Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal

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ISSN / EISSN : 2073-9524 / 2310-8746
Total articles ≅ 28
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Amal Hamdi Jassim, Salih Hassan Al-Azzawi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140102

Abstract:
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the TGFß superfamily that plays a critical role in females' ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. However, its role in the testis has not been elucidated in Goats. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of GDF9 mutations on the quality of fresh semen in Bucks. Direct sequencing was used to screen possible SNP loci in the goat GDF9 exon one, one SNP locus site 2006 CTC < CTA ( leu < leu ) was identified positively in 15 local Iraqi Bucks. Analysis of variance revealed that significant effect of breeding value for concentration, individual ( p > 0.05) movement, and Acrosome integrity, in All, so of dominance effects of volume, Individual movement, and Acrosome integrity. All traits have low genetic variation, which means that the environment varies high. This study is the first to show a significant association of GDF9 in the initiation or maintenance of spermatogenesis in male goats.
Abdulmuttaleb Hazim Khaleel, Salih Hassan Al-Azzawi
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140103

Abstract:
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a vital gene affecting semen quality traits. The study aimed to estimate the breeding values additive dominance variance of Iraqi black goat semen quality and investigate the effect of allele substitution in heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70) carpine on some semen quality traits (volume, mass motility, a live sperm, and sperm concentration). DNA isolated from 15 Iraqi black goats was subjected to PCR amplification of the caprine HSP70 gene. Used Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to detect the variant DNA fragments that were sequenced. Synonymous Genotypes were detected on mutation locus (1528C/T). Results showed three genotypes (CC, CT, TT) frequencies of 0.53, 0.40, and 0.07, respectively, and gene frequency of 0.73 and 0.27 C and T, respectively. The population was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed a high level of concentration sperm for CC and CT genotype compared with TT genotype. The CC genotype was associated with negative B.V for volume ejaculate, mass motility, and live sperm percentages and was positively associated with sperm concentration. CT and TT genotypes showed positive B.V for volume ejaculate, mass motility, and live sperm but negative for sperm concentration. CC and TT genotypes showed negative dominance deviation for all traits studied, while heterozygous genotype CT showed positive dominance deviation for all semen quality traits. The highest genetic variation for live sperm (0.816) but most of this variation is from dominance variance (0.653), followed by Genetic variance for mass motility (0.481), most of it from Additive variance (0.39).
Laylan H. Fadaladeen, Rafail S. Toma, Ahmed A. Saheen, Huda B. Ahmed
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 31-39; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140104

Abstract:
A rapid and reliable micropropagation protocol was developed for two sweet potato varieties, Mangawy and Mabrokat Al-Shimal, by testing various growth regulators and different carbon sources. Healthy cultures were taken from nodal segment explants taken from potted plants. Adding BA was more effective than Kinetin when used at the same concentration. The highest number of leaves per explant (5.22 leaves/ explant) and the longest shoots (2.88 cm) were achieved when 2 mg L-1 BA was added to the culture medium. For Mabrokat Al-Shimal, the highest mean length of shoots (3.77 cm) was obtained when 1 mg.l-1 kinetin was used, and the highest leaves number (10.33 leaves/ explant) was obtained when 0.5 mg.l-1 kinetin was used. Sucrose was the best carbon source for the multiplication of this Mangawy variety, followed by fructose then glucose. On the other hand, fructose and sucrose showed the best results for the Mabrokat AlShimal variety. A 100% rooting was achieved for all tested treatments. IBA was better than NAA Mangawy root formation by giving the best rooting parameters. The highest number of roots per explant (22.33 roots/ explant) was achieved when 1.5 mg.l -1 IBA was used. While the highest mean length of roots (12.87 cm) was achieved when added 0.5 mg.l-1 NAA. A hundred percent success was achieved at the acclimatization stage for both tested varieties. Both varieties were excellent and tasty, especially from Mabrokat Al-Shimal at open-field cultivation
Mona. A. Allafe, Asmaa R. Adam
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140108

Abstract:
The study investigated the effect of colchicine (C) on seeds germination, as well as morph physiological traits of wheat, where dry wheat seeds were treated with colchicine at concentrations of (C) were (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 %) compared to soaking in distilled water (control). The variance analysis results of laboratory germination experiments as well as in field experiments under rain-fed conditions showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the mean of most of the studied quantitative traits: germination quality such as germination force (%), germination energy (%), and laboratory germination (%). Leaf area (cm2 ), root spread, stem diameter (cm), as well as wet and dry weight under the influence of the different concentrations of colchicine. Where the results showed that when used wheat seeds which pre-soaked with colchicine solution at a concentration of (0.06) % for 56 hours pre-sowing, led to an obvious significant increase in all studied traits morph physiological properties and seedling vigor when compared to the control (untreated seeds - treated with distilled water only) as well as when compared with other concentrations of colchicine.
Watban J. Al-Zobaay, Amir H. Al-Zobaay
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 85-94; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140110

Abstract:
This study was aimed to enhance the flavor and some microbial, physiochemical and sensorial properties of yogurt by threonine and glycine. This study included the estimation (acetaldehyde, acetone and ethanol), acetaldehyde content was 13.46, 13.9, 19.52, 13.99, 28.76, 27.31 and 18.52 mg L-1 for (A) control treatment, (B) glycine 1g /L , (C) threonine 1 g/ L, (D) glycine 3 g/ L, (E) threonine 3 g/ L, (F) threonine 3g + glycine 1g / L and (G) glycine 3g + threonine 1g / L treatments respectively. Acetone content was 8.38, 8.26, 5.71, 8.12, 3.84, 3.11 and 5.49 mg L-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively. Ethanol content was 10.25, 10.17, 6.39, 10.16, 4.56, 4.16 and 6.21 mg L-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively. Lactobacillus bulgaricus count after the first day of manufacture were 7.38, 7.34, 7.49, 7.39, 7.70, 7.68 and 7.50 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively, after 28 days of manufacture was 6.25, 6.23, 6.32, 6.27, 6.51, 6.47 and 6.38 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively. Streptococcus thermophilus count after the first day of manufacture were 9.20, 9.14, 9.38, 9.30, 10.62, 10.53 and 9.47 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively, after 28 days of manufacture were 8.25, 8.11, 8.34, 8.27, 9.17, 9.11 and 8.36 cfu mL-1 for A, B, C, D, E, F and G treatments respectively after 28 days. The chemical composition did not change, there were no significant differences compared with treatments. Sensory evaluation score showed significant differences (P≤0.05) among the treatments.
Prabhasha Jayasundara
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140105

Abstract:
Water is vital for humans and other living things, but water pollution has become a significant issue today. Various anthropogenic agricultural, industrial, and home activities produce multiple organic and inorganic substances dissolved or suspended in water. The goal of wastewater treatment is thus twofold: to reduce water pollution while also maintaining the water supply to demand. It is based on the three 3 Rs: reduce, reuse, and recycle. However, many of the methods used are ineffective or expensive. As a result, water purification is a matter of great interest. Eco-friendly approaches are essential among the new technologies and techniques tested in wastewater treatment. Aquatic macrophytes treat water by accumulating harmful metals and nutrients. Like water filters, a variety of aquatic floats can be suggested. Azolla is one among them, and it has been used for decades. Researchers have discovered that Azolla can reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metal concentrations in wastewater; therefore, it can be utilized for wastewater treatment. Azolla also produces a lot of biomasses in wastewater. The use of Azolla in reducing eutrophication in lakes and streams and other benefits is discussed in this study. According to the literature, Azolla has a high growth rate, with a doubling date of 2-4 days. Azolla's cell wall is composed of pectin, which has a high affinity for the adsorption of organic substances. Azolla serves as a "biofilter" during wastewater treatment in this way.
Ifabiyi O. John, , Adisa R. S.
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 54-65; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140107

Abstract:
The aim of the study is the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) Model Analysis of Training Needs of Artisanal fishers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire and analysed using frequency count, percentages, mean score and Binary Logistic Regression. The food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Needs Assessment Model was used to determine the areas of training needs. Any task or skill that had a threshold score above 6.13 requires training intervention. The results revealed that all the respondents were male (100 %), 41.7 years was the average age of the fishers. about 89.3 % of the respondents were married, 45.4% had no formal education, the average years of experience was 26.9 years and 59.7 % of the respondents practiced farming as a supportive occupation. 19.2 kg was the mean quantity of fish caught per day and the mean household size was 8 persons. The fisherfolks required capacity building identification and sorting of fish (x ̅=6.26), handling and transportation of captured fish (x ̅=7.46), canoe use and maintenance (x ̅=6.76), use of chorkor smoker (x ̅=6.7), maintaining personal and environmental health hygiene (x ̅=7.29) and local weather forecasting (x ̅= 6.62). The determinants of training needs on Artisanal Fishing practices were years of fishing experience (p<0.05), income (p<0.05), household size (p<0.10), and membership of a fishing association (p<0.01). The highest ranked constraint affecting artisanal fishing practices was the of storage facilities (x ̅=2.62). The recommendations of the study are that there should be provision of training in the identified areas and provision of supports to the artisanal fisherfolks inform of inputs and credit facilities..
Dara A. Kalhory, Tahir Mohammed Layeeq, Mohammad Omer Sakinaa
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140101

Abstract:
The research aims to the role of agricultural extension in facing agricultural risks by diagnosing the personal and functional variables of the respondents, determining the reality of agricultural risks, and preparing an extension program to confront agricultural threats in the Sulaymani governorate. The research included (agricultural colleges and institutes, agricultural extension centers, and the Directorate of Agriculture). A proportional stratified random sample of (15%) was drawn for each lecture and agricultural extension worker, respectively. The research sample reached (111) respondents by selecting all agricultural directors in the Directorate of Agriculture. The indicative Program was prepared according to the following procedures: field visits to farmers' fields, records and documents in the Directorate of Agriculture, review of articles and research in agricultural research, agricultural literature, models and books, and expert notes in agricultural colleges and institutes, and in light of this, seven elements and 61 items were developed that make up the copy Initial Program. The questionnaire was presented in its initial form to a group of experts in agricultural extension and management. After taking their observations, the questionnaire consisted of 7 elements and 52 items. The research found several agricultural risks in the Sulaymani governorate and the approval of all the respondents on the terms of the extension program and the recommendation to apply it in the reality of agricultural work in the Sulaymani governorate
Pakiza Hamira Wasman
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140106

Abstract:
This experiment was conducted in Erbil, Iraq, from July 7 to August 17, 2021, for determine the effects of L-Threonine supplementation on several productive and physiological traits Under heat stress conditions (36.04 ± 2 °C), A total of 200 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments: T1 control treatment, T2, T3, T4 and T5 standard diet with L-Threonine 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the addition of L-Threonine to the ration improved broiler production performance under heat stress conditions such as body weight it increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T3 and T5 and reached 2187 and 2235 g, respectively compared to 2145 g in the T1 and reduce H/L ratio in T4 and T5 compared with T1 and did not affect effect (P≥0.05) on physiological traits such as red and white blood cell count, hematocrit, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities
Ifabiyi O. John
Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, Volume 14, pp 73-84; https://doi.org/10.52951/dasj.22140109

Abstract:
The study analyzed the capacity building needs of artisanal fisherfolks in North Central, Nigeria. The Data were collected with the use of a questionnaire and analysed using frequency, percentages, mean score and Correlation. The results showed that about 99.2% of the fishers were male and the mean age of the fishers was 43.9ears. The mean years of experience were 24.3. The mean quantity of catch per day was 17.9 Kg and 6 persons was the average household size. About 47.33 % of the respondents has a high knowledge level on improved fishing practices. The fisherfolks required capacity building in handling and transportation of captured fish (x ̅=6.59), use and repair of nets, cages and traps (mean=6.29), use and maintenance of multiple hooks on a line (x ̅=6.71), canoe use and maintenance (x ̅=6.74), use of chorkor smoker (x ̅=6.68), fish marketing and distribution (x ̅=6.65), credit acquisition (x ̅=5.92), maintaining personal and environmental health hygiene (x ̅=6.0) and local weather forecasting (x ̅=6.32). The highest ranked constraints affecting artisanal fishing practices were the high cost of fishing inputs and inadequate access to credit facilities (x ̅=2.72). The study therefore recommends the provision of training in the identified areas of capacity building needs and the provision of more frequent and effective extension services to the fisherfolks.
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