirenoxin instillation), 6 months after vitrectomy and ERM removal, the following indicators were noted: the initial cataract incidence was 5.6 %; CDI — 0.36 ± 0.03 points, increasing the maximum corrected visual acuity (MCVA) from 0.31 ± 0.03 to 0.6 ± 0.05. In the 2-nd group similar indicators significantly differed from the 1-st group data: the initial cataract incidence was 36.1 % (Pearson xi-square test > 3; p < 0.05); CDI — 3.1 ± 0.3 points (p < 0.01); the MCVA increase from 0.3 ± 0.05 to 0.43 ± 0.1 (p < 0.05).Conclusion. Pirenoxin (Catalin®) has demonstrated quite high efficacy in the cataract prevention in patients after vitrectomy with ERM removal.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-719-724
Purpose. Comparative analysis of the wavefront aberrations and ophthalmoergonomic parameters after excimer laser and orthokeratological correction of myopia in patients aged over 35 years.Patients and methods. The study included 21 patients: 12 (24 eyes) after excimer laser correction of myopia (group 1) and 9 (18 eyes) after orthokeratology (group 2). The average age of patients after excimer laser surgery was 38.5 years, after orthokeratological correction 46.1 years. Special studies included ophthalmoergonomical tests: far and near distance visual acuity, capacity of the visual analyzer, visual productivity, reading velocity, mesopic vision, relative accommodation reserves, objective accommodative response, pseudo-accommodation volume. Wavefront aberrations were conducted on the OPD-scan 3.Results. The spherical equivalent of residual refraction was –0.625 ± 0.08D in the excimer group, and –1.58 ± 0.24D in orthokeratological group. Despite the difference in refraction, values of distance binocular and monocular visual acuity were the same in both groups: in group 1 monocular visual acuity was 0.74 ± 0.03, binocular 0.85 ± 0.03; in group 2 — 0.71 ± 0.06 and 0.89 ± 0.05 respectively. The parameters of both monocular and binocular accommodative response measured on Grand Seiko were 50 % higher in the excimer group compared to those in the orthokeratological group. Relative accommodation reserves appeared to be two times more in the excimer group. The volume of pseudo-accommodation was 2.375 ± 0.12D in group 1, which appeared to be 20 % more than in the group 2 (p = 0.0414). The level of wavefront aberrations was significantly higher in orthokeratological group with the exception of vertical aberrations and, especially horizontal coma, which were significantly higher after excimer laser surgery. Generally, the dynamics of aberrations in both groups correlates with changes of the corneal topography.Conclusion. Excimer laser surgery with hypocorrection is more recommended for patients aged 35–40, and orthokeratological correction for patients over 45 years old.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-705-710
Тhe main treatment for angle-closure glaucoma is laser iridectomy. Somatic comorbidity (autoimmune, allergic, chronic infectious diseases) affects the results of laser iridectomy.Purpose: to evaluate in practice the algorithm for applying the method of laser iridectomy in compliance with preventive measures, including medical support before and after surgery, both in patients with concomitant somatic pathology and without it.Patients and methods. The analysis of combined laser iridectomy’s results in 61 patients (94 eyes) was carried out. A method was used to determine the tactics of management the patients with latent stage of angle-closure glaucoma and pigment dispersion syndrome (Patent RU N 2726404), including an assessment of the general immune status based on information about somatic diseases and medications taken. Combined laser iridectomy was performed in two stages in one visit. The first stage is coagulation in the projection of the lacunae at the periphery of the iris; at the second stage, two through holes were formed. All patients received medication in accordance with the algorithm. The level of reactive hypertension was assessed in 1 hour after surgery, on the first and seventh days after the intervention.Results. In case of standard medical support for laser iridectomy, the level of reactive hypertension is higher in the group of patients with concomitant somatic pathology than without it. Adding additions to the standard drug regimen in a group of patients with impaired general immune status ensures that the target intraocular pressure is achieved. The use of an algorithm for performing laser iridectomy in patients with angle-closure glaucoma and concomitant somatic pathology makes it possible to achieve the target intraocular pressure early after surgery and to avoid complications.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-739-745
The combination of such refractive errors as high and medium astigmatism with anisometropia and presbyopia considerably reduces patients’ standard of living, first of all because methods of the correction stated are very limited. Spectacle correction is, as a rule, extremely uncomfortable or impossible in case of an anisometropia of more than 2.0 dioptres and a high degree of astigmatism; opportunities of contact lenses correction are limited in case of an astigmatism of more than 2.5 dioptres. Therefore these patients are often deprived of adequate visual rehabilitation and prefer not to use means of optical vision correction at all which considerably lowers their quality of life and can be the reason of asthenopia, violation of binocular vision and decrease in fusional reserves. This problem is aggravated with the development of a presbyopia when patients get older. The first manifestations of it reveal themselves in such patients earlier than in emmetrops, their age-mates. Excimer laser technology development has made it possible to help a large number of patients with the most severe refractive disorders, but these techniques still have significant limitations in patients with presbyopia, especially in case of a patient’s strong need for keen eyesight at a close distance. In addition, these patients require a particularly careful examination and preliminary modeling of target refraction at the planning stage of a surgical intervention, for which we use soft contact lenses in our practice. Target refraction modeling with spectacle lenses does not always allow to adequately predict the patient satisfaction with the results of correction. We consider the method of target refraction modeling using soft contact lenses to be the most accurate for this objective; it is widely used in our clinic. This technique is especially effective in patients with presbyopia, who are planning excimer laser correction of the most common types of refractive errors. The article presents a clinical case of binocular excimer laser correction of a high and medium degree compound myopic astigmatism in a patient with anisometropia and presbyopia, which was performed in two stages using LASIK (Custom Q) technology after the preliminary target refraction modeling with the use of soft contact lenses.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-771-778
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is becoming more and more widespread disease. Investigation of local changes of metabolic pathways in the eye improves our knowledge about diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis and provide perspective for the development of new pathogenetically based and individually focused therapy of this disease.Purpose of the study was to determine the concentrations of angiotensin II (AII), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) in tears and serum of patients with diabetic retinopathy, estimate their significance for the evaluation of diabetic retinopathy severity and choice of treatment.Patients and methods. Tear and serum samples from 31 patients with diabetic retinopathy were analysed. Control group consisted of healthy volunteers of the same sex and age. Concentrations of angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme and matrix metalloprotease-9 were measured using the ELISA kits.Results: in controls angiotensin II concentration was 9.8 ± 5.5 pg/ml, in tears — 11.8 ± 6.6 pg/ml, angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration in serum was 82.6 ± 10.9 ng/ml, in tears it was 40 times lower: 2.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, matrix metalloprotease-9 concentration in serum was 186.3 ± 8.9 ng/ml while in tears it was 100 times lower: 2.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml. In tears of patients with diabetic retinopathy levels of all 3 substances were significantly higher than in controls. Concentration of angiotensin II was 8 times higher, angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration 5 times higher and matrix metalloprotease-9 level 3 times higher. In serum angiotensin II concentration was increased 9 times, angiotensin-converting enzyme — 2 times. No difference in serum matrix metalloprotease-9 levels was observed. Thus diabetic retinopathy cause a significant activation of local and systemic rennin-angiotensin system. Local changes are more marked than systemic. Estimation of angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme and matrix metalloprotease-9 concentrations in tears can serve as an objective test for the diabetic retinopathy diagnostic and a pathogenetic rationale for the development of a new method of therapy — topical use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-796-803
Purpose: Objective: to evaluate the effect of treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers of varying severity using a combination of antibacterial and corticosteroid drugs.Material and methods. 63 patients with bacterial corneal ulcers of varying severity were treated. The study used a quantitative scale to assess the severity of corneal ulcers. Group 1 — patients with mild corneal ulcers (18 patients); Group 2 — patients with moderate corneal ulcer (17 patients); group 3 — severe corneal ulcer (11 patients); control group — patients with mild corneal ulcer (17 patients). Patients of groups 1, 2 and 3, in addition to the conventional treatment, received Dexamethasone 0.1 % — 0.3 ml in parabulbar injections from the first day of treatment for the entire treatment period. Kr). In addition to the standard ophthalmological examination, all patients were assessed for the ulcer defect using measurements on OCT-POG accessing the parameters of the diameter of the corneal ulcer (d) and the depth coefficient (Kr).Results. The patients in the 1st group received antibacterial treatment and the addition of parabulbar injections of a corticosteroid drug (Dexamethasone). It allowed to decrease the treatment time and the period of hospitalization, promoted faster epithelialization and a reduction in the depth of the ulcer, less coarse scarring of the cornea, allowed to increase the functional results of treatment. The proposed treatment for severe corneal ulcers in 55 % of cases allows to use only conservative treatment. It is possible to obtain moderate opacity with vascularization in 60 % cases, which contributes to the preservation and/or improvement of visual acuity, despite the severity of the inflammatory process without the use of surgical intervention.Conclusion. The proposed treatment, involving the use of the corticosteroid drug Dexamethasone 0.1 % in parabulbar injections of 0.3 ml once daily for a bacterial corneal ulcer of mild severity for, average, 15.0 ± 1.4 days, a bacterial corneal ulcer of moderate severity — 18.0 ± 1.3 days, severe bacterial corneal ulcer — 25.0 ± 4.4 days, seems to be effective if the proposed parameters of the diameter and depth of the corneal ulcer are controlled.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-733-738
Purpose: The development and clinical study of improved femtosecond laser-assisted phacoemulsification (PE) technology of hard nucleus cataract.Patients and methods. Improved femtosecond laser-assisted PE of hard nucleus cataract performed in 83 patients (93 eyes) (1st group), known femtosecond laser-assisted PE technique performed in 72 patients (78 eyes) (2nd group), torsional PE performed in 81 patients (89 eyes) (3rd group). The degree of intraoperative myosis, effective ultrasound time, corneal endothelial cell loss were evaluated in all groups.Results. Femtosecond laser-assisted PE is an effective technique for hard nucleus cataract removal, which can significantly reduce the energy ultrasonic load on the eye tissue. The proposed method for the instillation of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors and the observance of the minimum possible interval between the first and second stages of the operation can prevent significant intraoperative narrowing of the pupil. A significant narrowing of the pupil by more than 2 mm after the femtolaser stage was noted in 7 (7.5 %) cases in the 1st group of patients, in 15 (16.9 %) cases in the 2nd group, in 5 (6.4 %) cases in the 3rd group. The results of the study has shown a significant decrease in the effective ultrasound time for a femtosecond laser-assisted PE compared with a torsional PE. The effective ultrasound time was in the 1st group (improved technology of femtosecond laser-assisted PE) — 3.81 ± 0.75, in the 2nd group (known technology of the femtosecond laser-assisted PE) — 5.23 ± 1.07 s (p < 0.05), in the 3rd group (OZil technology) — 8.67 ± 1.83 s (p < 0.05). The decrease in the effective ultrasound time has become a determining factor in reducing the loss of corneal endothelial cells in both femtosecond laser-assisted PE technologies compared to torsional PE. The average loss of corneal endothelial cells 3 months after surgery was 8.7 ± 1.8 % in the 1st group, 10.3 ± 2.1% in the 2nd group, 13.5 ± 2.7 % (p < 0.05) in the 3rd group of patients.Conclusion. The proposed improved technology contributes to the solution of some problems that characterize femtosecond laser-assisted PE, and also helps to reduce the effective ultrasound time and the loss of corneal endothelial cells.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-676-682
Topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are widely used in the treatment of glaucoma for reducing intraocular pressure. This part of the review describes the characteristics of systemic CAIs, their side effects and the ways to overcome them, as well as contraindications. The use of CAIs during pregnancy is considered. Particular attention is paid to the antioxidant activity of CAIs and the promising development of hybrid forms based on the existing CAIs as a part of a multipurpose glaucoma treatment strategy.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-761-770
Purpose: to study the antioxidant system and lipid status of serum and evaluate the effect of Cytoflavin on these characteristics in patients with progressive and stable primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).Patients and methods. 67 patients with advanced stage POAG were observed. The average age was 66.3 ± 1.5 years. According to the course of the glaucoma process all patients were randomized into 2 groups: the 1st group with the stable glaucoma (31 patients) and the 2nd group with rapidly progressive glaucoma (36 patients). The progression criteria of POAG were global ganglion cell loss volume (GLV) and perimetric index (mean deviation-MD). For assessment of the reactivity of the vascular endothelium, a test with reactive hyperemia was performed using ultrasound method. The assessment of oxidative stress (OS) including peroxides, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and the total antioxidant capacity of serum (AOS) were evaluated. The investigations of lipid metabolism included the level of cholesterol total (CT), cholesterol of low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and atherogenic index (AI).Results. In the 2nd group there was the significant decrease of the mean GLV indices compared to those in the 1st group (7.16 ± 2.5 и 1.06 ± 0.2, respectively, р < 0.001). The mild degree of endothelial dysfunction (ED) predominantly was detected in patients of the 1st group (69 % of cases). The moderate and marked ED were found in patients with progressive POAG (68 and 25 %, respectively). The high level of OS in serum was determined in 43 % of patients of the 1st group and in 69 % of patients of the 2nd group (significant increase of peroxides and MDA). In patients with progressive POAG the mean indices of lipid metabolism (CT, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, AI) were significantly higher than in healthy subjects (р < 0.001). Cytoflavin had a positive effect on the vascular endothelium function, normalization of lipid metabolism and decrease of OS in serum with increasing AOS in patients with progressive POAG.Conclusion. The assessment of the indices of OS, AOS and lipid metabolism enable us to determine the risk of progression of POAG and evaluate of the effectiveness of treatment.
Ophthalmology in Russia, Volume 17; doi:10.18008/1816-5095-2020-4-683-691
To date, the problem of interaction between humans and the surrounding microbiome continues to grow in the human population, which is expressed in the so-called crisis of antibiotic resistance. Microorganisms, being pathogens of infectious diseases, no longer have guaranteed pharmacological barriers that can stop their reproduction, which means that they continue to claim thousands of lives every year. This phenomenon is associated with many reasons, such as the presence of mobile genetic elements in bacteria that perform the function of horizontal gene transfer, responsible for their resistance to antibiotics. Mutational microevolution changes in the genotype of a bacterial cell can lead to the development of uncontrolled polyresistance. Also, the combination of micro-and macroevolutionary changes in the external signs of the pathogen determines the system of factors of aggression, invasion, protection and adaptation. Other factors causing antibioticoresistance include overuse of antibiotics and self-nominations during periods of self-medication, antibiotics and medical staff in subclinical doses, too short treatment courses, and sometimes their function in the absence of indications for therapy, the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture. A number of preventive measures that could significantly affect the crisis of antibiotic resistance are being actively worked out at the state level and include programs to reduce the free circulation of antibiotics, optimize therapeutic regimes, improve diagnostic measures for the verification of pathogens, prevent the spread of infections, optimize interaction between pharmaceutical companies and registration organizations, stimulate investment and public-private partnership, and of course the international initiative on systemic interaction. This paper examines the cause-and-effect relationships that can have a direct impact on the resolution of the crisis of antibiotic resistance, which can be traced in the historical context and up to the present time, as well as describes modern promising scientific and technical directions that can give humanity a new «Golden bullet» against pathogens, in particular the use of artificial fluorophores-quantum dots.