Journal of Pharma and Drug Regulatory Affairs

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EISSN : 2582-3043
Total articles ≅ 3
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Navita Mahor, Shivani Singh, Anika Goel, Rashi Rai, Abhinav Srivastava
Journal of Pharma and Drug Regulatory Affairs, Volume 4, pp 16-30; https://doi.org/10.46610/jpdra.2022.v04i02.002

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has claimed the lives of millions around the world. Poverty arose as a result of economic and social instability. The impact of the epidemic has resulted in border closures, trade restrictions and millions of deaths. Most of them are unable to feed themselves and their families during quarantine. As the humanitarian crisis continues, the impact of COVID-19 has grown even greater. Coronavirus genomes are among the biggest RNA viruses (ranging from 27 to 37.5 kb) and include the genetic material of a number of cistrons (polycistronic). G and C residues account for 41% of the virus's genome, as well as polyadenylated RNA and 29,903 nucleotides. The corona virus genome is organized in the following order: envelope (E), nucleocapsid, 5 replicase (rep), membrane (M), and spike (S). The rep gene of SARS-CoV-2, which makes up about a third of the virus's genome, predicts the transcription of ORF1a and ORF1b which are two poly-proteins that go through co-translational proteolytic processing. S, E, M, and N are structural genes that are encoded downstream of open four frame ORFs. Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the therapeutics that are extensively used in mitigate pain, decrease inflammation and lay down high temperature. It has a variety of uses, including pain relievers, arthritis, and inflammation. The mechanism of action of NSAIDs is to inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 by acting on the COX isoenzyme. NSAIDs inhibit both non selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors, but certain COX-2 inhibitors have little effect on COX-1. Non-steroidal drugs have many advantages as well as disadvantages. NSAIDs reduce joint swelling and improve mobility and strength. NSAID formulations are widely used worldwide. The use of NSAIDs is central to reducing rheumatic disease and treating inflammation around the joints. NSAIDs are also used for non-rheumatic conditions such as chronic and acute pain, biliary and dysmenorrhea and urolithiasis. NSAIDs for COVID-19, especially ibuprofen, may cause symptoms of COVID-19. ACE2 receptor virus entry can be standardized with NSAIDs. Several case studies and surveys were conducted and found that most children were affected by the use of NSAIDs in Covid. They also found low mortality rates and no serious consequences in both adults and children. Although some studies have indicated that NSAIDs should not be used in patients with COVID-19, there is no clear evidence that NSAIDs should be avoided.
Mahmoud Younis
Journal of Pharma and Drug Regulatory Affairs, Volume 4, pp 29-40; https://doi.org/10.46610/jpdra.2022.v04i01.002

Abstract:
We should put into consideration that some humans are genetically more susceptible to develop type 2 diabetes than others. Of them, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is the gene which is more accusative. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 Inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) are considered as a comparatively new class of anti hyperglycemic drugs, the first agent of this group was approved by FDA in 2006. This group known as gliptins work in a physiological manner, as we all know ,enteroendocrine l cells in the intestine produce glucagon-like peptide-1,a hormone acting on glp1 receptors on pancreatic beta cells, leading to physiological insulin release. Dpp 4 inhibitors are classified into 3 classes according to subsite interaction in the dpp4 enzyme. Materials and methods: 200 patients of type2 diabetes mellitus followed in a private clinic for 6 months in observational prospective study. Results: The results of our study show that turnover of dpp4 inhibitors in treatment of type 2 diabetes decrease hba1c and improve treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Dpp4 inhibitors turnover in diabetes mellitus treatment give a good control of type 2 diabetes better than using on drug for a long time.
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