Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085)

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EISSN : 2734-2085
Published by: African Researchers Magazine (10.52417)
Total articles ≅ 8
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A. D. Adedoyin, A. G. Atat
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 20-32; doi:10.52417/ojer.v2i2.218

Abstract:
Petrogenesis, major oxides and trace elements geochemical study was carried out on migmatite in Ajuba. The study area is located on Latitudes 8° 05'N and 8°13'N and Longitudes 5°23'E and 5°30'E. Five rock samples were taken from the migmatite outcrops and used for petrographic and geochemical analyses. The geochemical analysis was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer technique. The dominant rock type is migmatite; gneiss and granite outcrops were also found in sparse distribution. Ptygmatic folds, which constitute the palaeosome, is the common structure observed on the migmatite rock. The petrographic analysis shows that the migmatite consists of quartz, biotite, plagioclase, hornblende and microcline. The major oxides analysis indicates SiO2 as the dominant oxide with concentration range values (70.71 wt. % - 79.32 wt. %) and average of 74.80 wt. %. Al2O3 (14.98 wt. % - 16.44 wt. %, average: 15.70 wt. %) and Fe2O3 (9.10 wt. % - 15.41 wt. %, average: 12.39 wt. %), K2O (6.67 wt. % - 8.86 wt. %, average: 7.50 wt. %) and CaO (0.49 Wt. % - 4.64 wt. %. average: 2.73 wt. %). P2O5, MnO and TiO2 are less than 1.0 wt. %. The trace elements analysis indicates the concentration distributions: Rb (0.11-0.15 ppm, average 0.13 ppm), Co (0.04-0.17 ppm, average 0.10 ppm). Trace elements ˂ 0.10 ppm are Zn, W, Ni, Cu, V and Pb. From the petrographic and geochemical assessment, the petrogenesis of the migmatite has silica-rich igneous parentage. Moreover, the plots of SiO2-CaO and K2O-SiO2 placed the migmatite on the “upper boundary field of Francisian Greywacke” protolith and Shoshonite series, respectively.
A. D. Adedoyin, J. G. Atat, E. E. Ekott
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 33-46; doi:10.52417/ojer.v2i2.219

Abstract:
Petrographic and provenance studies of heavy minerals in Ifelodun sediment were carried out. Sediment samples from eight locations were obtained from the study area; sieved to allow only sand-size lithology. The result was achieved after subjecting this sieved lithology obtained to analyses using a binocular (transmitted and reflected light) microscope. Minerals were separated in a funnel using bromoform with a specific gravity of about 2.89 (gravity method). The heavy minerals present in lithologic sand units are mainly staurolite, tourmaline, zircon and other opaque minerals including cassiterite. The most dominant non-opaque mineral is staurolite with 27.5% of the total minerals counted in the area. Staurolite is very appreciable in locations AR1 with 60% presence (which is 80% of the non-opaque minerals), AR3, AR5, AR7 and OL15b (each with 30%). OL15b also recorded a better amount of tourmaline (20%); Zircon is better in OL6b with 20% of the heavy minerals available in this location. The source rock predicted is porphyroblastic schists.
T. G. Adelalu, A. Ibrahim, E. B. Benjamin, G. C. Yakubu
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 2, pp 01-19; doi:10.52417/ojer.v2i1.188

Abstract:
Anthropogenic nexus of environmental change is a vital issue in flood control and hazard management. While it is true that some will loom in flood and others in drought, it is no longer valid to argue the authenticity of climate change. Though climate change alters our physical veracities, the problem of yearly flooding is more a human than a natural one in Taraba State. This paper provides technical proof of anthropogenic impression in the incessant flooding in the area. Both spatial and hydro-climatic data were used for this study in addition to designed questionnaire. Hydro and climatic data were collected from Upper Benue River Basin Development Agency, Yola. Correlation matrix was used to show the extent of climatic variation and GIS depicts the land use change. Rainfall has not related well with excess channel flow. Coefficient of variation in rainfall and runoff is not pronounced. R- Factor in all the gauging stations is very low. Built up area occupied just 2.8% of the area accounting for 806.9 hectares. Cultivated area and the bare land was about 13146.2 hectares. This accounts for about 46.3% of the area. Vegetation cover occupied more than half of the study area. This accounts for 50.1% of the land mass of the catchment area under study. Owing to the occurrence of good vegetation cover, which is more than 50% of the basin area, generally one would have expected low occurrence of flooding in the study area. The farmers’ assessment agreed with the scientific analysis. The runoff volumes that traverse the state three decades ago without much disturbance now pose a serious ache. Though Inter catchment link and discharge thereof is a factor, the cogwheel pinpoints land use change and encroachment of floodplain. Parastatals involved in the land survey and planning of the state should wake up to the challenge.
G. M. Mafuyai, M. S. Ayuba, C. U. Zang
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 09-35; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i2.164

Abstract:
The present work was conducted by monitoring the water from twelve major tin mine ponds water in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria (Bokkos, Barkin – Ladi and Jos – South) used for irrigation. Their quality was assessed in terms of physico-chemical parameters for dry and rainy seasons. The physico-chemical parameters such as; Turbidity, pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total alkalinity (TA), Total Hardness (TH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate (PO43-), Sulphate (SO42-), Chloride (Cl- ), Fluoride (F-), Sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K+) were investigated to ascertain the water quality for irrigation purposes. Water quality parameters with regards to its use for the purpose of irrigation such as FAO/WHO/FEPA standards satisfy the requirement for use in agriculture. However, turbidity which ranged from18.1 – 27.4 and 15.9 – 18.8, dissolved oxygen 20.9 – 26.3 and 20.2 – 27.4 mg/L, Total alkalinity 101 – 134 and 122 – 167mg/L, total phosphate 6.3 – 8.9 and 6.5 – 10.5 mg/L, BOD 7.4 – 23.8 and 7.2 – 29.2 mg/L, potassium 1.13 – 1.18 and 3.81 – 4.63 mg/L both in dry and rainy seasons, respectively were found to be above the irrigation water standard limits. The study therefore recommends that the mining pond water should be used with caution as some of the parameters are liable to be toxic to the irrigated crops. The positive correlation exhibited among some of the parameters examined is a clear indication of a common relationship between these sources of water.
V. O. Ashaolu
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 01-08; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i2.146

Abstract:
There are thirty-five (35) metals with public health implications due to occupational or residential exposure; twenty-three (23) of these are called heavy elements or metals. They are Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, Cadmium, Cerium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Gallium, Gold, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Platinum, Silver, Tellurium, Thallium, Tin, Uranium, Vanadium, and Zinc. Interestingly, minute amount of these elements are common in our environment and diet and are actually necessary for a balanced health, but increased consumption may cause acute or chronic toxicity (poisoning). Allergies are not uncommon and repeated long-term exposure to these metals such as Zinc, Lead, Chromium, Selenium, Nickel, Cobalt and Cadmium may cause cancer. The alarming perceived increase of these pollutants around the south-western regions of Nigeria have necessitated the need to evaluate water and sediment samples of Osun river, popularly known for its cultural practices and activities. The physicochemical properties of samples such as pH, TDS EC, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Conductivity, Total Hardness, Sodium, Potassium, Phosphate, Nitrate, Chloride were analyzed and result showed compliance with recommended WHO standards. Trace and heavy metal composition in water using standard methods indicates the presence of Calcium (5.11±0.04ppm), Magnesium (0.54±0.004ppm), Potassium (1.28±0.01ppm) and Iron (0.05±0.00ppm) while sediment sample contained high composition of Zinc (21.99±2.67ppm), Iron (261.6±2.00ppm) and Manganese (105.6+0.50ppm). Results obtained from proximate analysis of both water and sediment samples, shows that there are no heavy metals presence in Osun River that could pose a threat to public health. Rather, there are more minerals and nutrients in availability which implies that water sample lacks considerable pollutants and can be certified healthy for moderate consumption and domestic uses which is within permissible value limits of WHO standards. Ashaolu V. O. | Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, LIFE, Loyola College, Chennai-600034
P. H. Bukar, M. A. Onoja
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 59-70; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i1.117

Abstract:
The contamination of the environment with heavy metals is one of the challenges that constitute Nigeria’s environmental problem with urbanization being one of the major causes; due to the unavailability of proper waste dumpsites and landfills for infrastructural development thereby resulting in the polluting rivers and streams. The cultivation of vegetables along channels and rivers that transcend major cities have been a source of concern globally in recent decades due to accumulation of heavy metals and introduction of heavy metals into the food chain. This study therefore assessed the level of concentration of heavy metals namely; Aluminum, Iron, Lanthanum, Manganese, Chromium, Rubidium, Antimony, Scandium, Barium, Samarium and Zinc in Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus) samples obtained on farmlands along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam cultivated through irrigation. The samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) analytical technique with the aim of assessing their level of accumulation with heavy metals. The objective was to ascertain the food safety status of the vegetable by comparing the values obtained with maximum permissible limit (MPL) recommended by FAO/WHO for vegetables. The study results show that the concentration levels ranged from below detection limit (BDL) for Aluminum, Chromium, and Antimony (843 ± 16 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.2 ppm and 0.26 ± 0.03 ppm respectively) to Barium (7 ± 1.0 to 12 ± 1.0 ppm, Iron 11 ± 0.4 to 303 ± 36 ppm), Lanthanum (0.203± 0.03 to 1.93± 0.05 ppm), Manganese (22.9 ± 0.2 to 40.2 ± 0.2 ppm), Rubidium (7 ± 1 to 13± 1 ppm), Scandium (0.02± 0.00 to 0.05 ± 0.01 ppm), Samarium (0.02 ± 0 to 0.24± 0.01ppm), and Zinc (8± 1.0 to 24±0.1 ppm). This result also indicates that the maximum concentration value of Manganese exceeds the 25.95 ppm value of MPL recommended by FAO/WHO for vegetables therefore the consumption of Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus) cultivated from the study site has a potential health risk due to the presence of Manganese above recommended value.
C. Kambai, R. O. Olatunji, M. J. Francis
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 32-46; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i1.70

Abstract:
This study investigated the compost quality of sericulture waste on the growth of Anogeissus leiocarpus using two composting methods. The two-method adopted were M1 (pile method) and M2 (bin method). Sericulture waste which includes mulberry leaves and silkworm excreta were air dried for 24hours, measured (1 kg) and set in layers for both methods adopted. Samples of compost from each method were taken before planting to the laboratory for proximate analysis. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data obtained. Anogeissus leiocarpus seeds were soaked for 10 minutes at 35oC and at 9.5oC for 24 hours to enhance the breaking of its dormancy. Anogeissus leiocarpus seeds was planted using sericulture compost from both adopted methods. Result shows that M1 had the highest mineral composition. M1 recorded the highest (N %) with the value of 0.93%; (P %) with 0.089%; (K %) with 0.58%; (Ca %) with the value of 1.78% and (Mg %) with the value of 0.72% while M2 had a lower mineral composition. The result obtained for the early growth parameters shows that M1 had a higher plant height and stem girth which was significantly different from M2, the mixture of the two compost had the highest leaf count which was also significant while the control recorded the lowest value for all the parameters assessed. This result suggests that pile composting method is the best method for composting sericulture waste and can be used as a good and preferable alternative for inorganic manure in raising seedlings and trees species. Adopting the use of sericulture waste as compost will help in reducing the waste management problem, enhance economic use of farm waste and also help to ease the low germination rate and germination percentage of Anogeissus leiocarpus. Kambai, C. | Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria
K. M. Oladejo
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 1-20; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i1.68

Abstract:
This paper examines the relationship between El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and rainfall patterns in Nigeria. Annual rainfall totals, growing season rainfall totals and annual raindays of 27 Nigerian meteorological stations with varying lengths of records from 1903 to 2012 were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET). Monthly Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) anomalies data over Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) were obtained from Climatic Prediction Centre (CPC). Kendall tau statistics and Step-Wise Multiple Regression model were used for data analyses. Results from this study showed that annual rainfall totals, growing season rainfall and annual raindays series exhibited a significant downward trend at most of the stations over the period of the study. It was observed that annual rainfall pattern changed from a positive pattern within 1931- 1960 period to a negative pattern within 1961-1990 period and then, to a positive pattern within 1991-2012 period. It was concluded that he alternating wet and dry patterns in inter-annual rainfall fluctuations and by extension, the droughts and floods over Nigeria within the study period, were caused by sea surface temperature anomalies over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The paper therefore concludes that SSTs should be integrated in the seasonal rainfall prediction models in Nigeria for an improved forecast. Oladejo, K. M. | Department of Geography, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
O. E. Obayemi, O. O. Komolafe
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 21-32; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i1.69

Abstract:
This study examined the histopathological alterations in the gills, fillet and liver of Hemichromis fasciatus in Igun reservoir (located in an abandoned goldmine area) compared to those of Opa reservoir. Life fish species were collected from Opa and Igun reservoirs and identified in the laboratory. Techniques based on histological analyses were done on the organs and photomicrographs taken using digital binocular compound LED microscope. Epithelial lifting and hypertrophy of lamellae were observed in the gills of H. fasciatus in Opa reservoir and compared to rupture of gill epithelium, rupture of chloride cell, fusion, hyperplasia, curling of lamellae in H. fasciatus of Igun reservoir. The fillet of H. fasciatusin Opa and Igun reservoirs revealed splitting and atrophy of muscle bundles. Also, parasite cyst and necrosis were observed in the fillet of H. fasciatus of Igun reservoir compared to degeneration in muscle bundles in the fish of Opa reservoir. Similarly, the liver of H. fasciatus in Igun and Opa reservoirs showed splitting at the wall of central vein, hepatopancreas and liver cells degeneration. Moreover, nucleus hypertrophy was also identified in the liver of H. fasciatus in Opa reservoir compared to vascular congestion in the central vein, bile duct, portal vein and portal artery of H. fasciatus in Igun reservoir. The study therefore concluded that H. fasciatus specimens in Igun reservoir were histopathologically unhealthy as compared with those of Opa reservoir probably due to the high level of pollution resulting in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Igun reservoir samples. Obayemi, O. E | Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
A. O. Omotosho, T. A. Ewemoje
Open Journal of Environmental Research (ISSN: 2734-2085), Volume 1, pp 47-58; doi:10.52417/ojer.v1i1.71

Abstract:
Cassava processing is an industry common to most West African countries as well as in other tropical countries of the world. The processing of cassava is known for its high consumption of water resources. This study therefore investigates the potential for cassava processing water conservation using combined peroxide-oxidation and adsorption recycling processing technology. A Sequential Peroxide-Oxidation and Adsorption treatment process was established by producing cassava peel carbon and activated carbon from waste cassava peels. This was used in the adsorption of pollutant parameters in oxidized cassava processing wastewater. The study further went on to estimate the volume of water that could be conserved in Nigeria through the employment of the Sequential Peroxide-Oxidation and Adsorption treatment process with the aid of a 3-scenario water-based estimation techniques. The research revealed that the estimated volume of water employed in processing cassava through fermentation process is about 1,525 l/ton while that for non-fermentation process is about 960 l/ton. However, an estimated 104,951.36, 100,195.20 and 95,639.04 million litres of water could be conserved considering each of the three cassava process combination scenarios. The study concluded that if cassava industry could make use of the combined peroxide-oxidation and adsorption recycling processing technology described as in the experimental procedure, substantial volume of water resources could be conserved and recycled for other uses such as irrigation, as well as groundwater recharge thereby improving water budget. Omotosho, O. A. | Agricultural Engineering and Environmental Unit, Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
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