International Journal of Urologic History

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ISSN : 2769-2183
Total articles ≅ 9
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Janmejay Hingu1, Matthew Davis, Mubashir Shabil Billah, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
International Journal of Urologic History, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh.1.2.1152203

Abstract:
Introduction: The Iglesias resectoscope is used around the world as an important tool in the urologist’s surgical armamentarium. The biography of Iglesias himself, and how the resectoscope came to be, is less well known. We aimed to elucidate the background of the Iglesias instrument, its inventor, and his role in the development of modern transurethral resection techniques Sources and Methods: We conducted interviews with surviving colleagues and students of Jose Iglesius, referenced secondary texts, and contemporary medical publications. Results: Jose Iglesius was already a well-regarded urologist born in Havana Cuba having invented the instrument that bears his name in the 1950s. He was briefly imprisoned by the Castro regime after the Batista government was overthrown in 1959. His release through private funds brought him safely to the United States where he continued a long academic career at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ). Conclusions: Jose Iglesius was a Cuban urologist who invented the resectoscope that bears his name, After his paid release from a Castro-regime jail, Iglesius had a successful career at UMDNJ teaching decades of grateful residents
Karen Doersch, Michael Witthaus, Gareth Warren, Ronald Rabinowitz, Divya Ajay
International Journal of Urologic History, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh.1.2.1152201

Abstract:
Introduction: The struggle to treat male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) dates back centuries, with descriptions of male urinary incontinence (UI) in Egyptian manuscripts as early as 1500 BCE. In this review, we chronicle the history of male SUI interventions that have educated the modern options available today. Sources and Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to elucidate relevant historical and clinical information. We used PubMed to identify contemporary medical literature at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov and JSTOR, the digital library, to access archived, older texts at www.jstor.org. Results: French surgeon Ambroise Paré is credited with developing the first portable urinals in 1564, which was quickly followed by Hildanus developing the condom catheter and penile clamp in the 1600s. The first documented compression device was developed by Lorenz Heister in 1747. Two hundred years later, Frederic Foley created a urinary sphincter and in 1973, F. Brantley Scott created the first multi-component artificial urinary sphincter (AUS). In the 1960s and 1970s, mesh implants were fraught with complications, including urethral erosion, fistulas, and pain. More recently, the transobturator male sling, which came to market during the 2000s, has become an option for select men. Conclusions: The modern devices we use for the treatment of male UI are evolutionary byproducts of centuries of experimental designs by pioneering surgeons from around the world. While the materials have improved, barrier, storage devices and bulking agents almost identical to the versions first invented remain in use today.
Tetsumori Yamashima
International Journal of Urologic History, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh.1.2.1152204

Abstract:
Introduction: The adrenal gland was first described by Eustachio in 1564, but its physiologic role remained unknown for three centuries. In the late 1890’s, many researchers had directed their attention to the isolation of adrenal extracts, but all failed until the successful efforts of biochemists Jokichi Takamine and Keizo Uenaka. Takamine’s patents on Adrenalin were the first ever awarded for a hormone and he used his royalties to improve international relations between America and Japan. There is considerable controversy, however, in how adrenaline was first crystalized, where the work was done, and to whom the credit for its discovery is given. Sources and Methods: Published contemporary medical literature, newspaper archives, and publicly accessible research archives in Japan, Sweden, and the United States Results: Takamine was a multilingual businessman with a background in western and eastern medicine, a successful biochemist, and importer/exporter before he took on the project of isolating adrenaline. His successful patents and savvy business acumen allowed him to support innovative research in physiology. He hired Keizo Uenaka, who had experience with isolating ephedrine, to develop the critical methods required to crystallize adrenal extracts where other contemporaries, including Takamine, had failed. Takamine applied for and was awarded five immediate US patents for the discovery although he did not include Uenaka in that effort. Takamine co-founded the Nippon Club and the Japanese Society of New York, both of which ultimately survived the anti-Japanese fervor of the 1940s and, in 1912, worked to bring the gift of 3,000 Japanese Cherry Trees to Washington DC. The Japanese Patent Office honored Takamine as one of Japan’s 10 Great Inventors but it was only after Uenaka’s death in 1960, and the discovery of his laboratory manuals, was Uenaka’s full role in the discovery of adrenaline made known. Conclusions: Jokichi Takamine was an international benefactor and biochemist extraordinaire who, with Keizo Uenaka, was the first to crystallize adrenal medullary catechols. Takamine’s efforts saved lives and did much to engender a spirit of Japanese-American goodwill that persisted for decades.
Harry Herr
International Journal of Urologic History, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh.1.2.1152202

Abstract:
Introduction: Incredible tales of medical hoaxes associated with virgin births have been recounted through history. Some reports exist of wartime gunshot testicular injuries that caused pregnancy in a second bullet victim. This paper sought to identify the sources and circumstances of such tales and how similar legends appear to be perpetuated in medical historical lore. Sources: Medical journals, contemporary newspaper accounts, and archives of secondary lay-press magazines and periodicals. Results: The first known episode of a pregnancy conceived via bullet wound occurred in the American Civil War. A woman claimed to become pregnant from being shot by a bullet that had passed through the scrotum of a Civil War soldier. In reality, the tale had been fabricated by a doctor who wanted to tease his colleagues over their boastful surgical triumphs. A second such ‘bullet baby’ was reported in 1999 during the Bosnian conflict. The two episodes, despite their lack of medical credulity, were perpetuated in the medical press by reputable authorities. Conclusions: History sometimes offers a storyline that may be so fantastical that even medical authorities may either disregard its impossibility or unknowingly prolong its life.
Leonidas Rempelakos
International Journal of Urologic History; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh71216

Abstract:
Objectives Tertiary syphilis represents an advanced stage of infection with treponema pallidum and was an endemic problem in pre-penicillin society. The disease was easily contracted and transmitted in all walks of life and the small coterie of European classical music composers was no exception. We wished to identify those artists of the genre who suffered from Treponema pallidum infection and establish potential effects of the disease on their musical output and career. Methods We reviewed contemporary accounts and secondary source biographic information of known syphilitics who wrote and performed in the mid to late 19th century, the period normally referred to as that of ‘classic music. We correlated known medical features of Treponema pallidum infection, and its therapy, with their potential effects on composer creative output. Results We found that seven composers of the 19th century suffered from the physical stigmata of Treponema pallidum infection as well as familial and social stigmatization. Tertiary infection, and its neuro-psychiatric consequences, appears to have been directly related to premature death (e.g. Franz Schubert died at the age of 31); suicidal ideation and/or major depressive disorders (Robert Schumann, Hugo Wolf, Bedrich Smetana); persecutory manic bipolar disease (Gaetano Donizetti); blindness (Frederick Delius); and mercury-induced laryngoplegia (Niccolò Paganini). Conclusions Syphilis has been a fatal disease through ages and among its victims, authors and artists died with symptoms of mental deterioration due to neurosyphilis. The influence of the disease upon their last works can be traced especially in the case of composers, as hallucinations and horrors and psychological conflicts are reflected in their music.the need for a journal wholly dedicated to the history of urology.
Nicole Matluck
International Journal of Urologic History; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh71217

Abstract:
Objectives The Ellik Evacuator is a commonly used tool in transurethral endoscopic surgery and a standard of care for the rapid removal from the bladder of resected tumor fragments, prostatic chips, or blood. Little is known, however, about the inventor of the Ellik evacuator, his urologic contributions, and how the evacuator came to be. Methods We contacted surviving descendants of Dr. Milo Ellik, and conducted interviews as part of an oral history project. Original medical equipment and personal belongings, provided by the family of Dr. Ellik, were analysed. Secondary source materials included published urologic articles and unpublished biographic information. Results Milo Ellik was born in Chicago in 1905 but was orphaned and put himself through college. He graduated from the University of Iowa with an MD in 1932 and began residency under Nathan Alcock. Ellik conceived of the evacuator that bears his name as a resident, visiting the glass-blowing facility at the Iowa University Hospital to construct the prototype. He published the results in a 1937 issue of the Journal of Urology but did not obtain a patent which was eventually procured by Bard in 1940. Conclusions Milo Ellik designed a major innovation in transurethral surgery as a resident in urology by constructing the first glass evacuator that bears his name. The Ellik family donated a large quantity of Dr. Ellik’s inventions to the AUA’s Didusch Museum for permanent storage and study.
Akhil Saji
International Journal of Urologic History; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh71219

Abstract:
Objectives The annual addresses of the President of the American Urological Association (AUA) may articulate and reflect the contemporary goals, values, and concerns of contemporary AUA membership. There is no organized archive of such addresses. We aimed to create a searchable database of all AUA Presidents and their addresses to determine variables associated with speech sentiment including positivity, negativity, and emotional tone through the 117 years of the AUA’s history. Methods We queried AUA archives, journals, recorded tape, and personal records, to create a database of all existing AUA Presidential addresses and biographic data. We applied natural language processing and machine learning techniques to evaluate the addresses for overall sentiment with validation using analog analyses (i.e reading and annotation). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant predictors of Presidential address sentiment. Results Between 1902-2019, a total of 113 AUA meetings were held. A total of 85 of 113 (75.22%) presidential addresses were transcribed and archived in the database representing 254,124 words by male presidents with a median (IQR) age of 61.43 (53.1-66.5) years. AUA Presidents during the second half of the history of the AUA (1960-2019) were significantly older at time of inauguration and gave more positive speeches in the active voice than presidents during the first half (1902-1959) (p < .05). The only significant independent predictor of the degree of positivity in an AUA President’s annual address was speaker age (95% CI 1.007-1.119). Conclusions We created the first digital, searchable database of all AUA Presidential speeches from 1902-2019 and aim to add additional addresses prospectively. Artificial intelligence analyses mirrored the findings of human reading and demonstrated that from 1902-2019 AUA Presidential addresses became more positive and optimistic with increasing speaker age but without consistent predictors of a speech’s emotional or factual content.
Harry Herr
International Journal of Urologic History; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh71215

Abstract:
Objectives Radical cystectomy is a complex surgery for bladder cancer which has undergone progressive changes for a century. The originators of the procedure required pioneering innovation and their biographies place the challenges of radical cystectomy in proper perspective Methods English and German textbooks and secondary sources Results Bernard Bardenheuer (1839-1913) and Karl Pawlik (1849-1914) performed the world’s first two cystectomies for bladder cancer, overcoming challenges of contemporary anesthesia, vascular control, and renal drainage. Conclusions The originators of radical cystectomy illustrate that true advances in surgery require bold innovation and forward thinking but also that the limitations of contemporary technology must be overcome.
Hanna Lohse
International Journal of Urologic History; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh71213

Abstract:
Objectives Today Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the most common agent used in the intravesical treatment of non- muscle invasive (NMIBC) bladder cancer but originally was used as a vaccine against the widespread scourge of tuberculosis. The public acceptance of this vaccination was, at least in Germany, delayed by an infamous 1930 medical event in which 251 infants were accidentally inoculated with a batch of BCG vaccine contaminated with live mycobacterial cultures. The accident itself was comprehensively investigated but those affected were forgotten. For this oral history project, adult survivors of the 1930 BCG disaster were interviewed in order to document their biographical outcomes and personal perspectives. Methods We conducted personal, recorded interviews with identified survivors of the 1930 BCG accident and relatives. We analyzed contemporary news articles and accounts and secondary sources from German medical and popular literature. Results Of the survivors, a total of 8 patients and 8 family members of patients were interviewed. In addition, two interviews were also conducted with relatives of the presiding judge from the 1931/2 trial and of an involved physician. The 18 biographies make up the dataset for this study. Interviewed survivors, the so called ‘Calmette Kinder’ (Ger.”Kinder”: Children), recounted years of illness and chronic health impairments. The supportive measures taken after the accident by the town of Lübeck were extensive and ranged from medical care and health promoting measures such as additional food for the vaccinated infants to the establishment of an arbitration court for the compensation of the ‘Calmette Kinder’. Conclusions The Lübeck Disaster was a landmark event in the history of biomedical safety, ethics and informed consent. The decades-long consequences of a failed vaccination effort for infants still urges a cautious, measured approach to medical progress today. Lessons learned were critical for the establishment of the modern approach to public vaccination efforts so well-illustrated in the fight against CoVid 19 and other microbiological threats.
Sutchin Patel
International Journal of Urologic History; https://doi.org/10.53101/ijuh71211

Abstract:
Objectives The Journal of Urology (JU) and Urology have different policies regarding the publication of articles devoted to urologic history. JU stopped publishing full length historical articles in 2009. We wished to assess the pattern and frequency of historical article publishing in the two of the largest urologic journals. Methods We used a PubMed and manually based search of all articles from JU and Urology and categorized each article by subject, especially whether they were wholly and/or subtantially devoted to a historical subject. Results From 1973-2000, JU and Urology published 73 and 91 articles on the history of urology respectively. From 1997- 2008, JU experienced an increase in historical articles at a time when the History Forum was begun at the AUA Annual Meeting. Therafter, JU stopped publishing historical articles but Urology has published 35 from 2009-2017 at an average rate of 3.9 articles/year. Conclusions The journal Urology, but not JU, publishes a history of urology article about every 3 months. The study revealed the need for a journal wholly dedicated to the history of urology.
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