Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085)
EISSN : 2734-2085
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 13
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 11 May 2022
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 3, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v3i1.349
Borehole water remains a source of potable water in Nigeria. Therefore, regular monitoring of the safety of drinking water cannot be over-emphasized. Hence the need to study the safety of water in wash borehole from Pantisawa Yorro Local Government of Taraba State, Nigeria. A total of 15 samples from wash boreholes were randomly collected aseptically using sterilized bottles and igniting with a flame lighter on the surface of the water outlet from the five different zones (Pantisawa Main Market YM, Kapazang YG, Dola YD, Kallau YK and Zabi YZ) of Pantisawa. The pour plate technique was used to ascertain microbial load while trace metals in water samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) PG-990. The total bacteria coliform count in the borehole water samples ranged between 1.00×106 cfu/ml and 9.00×105 cfu/ml which generally exceeded the World health organization (WHO) standard limit of 1.0 x 102 cfu/ml for water. The most prevalent or predominant bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus with 40% distribution occurrences from four sample sites (YG, YM, YD and YK). E.coli had a 20 % distribution while Bacillus spp, Enterococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus and Shigella spp showed low percent distribution. The trace metal analysis for the water revealed the absence of Pb in all the water samples analyzed, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu were below the admissible limits for all the sites except for Fe in sites YG which fall above the standard. All other elements (Ni, Cd, As and Co) were above the threshold limit set by National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and the World Health Organization (WHO) respectively. Thus, the presence of pollutants and microbial contaminants may have serious health risks to the people using such water for drinking and other domestic activities.
Published: 3 July 2021
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 58-66; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v2i2.270
The rise of heavy metal presence in environmental waters has made it necessary to continuously examine industrial effluents to maintain the quality of the environment. The focus of this study is centered on determining the heavy metal concentrations and some physicochemical parameters in twelve industrial effluents samples collected from various locations across Ibadan city. A composite sampling method was utilized to obtain representative effluent samples of the 12 Industries (categorized into food, beverage, tobacco, plastic, Pharmaceutical, chemical, and allied industries) and borehole samples from around the city were used as control. The effluent samples were digested by nitric acid (HNO3) and analyzed for cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS). Some physicochemical parameters such as pH (Jenway 3510 pH meter), total dissolved solids (Hanna TDS meter), total suspended solids, and phosphate were determined. The heavy metal mean values were compared with Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard values shown in table 1. The mean concentrations of heavy metal in the industrial effluent samples were Cu (0.32 mg/L), Pb (0.037 mg/L), Ni (0.50 mg/L), Co (0.037 mg/L), Cd (0.016 mg/L), Fe (54.0 mg/L) and Cr (0.44 mg/L). It was found that Chemical and allied industries have the highest concentration for metals such as Fe (128 mg/L), Ni (1.1 mg/L), and Cu (0.27 mg/L) while Cr (0.0067 mg/L) and Co (0.08 mg/L) were obtained in the Food/Beverage and pharmaceutical industries respectively. Conclusively, the industries around the Ibadan city stand as potential contributors to pollution, hence a periodical and continuous assessment effort are recommended.
Published: 3 July 2021
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 20-32; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v2i2.218
Petrogenesis, major oxides and trace elements geochemical study was carried out on migmatite in Ajuba. The study area is located on Latitudes 8° 05'N and 8°13'N and Longitudes 5°23'E and 5°30'E. Five rock samples were taken from the migmatite outcrops and used for petrographic and geochemical analyses. The geochemical analysis was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer technique. The dominant rock type is migmatite; gneiss and granite outcrops were also found in sparse distribution. Ptygmatic folds, which constitute the palaeosome, is the common structure observed on the migmatite rock. The petrographic analysis shows that the migmatite consists of quartz, biotite, plagioclase, hornblende and microcline. The major oxides analysis indicates SiO2 as the dominant oxide with concentration range values (70.71 wt. % - 79.32 wt. %) and average of 74.80 wt. %. Al2O3 (14.98 wt. % - 16.44 wt. %, average: 15.70 wt. %) and Fe2O3 (9.10 wt. % - 15.41 wt. %, average: 12.39 wt. %), K2O (6.67 wt. % - 8.86 wt. %, average: 7.50 wt. %) and CaO (0.49 Wt. % - 4.64 wt. %. average: 2.73 wt. %). P2O5, MnO and TiO2 are less than 1.0 wt. %. The trace elements analysis indicates the concentration distributions: Rb (0.11-0.15 ppm, average 0.13 ppm), Co (0.04-0.17 ppm, average 0.10 ppm). Trace elements ˂ 0.10 ppm are Zn, W, Ni, Cu, V and Pb. From the petrographic and geochemical assessment, the petrogenesis of the migmatite has silica-rich igneous parentage. Moreover, the plots of SiO2-CaO and K2O-SiO2 placed the migmatite on the “upper boundary field of Francisian Greywacke” protolith and Shoshonite series, respectively.
Published: 3 July 2021
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v2i2.219
Petrographic and provenance studies of heavy minerals in Ifelodun sediment were carried out. Sediment samples from eight locations were obtained from the study area; sieved to allow only sand-size lithology. The result was achieved after subjecting this sieved lithology obtained to analyses using a binocular (transmitted and reflected light) microscope. Minerals were separated in a funnel using bromoform with a specific gravity of about 2.89 (gravity method). The heavy minerals present in lithologic sand units are mainly staurolite, tourmaline, zircon and other opaque minerals including cassiterite. The most dominant non-opaque mineral is staurolite with 27.5% of the total minerals counted in the area. Staurolite is very appreciable in locations AR1 with 60% presence (which is 80% of the non-opaque minerals), AR3, AR5, AR7 and OL15b (each with 30%). OL15b also recorded a better amount of tourmaline (20%); Zircon is better in OL6b with 20% of the heavy minerals available in this location. The source rock predicted is porphyroblastic schists.
Published: 3 July 2021
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 47-57; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v2i2.266
Waste-pickers experience situations which place them at high risk of developing morbidities mainly external and internal injuries. The present study investigated the waste-pickers perception of waste-handling and risk-protective behavior from chosen dumpsites in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study adopted a cross-sectional design and a multi-stage sampling technique, this was used to choose 60 waste-pickers. A structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Educated waste-pickers had elementary education. The time interval of waste-picking ranged from 1 to 15 years. The majority of the waste-pickers had a poor perception of waste-handling. The majority of the waste-pickers had poor risk-protective behavior. Only 9(15%) reported using personal protective gears every time. The waste-pickers reported that they used the following PPEs; long sleeve shirt 46(22.0%) and trousers 51(24.4%). However, few used trousers 51(24.4%); boot/shoe 43(20.6%) and cap 24(11.5%). Fifty percent of the waste-pickers reported that they washed up after the day’s job. In conclusion, the waste-pickers had poor perception and poor risk-protective behavior. This study recommends that policy makers and charity organizations should educate waste-pickers on the importance of using protective gears and proper waste-handling.
Published: 13 April 2021
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 01-19; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v2i1.188
Anthropogenic nexus of environmental change is a vital issue in flood control and hazard management. While it is true that some will loom in flood and others in drought, it is no longer valid to argue the authenticity of climate change. Though climate change alters our physical veracities, the problem of yearly flooding is more a human than a natural one in Taraba State. This paper provides technical proof of anthropogenic impression in the incessant flooding in the area. Both spatial and hydro-climatic data were used for this study in addition to designed questionnaire. Hydro and climatic data were collected from Upper Benue River Basin Development Agency, Yola. Correlation matrix was used to show the extent of climatic variation and GIS depicts the land use change. Rainfall has not related well with excess channel flow. Coefficient of variation in rainfall and runoff is not pronounced. R- Factor in all the gauging stations is very low. Built up area occupied just 2.8% of the area accounting for 806.9 hectares. Cultivated area and the bare land was about 13146.2 hectares. This accounts for about 46.3% of the area. Vegetation cover occupied more than half of the study area. This accounts for 50.1% of the land mass of the catchment area under study. Owing to the occurrence of good vegetation cover, which is more than 50% of the basin area, generally one would have expected low occurrence of flooding in the study area. The farmers’ assessment agreed with the scientific analysis. The runoff volumes that traverse the state three decades ago without much disturbance now pose a serious ache. Though Inter catchment link and discharge thereof is a factor, the cogwheel pinpoints land use change and encroachment of floodplain. Parastatals involved in the land survey and planning of the state should wake up to the challenge.
Published: 21 September 2020
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 09-35; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v1i2.164
The present work was conducted by monitoring the water from twelve major tin mine ponds water in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria (Bokkos, Barkin – Ladi and Jos – South) used for irrigation. Their quality was assessed in terms of physico-chemical parameters for dry and rainy seasons. The physico-chemical parameters such as; Turbidity, pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total alkalinity (TA), Total Hardness (TH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate (PO43-), Sulphate (SO42-), Chloride (Cl- ), Fluoride (F-), Sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K+) were investigated to ascertain the water quality for irrigation purposes. Water quality parameters with regards to its use for the purpose of irrigation such as FAO/WHO/FEPA standards satisfy the requirement for use in agriculture. However, turbidity which ranged from18.1 – 27.4 and 15.9 – 18.8, dissolved oxygen 20.9 – 26.3 and 20.2 – 27.4 mg/L, Total alkalinity 101 – 134 and 122 – 167mg/L, total phosphate 6.3 – 8.9 and 6.5 – 10.5 mg/L, BOD 7.4 – 23.8 and 7.2 – 29.2 mg/L, potassium 1.13 – 1.18 and 3.81 – 4.63 mg/L both in dry and rainy seasons, respectively were found to be above the irrigation water standard limits. The study therefore recommends that the mining pond water should be used with caution as some of the parameters are liable to be toxic to the irrigated crops. The positive correlation exhibited among some of the parameters examined is a clear indication of a common relationship between these sources of water.
Published: 15 September 2020
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v1i2.146
There are thirty-five (35) metals with public health implications due to occupational or residential exposure; twenty-three (23) of these are called heavy elements or metals. They are Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Cadmium, Cerium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Gallium, Gold, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Platinum, Silver, Tellurium, Thallium, Tin, Uranium, Vanadium, and Zinc. Interestingly, minute amount of these elements are common in our environment and diet and are actually necessary for a balanced health, but increased consumption may cause acute or chronic toxicity (poisoning). Allergies are not uncommon and repeated long-term exposure to these metals such as Zinc, Lead, Chromium, Selenium, Nickel, Cobalt and Cadmium may cause cancer. The alarming perceived increase of these pollutants around the south-western regions of Nigeria have necessitated the need to evaluate water and sediment samples of Osun river, popularly known for its cultural practices and activities. The physicochemical properties of samples such as pH, TDS EC, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Conductivity, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Phosphate, Nitrate, Chloride were analyzed and result showed compliance with recommended WHO standards. Trace and heavy metal composition in water using standard methods indicates the presence of Calcium (5.11±0.04ppm), Magnesium (0.54±0.004ppm), Potassium (1.28±0.01ppm) and Iron (0.05±0.00ppm) while sediment sample contained high composition of Zinc (21.99±2.67ppm), Iron (261.6±2.00ppm) and Manganese (105.6+0.50ppm). Results obtained from proximate analysis of both water and sediment samples, shows that there are no heavy metals presence in Osun River that could pose a threat to public health. Rather, there are more minerals and nutrients in availability which implies that water sample lacks considerable pollutants and can be certified healthy for moderate consumption and domestic uses which is within permissible value limits of WHO standards. Ashaolu V. O. | Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, LIFE, Loyola College, Chennai-600034
Published: 7 April 2020
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 59-70; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v1i1.117
The contamination of the environment with heavy metals is one of the challenges that constitute Nigeria’s environmental problem with urbanization being one of the major causes; due to the unavailability of proper waste dumpsites and landfills for infrastructural development thereby resulting in the polluting rivers and streams. The cultivation of vegetables along channels and rivers that transcend major cities have been a source of concern globally in recent decades due to accumulation of heavy metals and introduction of heavy metals into the food chain. This study therefore assessed the level of concentration of heavy metals namely; Aluminum, Iron, Lanthanum, Manganese, Chromium, Rubidium, Antimony, Scandium, Barium, Samarium and Zinc in Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus) samples obtained on farmlands along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam cultivated through irrigation. The samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) analytical technique with the aim of assessing their level of accumulation with heavy metals. The objective was to ascertain the food safety status of the vegetable by comparing the values obtained with maximum permissible limit (MPL) recommended by FAO/WHO for vegetables. The study results show that the concentration levels ranged from below detection limit (BDL) for Aluminum, Chromium, and Antimony (843 ± 16 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.2 ppm and 0.26 ± 0.03 ppm respectively) to Barium (7 ± 1.0 to 12 ± 1.0 ppm, Iron 11 ± 0.4 to 303 ± 36 ppm), Lanthanum (0.203± 0.03 to 1.93± 0.05 ppm), Manganese (22.9 ± 0.2 to 40.2 ± 0.2 ppm), Rubidium (7 ± 1 to 13± 1 ppm), Scandium (0.02± 0.00 to 0.05 ± 0.01 ppm), Samarium (0.02 ± 0 to 0.24± 0.01ppm), and Zinc (8± 1.0 to 24±0.1 ppm). This result also indicates that the maximum concentration value of Manganese exceeds the 25.95 ppm value of MPL recommended by FAO/WHO for vegetables therefore the consumption of Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus) cultivated from the study site has a potential health risk due to the presence of Manganese above recommended value.
Published: 10 March 2020
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.52417/ojer.v1i1.69
This study examined the histopathological alterations in the gills, fillet and liver of Hemichromis fasciatus in Igun reservoir (located in an abandoned goldmine area) compared to those of Opa reservoir. Life fish species were collected from Opa and Igun reservoirs and identified in the laboratory. Techniques based on histological analyses were done on the organs and photomicrographs taken using digital binocular compound LED microscope. Epithelial lifting and hypertrophy of lamellae were observed in the gills of H. fasciatus in Opa reservoir and compared to rupture of gill epithelium, rupture of chloride cell, fusion, hyperplasia, curling of lamellae in H. fasciatus of Igun reservoir. The fillet of H. fasciatusin Opa and Igun reservoirs revealed splitting and atrophy of muscle bundles. Also, parasite cyst and necrosis were observed in the fillet of H. fasciatus of Igun reservoir compared to degeneration in muscle bundles in the fish of Opa reservoir. Similarly, the liver of H. fasciatus in Igun and Opa reservoirs showed splitting at the wall of central vein, hepatopancreas and liver cells degeneration. Moreover, nucleus hypertrophy was also identified in the liver of H. fasciatus in Opa reservoir compared to vascular congestion in the central vein, bile duct, portal vein and portal artery of H. fasciatus in Igun reservoir. The study therefore concluded that H. fasciatus specimens in Igun reservoir were histopathologically unhealthy as compared with those of Opa reservoir probably due to the high level of pollution resulting in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Igun reservoir samples. Obayemi, O. E | Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria