ACS Nanoscience Au
ISSN / EISSN : 2694-2496 / 2694-2496
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 5
Articles in this journal
ACS Nanoscience Au; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnanoscienceau.1c00010
Polymeric micellar nanoparticles (PNPs) encapsulating over-thousand-nanometer (OTN) near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye molecules in block polymers having hydrophobic and hydrophilic chains are promising agents for the dynamic imaging of deep tissue. To achieve OTN-NIR fluorescent PNPs (OTN-PNPs) having high brightness, it is crucial to increase the affinity between the core polymer and dye molecules by matching their polarities; thus, criteria and methods to evaluate the affinity are required. In this study, we used the Hansen solubility parameter (HSP), including the polarity term, to evaluate the affinity between the two substances. HSP values of the OTN-NIR fluorescent dye IR-1061 and four core polymers, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and polystyrene (PSt), were calculated using the Hansen solubility sphere method and molecular group contribution method, respectively. The relative energy density between IR-1061 and each core polymer calculated using their HSP values revealed that the affinities of PLGA and PLA for IR-1061 are higher than those of PCL and PSt. Therefore, OTN-PNPs composed of PLGA, PLA, and PCL core polymers were prepared and compared. The OTN-PNPs having PLGA and PLA cores could be loaded with larger amounts of IR-1061, had higher photoluminescence intensities, and showed higher stability in phosphate buffered saline than those having PCL cores. Moreover, the OTN-PNPs having PLGA or PLA cores were used for the dynamic imaging of live mice. Thus, matching the solubility parameters of the core polymer and dye molecule is a useful approach for designing high-performance OTN-NIR fluorescent probes.
ACS Nanoscience Au; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnanoscienceau.1c00014
Throughout nature, simple rules explain complex phenomena, such as the selective interaction of chiral objects with circularly polarized light. Here, we demonstrate chiroptical signals from gold nanorods, which are seemingly achiral structures. Shape anisotropy due to atomic-level faceting and rounding at the tips of nanorods, which are free of chiral surface ligands, induces linear-to-circular polarization modulation during second harmonic generation. The intrinsic nanorod chiroptical response is increased by plasmon-resonant excitation, which preferentially amplifies circularly polarized harmonic signals. This structure–plasmon interplay is uniquely resolved by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation measurements. The material’s second-order polarizability is the product of the structure-dependent lattice-normal susceptibility and local surface plasmon field vectors. Synthetically scalable plasmon-supporting nanorods that amplify small circular dichroism signals provide a simple, assembly-free platform for chiroptical transduction.
ACS Nanoscience Au; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnanoscienceau.1c00011
In this work, we have synthesized polystyrene particles that carry short end-grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. We then added dissolved 100 kDa PEG polymers and monitored potential flocculation by confocal microscopy. Qualitative predictions, based on previous theoretical developments in this field (Xie, F.; et al. Soft Matter2016, 12, 658), suggest a non-monotonic temperature response. These theories propose that the “free” (dissolved) polymers will mediate attractive depletion interactions at room temperature, with a concomitant clustering/flocculation at a sufficiently high polymer concentration. At high temperatures, where the solvent is poorer, this is predicted to be replaced by attractive bridging interactions, again resulting in particle condensation. Interestingly enough, our theoretical framework, based on classical density functional theory, predicts an intermediate temperature regime where the polymer-mediated interactions are repulsive! This obviously implies a homogeneous dispersion in this regime. These qualitative predictions have been experimentally tested and confirmed in this work, where flocs of particles start to form at room temperature for a high enough polymer dosage. At temperatures near 45 °C, the flocs redisperse, and we obtain a homogeneous sample. However, samples at about 75 °C will again display clusters and eventually phase separation. Using results from these studies, we have been able to fine-tune parameters of our coarse-grained theoretical model, resulting in predictions of temperature-dependent stability that display semiquantitative accuracy. A crucial aspect is that under “intermediate” conditions, where the polymers neither adsorb nor desorb at the particle surfaces, the polymer-mediated equilibrium interaction is repulsive.
ACS Nanoscience Au; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnanoscienceau.1c00009
Luciferase-based biosensors have a wide range of applications and assay formats, including their relatively recent use in the study of viruses. Split luciferase, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, circularly permuted luciferase, cyclic luciferase, and dual luciferase systems have all been used to interrogate the structure and function of prominent viruses infecting humans, animals, and plants. The utility of these assays is demonstrated by numerous studies which have not only successfully characterized interactions between viral and host cell proteins but that have also used these systems to identify viral inhibitors. In the present COVID-19 pandemic, luciferase-based biosensors are already playing a critical role in the study of the culprit virus SARS-CoV-2 as well as in the development of serological assays and drug development via high-throughput screening. In this review paper, we provide a summary of existing luciferase-based biosensors and their applications in virology.
ACS Nanoscience Au; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnanoscienceau.1c00008
Nanodrug delivery systems (NDDSs) based on water-soluble and atomically precise gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are under the spotlight due to their great potential in cancer theranostics. Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most aggressive cancers with a low early diagnosis rate, with drug therapy being the primary means to overcome its increasing incidence. In this work, we designed and characterized a set of 28 targeted nanosystems based on Au144(p-MBA)60 (p-MBA = para-mercaptobenzoic acid) nanocluster to be potentially employed as combination therapy in GC treatment. The proposed multifunctional AuNCs are functionalized with cytotoxic drugs (5-fluorouracil and epirubicin) or inhibitors of different signaling pathways (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)) and RGD peptides as targeting ligands, and we studied the role of ligand ratio in their optimal structural conformation using peptide–protein docking and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results reveal that the peptide/drug ratio is a crucial factor influencing the potential targeting ability of the nanosystem. The most convenient features were observed when the peptide amount was favored over the drug in most cases; however, we demonstrated that the system composition and the intermolecular interactions on the ligand shell are crucial for achieving the desired effect. This approach helps guide the experimental stage, providing essential information on the size and composition of the nanosystem at the atomic level for ligand tuning in order to increase the desired properties.
ACS Nanoscience Au; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnanoscienceau.1c00004