Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2168-1562 / 2168-1570
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 138
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Ezrah Natumanya, Natasha Ribeiro, Majaliwa Jackson Gilbert Mwanjalolo, Franziska Steinbruch
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 11, pp 65-83; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2022.112004

Abstract:
Incalaue is a tributary of Lugenda River in NSR (Niassa Special Reserve) in North-Eastern Mozambique. NSR is a data-poor remote area and there is a need for rainfall-runoff data to inform decisions on water resources management, and scientific methods are needed for this wide expanse of land. This study assessed the potential of a combination of NASA-POWER (National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources) remotely sensed rainfall data and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) soil and land use/cover data for modelling rainfall-runoff in Incalaue river basin. DEM (Digital Elevation Model) of 1:250,000 scale and a grid resolution of 30 m × 30 m downloaded from USGS (the United States Geological Survey) website; clipped river basin FAO digital soil and land use/cover maps; and field-collected data were used. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was used to assess rainfall -runoff data generated using the NASA-POWER dataset and gauged rainfall and river flow data collected during fieldwork. FAO soil and land use/cover datasets which are globally available and widely used in the region were used for comparison with soil data collected during fieldwork. Field collected data showed that soil in the area is predominantly sandy loam and only sand content and bulk density were uniformly distributed across the soil samples. SWAT model showed a good rainfall-runoff relationship using NASA-POWER data for the area (R2 = 0.7749) for the studied period (2019-2021). There was an equally strong rainfall-runoff relationship for gauged data (R2 = 0.8131). There were uniform trends for the rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity in NASA-POWER meteorological data. Timing of peaks and lows in rainfall and river flow observed in the field and modelled were confirmed by residents as the trend in the area. This approach was used because there was no historical rainfall and river flow data since the river basin is ungauged for hydrologic data. The study showed that NASA-POWER data has the potential for use for modelling the rainfall-runoff in the basin. The difference in rainfall-runoff relationship with field-collected data could be because of landscape characteristics or topsoil layer not catered for in the FAO soil data.
Ritika Prasai
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 11, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2022.113005

Abstract:
Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in lakes can tell a lot about a lake’s water quality and ecosystem. It is a measure of the amount of algae growing in a waterbody and can be used to monitor the trophic condition of a waterbody. We studied the pre and post effects of marine ranch construction in Chl-a concentration in Zhelin Bay, Southern China using Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI) and a web-based tool (https://mapcoordinates.info/). We used 8 day composite MODIS image collections of 500 m resolution and randomly selected two stations to extract the chlorophyll-a concentration values through the web-based tool. We recorded the slight increase in NDCI values in all stations after the construction of marine ranch which is a good indicator of the marine organisms’ reproduction and survival.
Joachna Meya Loua-Bouayi, Christian Tathy, Adolphe Kimbonguila Manounou
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 11, pp 11-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2022.111002

Abstract:
The salt intrusion phenomenon is caused by overexploitation of aquifers in coastal areas. This physical phenomenon has been the subject of numerous studies and numerous methods have been proposed, with the aim of protecting the quality of the water in these aquifers. This work proposes a two-dimensional saline intrusion model using the sharp interface approach and the level set method. It consists of a parabolic equation modeling the underground flow and a hyperbolic Equation (the level set equation) which makes it possible to track the evolution of the interface. High-order numerical schemes such as the space scheme WENO5 and the third-order time scheme TVD-RK were used for the numerical resolution of the hyperbolic equation. To limit the tightening of the contour curves of the level set function, the redistanciation or reinitialization algorithm proposed by Sussma et al. (1994) was used. To ensure the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed method, two tests relating to the standard Henry problem and the modified Henry problem were performed. Recall that Henry’s problem uses the variable density modeling approach in a confined and homogeneous aquifer. By comparing the results obtained by the level set method with reinitialization (LSMR) and those obtained by Henry (1964), and by Simpson and Clement (2004), we see in the two test cases that the level set method reproduces well the toe, the tip and the behaviour of the interface. These results correspond to the results obtained by Abarca for Henry’s problem with constant dispersion coefficients. The results obtained with LSMR, reproduced the interface with a slight spacing compared to those obtained by Henry. According to Abarca (2006), this spacing is due to the absence of the longitudinal and transversal dispersion coefficients in the model.
, Ebube Charles Amaechi, Sharon Chinyere Amechi, , Irish Mpho Kgosiemang, Okechukwu John Mgbeoji, Adesola Samson Ojo, Alejandro Moure Abelenda, Mohamed Milad, Ibitoye Adelusi, et al.
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 11, pp 34-63; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2022.111003

Abstract:
This paper investigates the impact of biohazards and pandemics on construction workers’ health and well-being. A proper selection of control methods for biohazards and pandemics like COVID-19 pandemic will result in improved public health conditions. Occupational risks in the construction industry are also examined, with a focus on biohazards and pandemics, their containment, and the implications for health and safety. A safer work environment in the construction industry is encouraged. In this study, some statistical methods were used to analyse the data obtained from sampled questionnaire. According to the findings, fewer people in poor developing countries get routine check-ups compared to developed countries. The construction industries studied have little or no insurance plans for staff. It also demonstrates that personal protective equipment (PPE) such as nasal masks, helmets, hand gloves, and work aprons can assist in the control of biohazards in the construction sector, such as asthma, cancer, and asbestosis. There should be safety awareness programmes, conferences, and seminars, as well as first-aid kits and HSE and qualified health workers on all building sites. In addition, the government should examine the site for the usage of PPEs and verify that records of family/personal medical history are maintained.
Hasnul Auzani, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun, Farah Aniza Mohd Nazri
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2022.111001

Abstract:
Agriculture and farming are mainly dependent on weather especially in Malaysia as it received heavy rainfall throughout the years. An efficient crop or tree management system with a weather forecast needed for suitable planning of farming operation. Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) algorithm was used in this study to predict rainfall and the main focus of this study is to analyze the factor that affects the performance of neural model. This study found that the model works better the more hidden nodes and the optimum learning rate is 0.01 with the RMSE 49% and the percentage accuracy is 57%. Besides that, it is found that the meteorology data also affect the model performance. Future research can be conducted to improve the rainfall forecast of this study and improve the tree management system.
Bilal Kemal, Dereje Adeba
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 10, pp 155-168; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2021.104012

Abstract:
Dabus sub-basin is one of the main tributaries of Blue Nile with a considerable surface water potential which can be used for hydro power, irrigation, and water supply. Lack of studies regarding surface water potential and demands at the sub-basin level is the reason why this potential was underutilized. The objective of this study is to assess the surface water potential and evaluate the current and future demand by using Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model at Dabus sub-basin. The model was constructed on four different scenarios starting from the current account (2020) wherein all the data is filled into the model to estimate the surface water potential and demands for different sectors. The scenarios include Scenario 1: reference scenario; Scenario 2: Change in population growth rate; Scenario 3: Irrigation water demand projection; and Scenario 4: Increased domestic water demand. The scenario has helped in analyzing “what if” questions. For all the scenarios the overall demand, coverage and unmet demand were analyzed based on three-time horizon as (2020-2030, 2030-2040, and 2040-2050). The model estimated the average annual flow as 6.536 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) which is generated from annual precipitation of 14.987 BCM. The model showed 100% demand coverage for all the scenarios except the irrigation demand projection scenario which have unmet demand on some of the months of the year.
Ziyang Feng
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 10, pp 131-139; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2021.104010

Abstract:
Taking 91105 working face as the research object, the observation method of water flowing fractured zone and the layout of mining holes were determined by analyzing the field geological structure. It was shown that the fractured zone height and the ratio given by the measured method were 52.33 and 12.46, respectively. By the numerical simulation method with the software of UDEC, the fractured zone height and the ratio were 42.5 and 10.12. By comparison of measured height data and UDEC numerical simulation, there were some differences between the measured height and the calculated results of UDEC numerical simulation method. The method of simulation can be used as the technical basis for the design of waterproof coal pillar in the future.
Hamidatu S. Darimani, Neolli Kpoda, Sumaila M. Suleman, Alhassan Luut
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 10, pp 82-94; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2021.102006

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the water application uniformity for a drip irrigation system, considering the water quality and the duration of usage. The uniformity parameters, Emission Uniformity (EU %) and Uniformity Coefficient (UC %) were determined for the drip irrigation system installed over a year of performance. The procedures are based on taking measurements of emitter discharge along selected driplines on a sub-main. The catch can be identified as L1A, L1B, L1C, L1D, same for L2A to L2D, L3A to L3D and L4A to L4D. This gave a total of sixteen (16) measurement positions as there were 4 driplines. Results indicated that the uniformity of water application was 90% indicating that the emitter was still good after a year of installation. The average discharge rate was 0.57 l/h. The uniformity coefficient (UC %) for the gravity-fed drip irrigation system was 78%, indicating good water application and was quite significant for the evaluation of the uniform distribution of water for the design. The expansion of this irrigation method in rural communities could contribute to relevant water savings in most areas of the Upper West Region of Ghana.
Davis Sibale, Godfrey Mwenelupembe, Sylvester Chikabvumbwa, Sylvester Chisale
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 10, pp 95-107; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2021.103007

Abstract:
This study evaluated the water delivery performance of Nkhafi irrigation scheme based on adequacy, water delivery efficiency, equity, dependability and irrigation efficiency. Primary data were collected from field measurements, scheduled interviews, group discussions and use of a structured questionnaire. CROPWAT 8.0 computer model was used to determine crop water requirements and irrigation requirements. The results revealed that adequacy, water delivery efficiency, equity, dependability and overall water delivery performance were (0.74; 0.82), (0.70; 0.80), (0.15; 0.20), (0.11; 0.21) and (0.80; 0.80) for 2017 and 2018 seasons respectively. The scheme overall irrigation efficiencies were 20% and 25% for 2017 and 2018 respectively. These findings revealed that scheme users failed to deliver adequate and dependable water in an effective manner in both growing seasons. This occurred due to insufficient water supply, poor irrigation scheduling, lack of adequate knowledge and skills in operating and rehabilitating hydraulic structures, siltation and water losses through seepage in canals. Therefore, it is recommended that major maintenance works need to be done along the whole canal network in order to achieve good overall water delivery performance. Furthermore, farmers need to be trained in water management, sustainable agricultural production practices, operation and maintenance of irrigation structures. The study has provided an insight on the status of the scheme hence encouraging scheme users to improve water delivery performance.
Tawheed Mohammed Elheesin Shareef, Zhongming Ma, Juan Chen, Xiaoxia Niu
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, Volume 10, pp 18-35; https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2021.101002

Abstract:
Water scarcity is relative and variable concept that can occur at any level of supply and demand. It is also a social construct, which is linked to the intervention in the water cycle and changes over time as a result of natural hydrological change. It is more severe when water acts as a backbone in economic policies, planning and management methods. Water scarcity can be expected to increase with most forms of economic development, but, if properly identified, many of its causes can be expected and avoided or mitigated. However, the limited irrigation management is considered a very important issue in the agricultural scope. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between water, crop production, photosynthesis, crop transpiration, crop growth, crop yields and water use efficiency have been discussed under limited irrigation conditions. However, the crops have some ability to adapt and resist against limited irrigation. Hence, under high temperate conditions, this is a shortage of water and photosynthesis is decreased with a pore (stoma) restraining. At the same time, the evapotranspiration reaches to the utmost value and the water use efficiency rises because of optimal monitoring of leaf pore (stoma). Therefore, the modality which is the reduction of the risks and improving industrial control in incomplete irrigation are the chief constraints of providing irrigation water in the future, which leads to increased crop production and ultimately providing a provision of food security.
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