Rural and Remote Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 14456354 / 14456354
Current Publisher: Rural and Remote Health (10.22605)
Total articles ≅ 373
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Latest articles in this journal

Amy E Seymour-Walsh, Anthony Weber, Andy Bell
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh6045

Abstract:
RRH: Rural and Remote Health. Published article number: 6045 - Practical approaches to pedagogically rich online tutorials in health professions education
Amy E Seymour-Walsh, Andy Bell, Anthony Webber, Tony Smith
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh6000

Abstract:
RRH: Rural and Remote Health. Published article number: 6000 - Adapting to a new reality: COVID-19 coronavirus and online education in the health professions
James Fitzpatrick, Angela Dudley, Rebecca A Pedruzzi, June Councillor, Kaashifah Bruce, Roz Walker
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5503

Abstract:
RRH: Rural and Remote Health. Published article number: 5503 - Development of a referral pathway framework for foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Pilbara
Beatriz Cuesta-Briand, Denese Playford, Andrew B Kirke, David Oldham, David Atkinson
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5753

Abstract:
RRH: Rural and Remote Health. Published article number: 5753 - Leveraging the Bonded Medical Places Scheme to attract and retain doctors in rural areas: the role of Regional Training Hubs
Jacqueline M Lim, Patricia McCabe, Alison Purcell
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5509

Abstract:
Children requiring speech pathology services in rural and remote locations face many barriers in accessing adequate services. This has particular consequences for children who need intensive treatment for therapy to be effective, such those with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Parent training has been used to overcome speech pathology service delivery barriers for a range of other communication disorders. However, the effectiveness of training parents to deliver a motor-based treatment for CAS within rural and remote contexts has not been evaluated. This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of training parents in a rural community to use the treatment approach of dynamic temporal and tactile cueing (DTTC) in order to provide more intensive treatment sessions at home. The study used an experimental single case across behaviours design and parent interviews to evaluate outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. The study included four parent-child dyads from a mixed socioeconomic rural community in Canada. Child participants ranged in age from 3 years to 8 years. Child treatment outcomes were measured using an improvement rate difference (IRD) calculation based on percentage of phonemes correct. Fidelity to the treatment protocol was measured using a fidelity score. All parents reported challenges in carrying out the program due to social and behavioural challenges. Parents also reported benefits such as being able to spend more time with their child and learning some useful cueing techniques. Only one of the four participants had a moderate effect size for his target words (IRD=57%). While training parents to deliver DTTC may be effective for some parent-child dyads, clinicians are advised that parent training may not be suitable for all families, and parents in rural and remote communities may face particular social circumstances that make following through with an intensive treatment program difficult.
Shih-Chang Hung, Ching-Yi Mou, Kuei-Chuan Chan, Hung-Chang Hung, Ya-Chin Li, Ling-Ling Liu, Shih-Wei Lai, Chia-Fen Yang, Ya-Hsin Li
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5690

Abstract:
Reducing the delay in time to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome patients in the non-urban emergency department (ED) is of critical importance. Conventionally, physicians in a non-PCI-capable, non-urban local emergency department (LED) require approval from a tertiary university hospital emergency department (TUH-ED) prior to transferring eligible STEMI patients for PCI procedures. To reduce the ED delay time, this study developed a direct connection between the LED and the cardiac catheterisation laboratory in the TUH (TUH cath lab). ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients' medical records for 2014 to 2017, from a non-PCI regional hospital located in one of the rural counties in central Taiwan and a TUH-ED in a metropolitan area in the centre of Taiwan, were retrospectively collected and classified into two categories: the LED referral (group A) and the TUH-non-referral (group B). This study compared the ED delay time between TUH non-referral patients in the TUH and LED referral patients in the LED, to determine whether a direct connection reduces current LED delay time. A total of 214 patients (group A, n=62; group B, n=152) who underwent PCI procedures at the TUH were enrolled in the study. ED delay times in the LED were significantly less than the TUH-ED (45.0 v 66.0 min, p<0.01.) Conclusion: The direct connection between the LED and the TUH cath lab effectively shortened the ED delay time in the LED, allowing for earlier primary PCI procedures for the transferred STEMI patients.
Daniel Terry, Blake Peck, Kate Kloot
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5776

Abstract:
National and state-based minimum data sets remain inadequate in providing a complete representation of emergency presentations, especially among paediatric asthma presentations. Thus, the aim of the study was to identify if a deficit exists in current emergency paediatric asthma hospital presentation datasets and how this may inform an understanding of childhood asthma in Victoria Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study examined emergency hospital presentation data between 1 February 2017 and 31 January 2019. All paediatric (0-14 years) emergency asthma presentation data were collected from nine hospitals in south-western Victoria, Australia, using the Rural Acute Hospital Data Register (RAHDaR), which gathers both Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD) data from larger government hospitals, and non-VEMD data from smaller, more rural institutions. Of the 854 emergency presentations identified for children with asthma aged 0-14 years, 540 (63.2%) were managed initially at larger government-reporting hospitals. A total of 314 (36.8%) emergency presentations were initially managed at emergency facilities, such as urgent care centres. Overall, it was found that a total 278 (32.5%) of all emergency presentations did not appear in current government datasets. The RAHDaR database, a complete register of data, captures all emergency presentations in south-western Victoria and highlights as much as a 33% deficit in the data currently available to inform asthma resource initiatives including policy development, funding allocation, prevention and management initiatives in Victoria. More accurate data from sources such as RAHDaR are essential to fill the now-evident data chasm.
David Schmidt, Jill Reyment, Sue Kirby, Emma L Webster, David Lyle
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5493

Abstract:
Research training is conducted within rural health organisations without a clear understanding of the role of research within the structure of the organisation itself, potentially limiting the effectiveness of that training. This study sought to identify the role of research within the organisational structure of a large rural health organisation in Australia. Specifically, the study sought the answer to the following questions: Is research identified within the strategic documents of the organisation? If so at what level of the organisation is responsibility for research attributed? Is research identified within the position descriptions of staff? If so, at what level of the organisation are staff expected to conduct research? Is there evidence of research activity elsewhere within the organisational structure? This qualitative study used a critical realist approach and content analysis to identify and contextualise the terms 'research' and 'evaluation' within publicly available and internal documents from a large rural health organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Secondary thematic analysis identified organisational factors influencing research activity. Data were sourced from strategic, operational and other documents from the 2015 calendar year, with key documents extracted from 1654 external and internal websites, 159 position descriptions and approvals for research projects active in 2015 (n=53). Only a third of research conducted in the organisation was locally instigated or involved local staff as researchers. Matching between positional responsibility for research and research activity was limited. Research was a strategic goal for the organisation; however, this was not well represented in operational documents. A lack of research in operational documents devolves responsibility for research to individuals. Individuals with greater levels of individual agency were more likely to be engaged in research. A low critical mass of local researchers means that collaboration, both internal and external, is essential to strengthen research capacity. Health services can create conditions for local health research in a rural environment by addressing structural barriers such as a lack of operational planning for research. Identifying research-active individuals as champions to build internal research collaboration is an important strategy, as is partnering with external organisations for necessary expertise.
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Carlos Rojas-Roque, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Guido Bendezu-Quispe
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/rrh5692

Abstract:
Peru has experienced a significant internal migration from rural to urban areas in recent years. This study estimates the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Peruvian women of childbearing age and their probability of having these symptoms according to the condition of internal migration. Data from the 2014-2018 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES) was used. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Adjusted odds ratios and the marginal effects were estimated to assess associated factors and the probability of having depressive symptoms in relation to internal migration status, respectively. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9≥10 points) decreased from 2014 to 2018, as did the prevalence of these symptoms for all the internal migration status. There was a positive relationship between the post-migration residence time and the probability of having depressive symptoms. Furthermore, compared to women in rural areas who never migrated, all of the other migrant statuses were associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms. Other factors such as being the head of the household, being married/cohabiting or separated/divorced/widowed, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, having an impairment and living at levels of altitude greater than 500 m were associated with a higher probability of having depressive symptoms. Despite a reduction in the overall burden of depressive symptoms, the migrant subgroup population has a higher probability of presenting these symptoms. Mental health strategies for migrant women are a priority in Peru.
Penny Allen, Jenny May, Robert Pegram, Lizzie Shires
Rural and Remote Health, Volume 20; doi:10.22605/RRH5299

Abstract:
Rural health services throughout the world face considerable challenges in the recruitment and retention of medical specialists. This research set out to describe the factors that contribute to specialist workforce retention and attrition in a health service in rural Tasmania, Australia. This qualitative study utilised in-depth interviews with 22 medical specialists: 12 currently employed by the service and 10 who had left or intended to leave. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed to identify professional, social and location factors influencing retention decision-making. Professional and workplace factors were more important than social or location factors in retention decision-making. Tipping points were excessive workloads, particularly on-call work, difficult collegial relationships, conflict with management, offers of more appealing positions elsewhere, family pressure to live in a metropolitan area, educational opportunities for children and a lack of contract flexibility. Inequitable workload distribution and the absence of senior registrars contributed to burnout. Financial remuneration was not a primary factor in retention decision-making, however, there was acknowledgement of the need to ensure equitable pay scales, flexible employment contracts including statewide positions and increased CPD payments/leave. Specialists who had autonomy in determining their preferred work balance tended to stay, as did those who had family or developed social connections within the area, rural backgrounds and a preference for rural living. To improve specialist workforce retention, rural health services should ensure a professionally rewarding, harmonious work environment, without onerous out-of-hours demands and where specialists feel valued. Specialists should have autonomy over workloads, flexible contracts, appropriate financial remuneration and enhanced access to CPD. New specialists and their families should have additional support to assist with social integration.
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