European Journal of Pediatrics

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ISSN / EISSN : 0340-6199 / 1432-1076
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 28,009
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, , Yoichi Mizutani, Hirokazu Makishima, Takashi Kaneko, Yoshiharu Isobe, Tamasa Terada, Kentaro Tamura, Etsuko Imabayashi, Toshiaki Tani, et al.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05985-5

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, Lars Eriksson, Clemens Mingels, Ian Alberts, Michael E. Casey, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Maurizio Conti, Paul Cumming, Kuangyu Shi, Axel Rominger
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05983-7

Abstract:
Background: Accurate kinetic modeling of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data requires accurate knowledge of the available tracer concentration in the plasma during the scan time, known as the arterial input function (AIF). The gold standard method to derive the AIF requires collection of serial arterial blood samples, but the introduction of long axial field of view (LAFOV) PET systems enables the use of non-invasive image-derived input functions (IDIFs) from large blood pools such as the aorta without any need for bed movement. However, such protocols require a prolonged dynamic PET acquisition, which is impractical in a busy clinical setting. Population-based input functions (PBIFs) have previously shown potential in accurate Patlak analysis of [18F]-FDG datasets and can enable the use of shortened dynamic imaging protocols. Here, we exploit the high sensitivity and temporal resolution of a LAFOV PET system and explore the use of PBIF with abbreviated protocols in [18F]-FDG total body kinetic modeling. Methods: Dynamic PET data were acquired in 24 oncological subjects for 65 min following the administration of [18F]-FDG. IDIFs were extracted from the descending thoracic aorta, and a PBIF was generated from 16 datasets. Five different scaled PBIFs (sPBIFs) were generated by scaling the PBIF with the AUC of IDIF curve tails using various portions of image data (35–65, 40–65, 45–65, 50–65, and 55–65 min post-injection). The sPBIFs were compared with the IDIFs using the AUCs and Patlak Ki estimates in tumor lesions and cerebral gray matter. Patlak plot start time (t*) was also varied to evaluate the performance of shorter acquisitions on the accuracy of Patlak Ki estimates. Patlak Ki estimates with IDIF and t* = 35 min were used as reference, and mean bias and precision (standard deviation of bias) were calculated to assess the relative performance of different sPBIFs. A comparison of parametric images generated using IDIF and sPBIFs was also performed. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between AUCs of the IDIF and sPBIFs (Wilcoxon test: P > 0.05). Excellent agreement was shown between Patlak Ki estimates obtained using sPBIF and IDIF. Using the sPBIF55–65 with the Patlak model, 20 min of PET data (i.e., 45 to 65 min post-injection) achieved < 15% precision error in Ki estimates in tumor lesions compared to the estimates with the IDIF. Parametric images reconstructed using the IDIF and sPBIFs with and without an abbreviated protocol were visually comparable. Using Patlak Ki generated with an IDIF and 30 min of PET data as reference, Patlak Ki images generated using sPBIF55–65 with 20 min of PET data (t* = 45 min) provided excellent image quality with structural similarity index measure > 0.99 and peak signal-to-noise ratio > 55 dB. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of performing accurate [18F]-FDG Patlak analysis using sPBIFs with only 20 min of PET data from a LAFOV PET scanner.
Laura Lucaroni, Tony Georgiev, Eleonora Prodi, Sara Puglioli, Christian Pellegrino, Nicholas Favalli, Luca Prati, Markus G. Manz, Samuele Cazzamalli, Dario Neri, et al.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05982-8

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Published: 3 October 2022
European Journal of Pediatrics pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-022-04634-1

Abstract:
To compare the incidence of respiratory symptoms and short-term consequences between children with Down syndrome and children from the general population, we conducted a prospective parent-reported observational study. Children with Down syndrome (≤ 18 years) were included between March 2012 and June 2014. Caregivers received a baseline questionnaire with follow-up 1–2 years after inclusion. Caregivers received a weekly questionnaire about respiratory symptoms, fever, antibiotic prescriptions, doctor’s visits, and consequences for school and work attendance. Children with Down syndrome were compared to a cohort of the general population (“Kind en Ziek” study) with similar weekly questionnaires. A total of 9,011 childweeks were reported for 116 participants with Down syndrome (75% response rate). The frequency of respiratory symptoms was higher in children with Down syndrome than in children from the general population (30% vs 15.2%). In addition, symptoms subsided later (around 8 vs 5 years of age). The seasonal influence was limited, both in children with Down syndrome and children from the general population. Consequences of respiratory disease were significant in children with Down syndrome compared to children from the general population, with a higher rate of doctor’s visits (21.3% vs 11.8%), antibiotic prescriptions (47.8% vs 26.3%), and absenteeism from school (55.5% vs 25.4%) and work (parents, 9.4% vs 8.1%).  Conclusion: Children with Down syndrome have a higher frequency of respiratory symptoms and symptoms last until a later age, confirming the impression of professionals and caregivers. Individualized treatment plans might prevent unfavorable consequences of chronic recurrent respiratory disease in children with Down syndrome. What is Known:• Children with Down syndrome have an altered immune system and are prone to a more severe course of respiratory tract infections.• The overall conception is that patients with Down syndrome suffer from respiratory tract infections more often. What is New:• Children with Down syndrome suffer from respiratory symptoms more frequently than children from the general population.• The respiratory symptoms in children with Down syndrome subside at a later age compared to children from the general population.
, Nuerailaguli Jumai, Qiao He, Man Liu, Yuan Lin, Yanji Luo, Yu Wang, Min-Hu Chen, Zhirong Zeng, , et al.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05971-x

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Published: 30 September 2022
European Journal of Pediatrics pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-022-04606-5

Abstract:
Febrile children below 3 months have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections, which often leads to extensive diagnostics and treatment. There is practice variation in management due to differences in guidelines and their usage and adherence. We aimed to assess whether management in febrile children below 3 months attending European Emergency Departments (EDs) was according to the guidelines for fever. This study is part of the MOFICHE study, which is an observational multicenter study including routine data of febrile children (0–18 years) attending twelve EDs in eight European countries. In febrile children below 3 months (excluding bronchiolitis), we analyzed actual management compared to the guidelines for fever. Ten EDs applied the (adapted) NICE guideline, and two EDs applied local guidelines. Management included diagnostic tests, antibiotic treatment, and admission. We included 913 children with a median age of 1.7 months (IQR 1.0–2.3). Management per ED varied as follows: use of diagnostic tests 14–83%, antibiotic treatment 23–54%, admission 34–86%. Adherence to the guideline was 43% (374/868) for blood cultures, 29% (144/491) for lumbar punctures, 55% (270/492) for antibiotic prescriptions, and 67% (573/859) for admission. Full adherence to these four management components occurred in 15% (132/868, range 0–38%), partial adherence occurred in 56% (484/868, range 35–77%).Conclusion: There is large practice variation in management. The guideline adherence was limited, but highest for admission which implies a cautious approach. Future studies should focus on guideline revision including new biomarkers in order to optimize management in young febrile children. What is Known:• Febrile children below 3 months have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections, which often leads to extensive diagnostics and treatment.• There is practice variation in management of young febrile children due to differences in guidelines and their usage and adherence.What is New:• Full guideline adherence is limited, whereas partial guideline adherence is moderate in febrile children below 3 months across Europe.• Guideline revision including new biomarkers is needed to improve management in young febrile children.
Guokun Wang, Qinqin Yang, Shengyong Wu, Xudong Xu, Xiao Li, Siyu Liang, Guixia Pan, Changjing Zuo, Xianxian Zhao, , et al.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05984-6

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, I. M. J. Mathijssen, K. F. M. Joosten
Published: 28 September 2022
European Journal of Pediatrics pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-022-04621-6

Abstract:
Given the high prevalence of OSA in children with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis (SCC) and the consequences of untreated OSA, it is important to assess their nutritional status and growth. Yet, literature regarding growth in children with SCC remain scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) illustrate the growth pattern in SCC, (2) determine the impact of OSA on this growth pattern, and (3) evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of OSA on growth over time. A retrospective study was performed in children with SCC, who were treated at the Dutch Craniofacial Center (Rotterdam, Netherlands). Growth variables (height, weight, weight-for-age standard-deviation-score (SDS), weight-for-height SDS, and height-for-age SDS) and degree of OSA (obstructive apnea–hypopnea index) were assessed. Of the 153 children with SCC, 38 (25%) were acutely malnourished at some point during follow-up, of whom 21 had disease-related acute malnutrition. Children with moderate-severe OSA had significant lower weight-for-height SDS compared to children without OSA (p = 0.0063). Growth parameters (weight-for-age SDS, weight-for-height SDS, height-for-age SDS) in children with SCC without OSA were not impaired as they did not differ from the normal healthy population, with exception of the patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) who had a significantly lower SDS for height-for-age.   Conclusion: Children with SCC have a substantial chance of developing acute malnutrition at some point during growth. Additionally, in children with moderate-severe OSA, a significant lower SDS for weight-for-height is present, indicating the importance of assessing the weight and growth pattern in children who are clinically suspected for OSA. What is Known:• Obstructive sleep apnea is seen in up to two-thirds of the children with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis.• Presence of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with intracranial hypertension and an increased risk of metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive consequences later in life. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea may lead to impaired growth and weight gain, which can result in growth failure.What is New:• Craniosynostosis patients with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea had significant lower weight-for-height standard deviation scores (SDS), compared to children without obstructive sleep apnea. • Children with syndromic and complex craniosynostosis without OSA did not significantly differ from the normal healthy population in regard to weight-for-age SDS, weight-for-height SDS, and height-for-age SDS.
Published: 28 September 2022
European Journal of Pediatrics pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-022-04630-5

Abstract:
Unstable hemodynamics and prematurity are the main players in intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) development. Our objective was to study 8 the use of superior vena cava flow (SVCF), left ventricular output (LVO), and right ventricular output (RVO), and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Doppler measures in prediction of IVH in the first week of life in preterm infant ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. This prospective cohort study was conducted in 55NICU of Alexandria University maternity hospital. Of 147 enrolled patients, 132 infants born ≤ 32 weeks GA and birth weight ≤ 1500 g were eligible for- the study. One hundred twenty-seven infants completed the study. Infants were scanned for ACA-RI using transfontanellar ultrasound, and SVCF, LVO, and RVO using functional echocardiography in the first 24 h after birth. Patients had another two scans on DOL3 and 7 to detect IVH development. Low SVCF and high ACA-RI significantly increased the risk of IVH using logistic regression models with OR, 3.16; 95%CI, 1.19–8.39; P = 0.02 and OR, 1.64; 95%Cl, 1.10–2.44; P = 0.02, respectively. Low SVCF and high ACA-RI significantly increased risk of catastrophic IVH P = 0.025 and 0.023, respectively. Combined use of low SVCF < 55 ml/kg/min and ACA-RI > 0.75 is predictor of IVH with sensitivity 40.8% and 82.1% specificity.Conclusions: There are strong relations between both low SVCF and high ACA-RI, and IVH development in premature neonates ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g, with more significance towards catastrophic IVH. Admission RSS and LVO are the strongest factors affecting SVCF. Maternal anemia, patent ductus arteriosus size (mm/kg), and capillary refill time were significantly associated with high ACA-RI. These findings help in more understanding of pathophysiological factors affecting central perfusion that might affect the longer term neurodeveopmental outcome.Trial registration: This work was registered in clinical trial.gv no NCT05050032. What is Known:•Whether SVCF and RI-ACA can predict IVH in preterm neonates is still debatable.What is New:•Low SVC flow and high ACA-RI significantly increased risk of IVH, confirming the role of hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle in IVH development. The most striking result that combined metrics using the cut-off value of < 41 ml/kg/min for SVCF and > 0.85 for ACA-RI “in the first day of life” can correctly reject the presence of IVH in 98% of patients “during the first week of life.”
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