PLOS Global Public Health

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EISSN : 2767-3375
Published by: Public Library of Science (PLoS) (10.1371)
Total articles ≅ 27
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, , Caleb Ochimana, Abayomi Olabayo Oluwasanu, , , ,
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000057

Abstract:
Willingness and ability to pay for insurance that would cover primary healthcare services has not been evaluated consistently in different African communities. We conducted a cross-sectional community health survey and examined willingness and ability to pay in 3676 adults in seven communities in four countries: Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. We used an open-ended contingency valuation method to estimate willingness to pay and examined ability to pay indirectly by calculating the ratio of healthcare expenditure to total household income. Slightly more than three quarters (78.8%) of participants were willing to pay for a health insurance scheme, and just a little above half (54.7%) were willing to pay for all household members. Across sites, median amount willing to pay was $2 per person per month. A little above half (57.6%) of households in Nigeria were able to pay the premium. The main predictors of likelihood of being unwilling to pay for the health insurance scheme were increasing age [aOR 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00)], being female [0.68 (0.51, 0.92], single [0.32 (0.21, 0.49)], unemployment [0.54 (0.34, 0.85)], being enrolled in another health insurance scheme [0.45 (0.28, 0.74)] and spending more on healthcare [1.00 (0.99, 1.00)]. But being widow [2.31 (1.30, 4.10)] and those with primary and secondary education [2.23 (1.54, 3.22)] had increased likelihood of being willing to pay for health insurance scheme. Retired respondents [adjusted mean difference $-3.79 (-7.56, -0.02)], those with primary or secondary education [$-3.05 (-5.42, -0.68)] and those with high healthcare expenditure [$0.02 (0.00, 0.04)] predicted amount willing to pay for health insurance scheme. The willingness to pay for health insurance scheme is high among the seven communities studied in East and West Africa with socio-demography, economic and healthcare cost as main predictive factors.
Hana Kim, , Zindoga Mukandavire, Adam Branscum,
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000013

Abstract:
Despite efforts to increase the proportion of individuals diagnosed with HIV who receive anti-retroviral therapy, 28% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 15 years and older in eastern and southern Africa and 42% in western and central Africa were not receiving anti-retroviral therapy in 2019. Therefore, improving access to health care services is key to reduce HIV incidence and prevalence. The main aim of this study was to generate high-resolution maps of underserved areas where people cannot access the closest health care facilities within appropriate travel time in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Main sources of data for this study were the estimated number of PLHIV for adults aged 15–49 years in 47 countries in SSA and the global map of travel time to the nearest health care facility by motorized and non-motorized transportation. These data were used to estimate and map the number of PLHIV in underserved areas at a travel distance of 10, 30, and 60 minutes from the nearest healthcare facility. We identified and mapped more than 7 million PLHIV in the areas with a lack of access to health care within 10-minute travel time and 1.5 million PLHIV in the areas with a lack of access to health care within 60-minute travel time. The identified locations of underserved areas are an indicator of the challenge faced by PLHIV in accessing health services in SSA, a situation that is likely worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can contribute to developing cost-effective geospatial policies for interventions aimed at underserved areas at a finer resolution for communities that have usually been identified in aggregated spatial areas. Further development and implementation of tailored intervention and treatment programs, especially in areas identified as underserved for PLHIV, should be explored. Geospatial analyses could complement the decision-making process with stakeholders to enhance healthcare access for PLHIV in SSA.
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000073

Abstract:
There was an estimated 20–40% decline in tuberculosis (TB) case detection in the South-East Asia Region (SEA Region) during 2020 due to COVID-19 outbreak. This is over and above a million people with TB who were missed each year, prior to the pandemic. Active case finding (ACF) for TB has been gaining considerable interest and investment in the SEA Region and will be even more essential for finding people with TB missed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many countries in the Region have incorporated ACF activities into national strategic plans and are conducting large scale activities with varying results. ACF can reach people with TB earlier than routine approaches, can lead to increases in the numbers of people diagnosed, and is often needed for certain key populations who face stigma, social, and economic barriers. However, ACF is not a one size fits all approach, and has higher costs than routine care. So, planning interventions in consultation with relevant stakeholders including the affected communities is critical. Furthermore, continuous monitoring during the intervention and after completion is crucial as national TB programmes review progress and decide on the effective utilization of limited resources. Planning and monitoring become more relevant in the COVID-19 era because of constraints posed by resource diversion towards pandemic control. Here, we summarize different aspects of planning and monitoring of ACF approaches to inform national TB programmes and partners based on experiences in the SEA Region, as programmes look to reach those who are missed and catch-up on progress towards ending TB.
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000046

Abstract:
More than five million children under the age of five die each year worldwide, primarily from preventable and treatable causes. In response, the World Health Organization’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) strategy has been adopted in more than 95 low- and middle-income countries, 41 of them from Africa. Despite IMNCI’s widespread implementation, evidence on its impact on child mortality and institutional deliveries is limited. This study examined the effect of IMNCI strategy in the context of Zimbabwe, where neonatal and infant mortality rates are among the highest in the world. We used binary logistic regression to analyze cross-sectional data from the 2015 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. Zimbabwe implemented the IMNCI strategy in 2012. Our empirical strategy involved comparing neonatal and infant mortality and institutional deliveries within the same geographic area before and after IMNCI implementation in a nationally representative sample of children born between 2010 and 2015. Exposure to IMNCI was significantly associated with a reduction in neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): 0.70 (0.50, 0.98)) and infant mortality (adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): 0.69 (0.54, 0.91)). The strategy also helped increase institutional deliveries significantly (adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): 1.95 (1.67, 2.28)). Further analyses revealed that these associations were concentrated among educated women and in rural areas.The IMNCI strategy in Zimbabwe seems to be successful in delivering its intended goals. Future programmatic and policy efforts should target women with low education and those residing in urban areas. Furthermore, sustaining the positive impact and achieving the child health-related Sustainable Development Goals will require continued political will in raising domestic financial investments to ensure the sustainability of maternal and child health programs.
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000030

Abstract:
New malaria control tools and tailoring interventions to local contexts are needed to reduce the malaria burden and meet global goals. The housing modification, screening plus a targeted house-based insecticide delivery system called the In2Care® Eave Tubes, has been shown to reduce clinical malaria in a large cluster randomised controlled trial. However, the widescale suitability of this approach is unknown. We aimed to predict household suitability and define the most appropriate locations for ground-truthing where Screening + Eave Tubes (SET) could be implemented across Côte d’Ivoire. We classified DHS sampled households into suitable for SET based on the walls and roof materials. We fitted a Bayesian beta-binomial logistic model using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) to predict suitability of SET and to define priority locations for ground-truthing and to calculate the potential population coverage and costs. Based on currently available data on house type and malaria infection rate, 31% of the total population and 17.5% of the population in areas of high malaria transmission live in areas suitable for SET. The estimated cost of implementing SET in suitable high malaria transmission areas would be $46m ($13m –$108m). Ground-truthing and more studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of SET in these settings. The study provides an example of implementing strategies to reflect local socio-economic and epidemiological factors, and move beyond blanket, one-size-fits-all strategies.
, Amsalu Feleke, , Mamo Dereje Alemu, Gojjam Eshetie Ewunetie
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000048

Abstract:
Time management contributes to work efficiency, maintaining balance, and job satisfaction by promoting productivity and success. Most people believe they have so much to do and not enough time, and they attribute their unmet expectations, poor results, and low productivity to a lack of time. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of time management practice among primary hospital employees in North Gondar, Ethiopia.From March 15 to April 28, 2017, a hospital-based cross-sectional mixed methods (both quantitative and qualitative) study design was conducted in North Gondar Zone. For the quantitative part, pre-tested, standardized questionnaires; as well as an interviewer guide for the qualitative part of the study were used for data collection. Using a random sampling technique, 391 employees were completed the questionnaires. A multivariate and bi-variate logistic regression analysis at AOR with a 95% CI and a p-value of < 0.5 were used to identify significant factors of the study. For qualitative data, thematic content analysis was performed. A total of 391 participants (a response rate of 92.6%) took part in the study. The number of participants who practice time management was 56.4% (95% CI: 49.3%, 61.7%). Organizational policies (AOR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.68), performance appraisal systems (AOR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.66), compensation and benefits system (AOR: 4.18; 95% CI: 2.18, 7.99), employee planning experience (AOR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.42, 5.75), and residence (AOR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08, 4.01) were found predictors of time management practice among primary hospital employees. Overall, there was a moderate level of time management practice in the study area. Significant factors found were organizational policies, compensation and benefits packages, performance appraisal systems, planning experience, and residency. Therefore, managers need to develop an intervention to address all the above factors in order to improve time management practice of primary hospital employees at work.
, , , , J. Douglas Storey, Susan Krenn, Marla Shaivitz, Elizabeth Serlemitsos, Tuo-Yen Tseng, Samantha W. Tsang, et al.
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000049

Abstract:
Handwashing is essential for respiratory virus prevention, but uptake of handwashing in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains under-explored. This study examines trends in and determinants of handwashing practices for COVID-19 prevention in 10 countries in West, East, and Southern Africa. Data are derived from an online global Facebook survey assessing COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices, fielded in July (Round 1) and November 2020 (Round 2). Adults ≥18 years (N = 29,964) were asked if they practiced handwashing with soap and water in the past week to prevent COVID-19. Design-corrected F-statistics compared knowledge and practice of handwashing, at country and regional levels, between survey rounds. A country-level fixed-effects logistic regression model then identified socio-demographic and ideational correlates of handwashing at Round 2. Most participants were >30 years-old, men, post-secondary educated, and urban residents. Between survey rounds, handwashing prevalence declined significantly across regions and in each country, from a 14% decline (Δ84%–70%) in Tanzania to a 3% decline (Δ92%–89%) in South Africa. Handwashing was higher among participants aged >30 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.15–1.35) and with post-secondary education (aOR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.49–1.77) but lower among men (aOR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.64–0.78). Ideational factors associated with handwashing included perceived effectiveness of handwashing (aOR = 2.17, 95%CI: 2.00–2.36), knowing someone diagnosed with COVID-19 (aOR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.18–1.40), and perceived importance of personal action for COVID-19 prevention (aOR = 2.93; 95%CI: 2.60–3.31). Adjusting for socio-demographic and ideational factors, country-level marginal probabilities of handwashing ranged from 67% in Tanzania to 91% in South Africa in Round 2. COVID-19 prevention messages should stress the importance of handwashing, coupled with mask use and physical distancing, for mitigating respiratory disease transmission. Behaviour change communications should be sensitive to resource heterogeneities in African countries, which shape opportunities for sustainable handwashing behaviours.
, Sujan Poudel, Ashok Gaire, Ritu Poudel, Prabin Subedi, Jyoti Gurung, Rituraj Sharma,
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000066

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection with a high rate of transmission primarily via airborne route and direct contact. Proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is a proven and effective way to prevent COVID-19 spread in healthcare settings. This study was done aiming to assess the knowledge, attitude, and reported practice, and identify the associated factors regarding donning and doffing of PPE among frontline healthcare workers in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 25th April to 30th July 2021 among 205 frontline healthcare workers of Nepal selected randomly from among the contacts of the investigators. A structured self-administered questionnaire prepared in google form was used as a study tool and shared via social media to the participants to obtain information on socio-demographic and workplace characteristics along with their knowledge, attitude, and reported practice regarding donning and doffing of PPE. Result: A total of 79.5% of participants had satisfactory knowledge while 75.6% had satisfactory practice scores regarding donning and doffing of PPE. Factors such as the profession of the participants (p-value = 0.048), their workplace (p-value = 0.005), provision of PPE at workplace (p-value = 0 .009), and availability of designated space at workplace for methodical donning and doffing of PPE (p-value = 0.010) were significantly associated with satisfactory knowledge score whereas availability of designated space at workplace for donning and doffing of PPE was significantly associated with good practice score (p-value = 0.009). Conclusion: This study demonstrated an overall good knowledge, attitude, and reported practice regarding donning and doffing of PPE among frontline healthcare workers in Nepal. However, the reported shortcomings like poor knowledge regarding the sequence of donning and doffing and corresponding flawed practice behaviors need to be addressed.
Yunpeng Ji, Pengfei Li, Qinyue Zheng, ,
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000043

Abstract:
For better preparing future epidemic/pandemic, important lessons can be learned from how different parts of China responded to the early COVID-19 epidemic. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the effectiveness and investigated the mechanistic insight of two highly representative cities of China in containing this epidemic by mathematical modeling. Epidemiological data of Wuhan and Wenzhou was collected from local health commission, media reports and scientific literature. We used a deterministic, compartmental SEIR model to simulate the epidemic. Specific control measures were integrated into the model, and the model was calibrated to the recorded number of hospitalized cases. In the epicenter Wuhan, the estimated number of unisolated or unidentified cases approached 5000 before the date of city closure. By implementing quarantine, a 40% reduction of within-population contact was achieved initially, and continuously increased up to 70%. The expansion of emergency units has finally reduced the mean duration from disease onset to hospital admission from 10 to 3.2 days. In contrast, Wenzhou is characterized as an emerging region with large number of primarily imported cases. Quick response effectively reduced the duration from onset to hospital admission from 20 to 6 days. This resulted in reduction of R values from initial 2.3 to 1.6, then to 1.1. A 40% reduction of contact through within-population quarantine further decreased R values until below 1 (0.5; 95% CI: 0.4–0.65). Quarantine contributes to 37% and reduction of duration from onset to hospital admission accounts for 63% to the effectiveness in Wenzhou. In Wuhan, these two strategies contribute to 54% and 46%, respectively. Thus, control measures combining reduction of duration from disease onset to hospital admission and within-population quarantine are effective for both epicenters and settings primarily with imported cases.
Évelin Maria Brand, , Bruna Hentges, Gerson Barreto Winkler, Erica Rosalba Mallmann Duarte, Lucas Cardoso da Silva, , , Danielle Lodi Silva, George Henrique Aliatti Mantese, et al.
PLOS Global Public Health, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0000051

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis is a curable disease, which remains the leading cause of death among infectious diseases worldwide, and it is the leading cause of death in people living with HIV. The purpose is to examine survival and predictors of death in Tuberculosis/HIV coinfection cases from 2009 to 2013. Methods: We estimated the survival of 2,417 TB/HIV coinfection cases in Porto Alegre, from diagnosis up to 85 months of follow-up. We estimated hazard ratios and survival curves. Results: The adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for death, by age, hospitalization, and Directly Observed Treatment was 4.58 for new cases (95% CI: 1.14–18.4), 4.51 for recurrence (95% CI: 1.11–18.4) and 4.53 for return after abandonment (95% CI: 1.12–18.4). The average survival time was 72.56 ± 1.57 months for those who underwent Directly Observed Treatment and 62.61 ± 0.77 for those who did not. Conclusions: Case classification, age, and hospitalization are predictors of death. The occurrence of Directly Observed Treatment was a protective factor that increased the probability of survival. Policies aimed at reducing the mortality of patients with TB/HIV coinfection are needed.
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