Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies

Journal Information
EISSN : 0976-7797
Published by: Zain Publications (10.47760)
Total articles ≅ 55
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Latest articles in this journal

Colleen Rakabopa, Zar Gomo, Greanious Alfred Mavondo, Cuthbert Musarurwa
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.001

Abstract:
Reference intervals for markers of renal function are critical in determining the point estimates for renal disease intervention before and during disease management. Estimates of glomerular function are becoming more practical than the traditional methods beset by insensitivity and high mean errors during estimation. Current tests for renal function tests diagnose renal insufficiency when less than a third of the nephrons are remaining in the both kidneys. Serum cystatin C and derived serum cystatin based estimated glomerular filtration rate are critical as a comparative determinant of values to distinguish diseased from health individuals being important markers for renal function which need to be diagnosed before the renal mass has been irreversibly diminished. However, reference intervals for the protein are not yet established amongst black in Southern Africa and it is necessary to determine these as it appears their usage in renal function estimation is becoming a viable alternative to traditional renal function markers.
Calleta Gwatiringa, Lebitsi Maud Modiba, Greanious Alfred Mavondo
Published: 30 September 2022
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 25-42; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i09.002

Abstract:
The need to create a harmonized process of handling mental health issues cropping up during the perinatal period in Zimbabwe cannot be over emphasized. The number of pregnant women needing perinatal management is growing. The number of trained midwifery nurse practitioner is also growing contributed from different nursing schools meaning different practice methodologies necessitating national guidelines to be adopted. A search of the literature revealed that the British Columbia guidelines provided a framework which could be adopted and adapted for use in the formulation of best practices guidelines to advance collaborative and supportive care as it applies to perinatal health care and client-centred childbirth. The guidelines were premised on the inkling that the use of the ideal strategy and a coordinated approach results in appropriate identification and effective management of mental pathology. The framework and the resultant guidelines, were able to guard against disturbances in the mental wellbeing of the women, whilst excluding the presence of mental disorders. The pillars of the framework we adopted to address dimensions namely: of instruction and avoidance, assessment and the verdict, therapy and self-administration, adapting and backup linkages. The adopted framework facilitates recognition, diagnosis, management and keeping track of ladies with identified mental health challenges. These were conceptualized as recognition, diagnosis, management and follow-up, giving a more promotive and preventive flair to the Zimbabwean perinatal mental health guidelines. Therefore, the theoretical framework for guidelines in mental health views mental stability is an interconnected quadlet of recognition of the tell-tail signs of the disease, diagnosis of the condition, management of the disease and follow-up of the those who have been successfully managed for possible relapses.
Edet Okon Umoh, Michael E. Endra, Monday P. Anake, Dennis E. Amu
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 40-84; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i08.002

Abstract:
Aggressive management is one of the cardinal roles of psychiatric mental healthcare providers. This study aimed at reporting incidence and management of patients’ aggressive behaviors within January to December, 2021 in Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Calabar. An ecto-facto research design was used to conduct the study. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of study was Healthcare providers which involved Nurses, Doctors, Social workers, Health Assistants and Emergency Prepared Unit of the facility. Purposive sampling technique was used to study the 461 mental healthcare providers with observational techniques. A standard AIS tool was used as instrument to illicit how aggressive incidents were observed and managed. Obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using frequencies, percentages, tables, charts and graphs. Findings revealed that Ward 1 had the highest incidents of aggression followed by Wards 3 & 4; that the highest aggression incidence occurs in the morning followed by night shifts; that Nurses use their verbal and physical intervention most in managing incidents; that the most triggering factor of aggression is patients’ poor mental state and effective management results in prevention of aggressive incidence to other patients, protection of the young, weak and aged patients from harm, prevention of patients’ escape and protection of hospital properties from destruction among others. This study implies that nurses who are closest to the patient deliver verbal and physical interventions most times before the arrival of the doctor on call. It was therefore recommended among other things that more male psychiatric nurses should be employed and psychiatric nurses should be placed on special allowances like call duty allowance, hazard allowance and others to motivate them do their work.
Violet Mashe, Greanious Alfred Mavondo, Joy Mavondo, Priscah Kachepe, Judith Audrey Chamisa
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-39; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i08.001

Abstract:
Rates of performed caesarean sections (CS) have increased globally with 18.6% of all births occurring by CS. A range of 6%-27.2% has been seen in the least and most developed regions. In Zimbabwe, CS deliveries accounts for 6 % of all births against a WHO recommended 10-15% preferred limit. Different post-delivery problems arise such as pelvic abscesses requiring surgical intervention. Unfavourable foetomaternal post-delivery outcomes have been after CS. How women handle themselves to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with post CS complications is not well known in Zimbabwe. The knowledge and degree to which selfcare after CS practices are carried out by women requires further elucidation. Assessing level of knowledge on self-care practices among women delivered by CS, establishing their self-care practices, exploring their attitudes towards selfcare practices and determining the relationship between their selfcare knowledge and selfcare practices is of paramount importance.
Obahiagbon I, Egbo Oh
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.002

Abstract:
Dyspepsia is a symptom complex characterized by features which include epigastric pain or discomfort, belching, bloating and heart burn amongst others, and is one of the commonest indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the histopathological bases of organic dyspepsia in this environment. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy specimens from 186 patients diagnosed with organic dyspepsia in our centre over the 6-month study period were the materials for the study. These were subjected to tissue processing and histopathological examination. The vast majority of the cases of organic dyspepsia had their histopathological bases in the stomach, mostly from various forms of chronic and reactive gastritis, with occasional cases of gastric mucosal ulcers and frank malignancies. Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis continues to underlie most organic causes of dyspepsia in our environment.
Voke Peter Orubgbo, Kenneth Atoe
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 18-45; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.003

Abstract:
Several epidemics have posed a serious threat to global public health, notably the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, which claimed the lives of 800 people out of an estimated 8 000 cases. With the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a new public health crisis is threatening the world (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 has claimed the lives of almost 1•8 million people. The WHO declared the COVID-19 epidemic, which is focused in Wuhan, central China, a global health emergency on January 30, 2020. Individuals, as well as state and local governments, have all responded differently to the pandemic. COVID-19 precautions include keeping a safe distance, washing hands, and wearing masks, among others. Others are less stringent in requiring these safeguards or outright prohibiting high-risk behavior. Some cities, towns, and communities have closed or imposed restrictions on how many people are allowed inside at any given time, while others have remained open as usual. Masks and physical isolation in public settings are advocated or even required by some government and community leaders. Others believe it is a matter of personal taste. Masks and physical separation in public places are advocated or even required by some government and community leaders. Others argue that it is simply a matter of personal preference. COVID is now a global pandemic and an emergency, not just a matter of personal views. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 complications have been shown to influence age and gender. Comorbidities were found to enhance the risk of infection in cases that were found. To stop coronavirus pandemic it’s crucial to have access to safe and effective vaccines, so seeing many vaccines being developed and tested is quite encouraging. The corona virus 19 dilemma is has influence the global economy as well as Africa’s. As a result of the pandemic, certain critical areas of the African economy are already slowing. Tourism, aviation travel, and the oil industry are all affected. Over the decade 2000-2010, Africa’s growth improved dramatically. Many forms of conspiracies have been underway in numerous nations as a result of the government's exploitation of the COVID-19 as a vehicle for getting funds from other countries. In this class, conspiracy theories include assertions that the virus was manufactured in China to alleviate the overcrowding problem, while the virus was created in Europe to remove the elderly. Individuals, as well as state and local governments, have responded to the pandemic in a variety of ways. Some people take COVID-19 precautions such as staying a safe distance, washing their hands, and wearing masks.
Gwatiringa Calleta, Mavondo Greanious Alfred, Modiba Lebitsi Maud
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-65; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.004

Abstract:
Introduction: Women have psychosocial challenges but perinatal interventions are not making much impact on their mental status hence the interventions need scaling up. This study involved measuring and analysing the extent to which levels of the psychosocial markers reflect effectiveness of the mental health interventions offered by midwives. Methods: The study was conducted at Mpilo Central Hospital Maternity Bulawayo, for the main reason that it receives women referrals from 5 out of the 10 provinces in the country with a total catchment of almost 50% of the country’s population. The maternity hospital has a full complement of all the five maternity units. A quantitative approach administrating a Quality-of-Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Short form (Q-LES-SF) scale was used. The scale ranged from “very poor” to “very good” with “poor”, “fair”, “good” components in between was used to measure the psychosocial scores on a purposive sample of 300 women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The participants had attended at least three antenatal reviews where psychosocial interventions and mental health assessment, monitoring and evaluations are normally carried. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics on SPSS Version 23 package. Results: The Q-LES-Q-SF psychosocial scale which was revealed that women had psychosocial challenges without adequate mental health interventions to ameliorate these challenges. The study demonstrated a bimodal sample with peaks at the “Good” and “Poor” set points. The relationships of the psychosocial and satisfaction scores along the scale continuum showed that “Poor” (33%) Q-LES-Q-SF was higher, followed by “Good” (29%), followed by “Fair” (25%), followed by “Very Poor” and “Very Poor” and “Very Good” being equal (6.5%) in a normal distribution pattern. The likelihood of the demographic variables influencing the Q-LES-Q-F scale were not necessarily linked to the quality-of-life enjoyment and satisfaction of the expectant women during prenatal period. However, age, education level acquired and marital status showed a linearity towards the “Good” when individually rated against the Q-LES-Q-F. Discussion: The psychosocial scores were generally both poor and good indicating that perinatal interventions are needed are needed to making much impact on the mental and social wellbeing of women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The good to very good Q-LES-Q-F scores are a requirement in expectant mothers as this has a strong bearing on the wellbeing of the foetus and mother post parturition. Apparently, the need for scaling up psychosocial support, monitoring, evaluation and interventions to third trimester pregnant women by midwives cannot be overemphasized.
Primada Kusumaninggar, Firman Pribadi
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.001

Abstract:
Background: Due to the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical health care plays a more crucial role in handling the increase. Countries worldwide accidentally collapsed because of unpreparedness in facing COVID-19, which caused a hospital panic phenomenon to stock medical equipment. Objective: To describe the procurement system for health and pharmaceutical supplies in hospitals during pandemic COVID 19. Method: A Systematic literature review. In a literature search from 2019 to 2022, the investigation found as many as 92 papers extracted using PRISMA guidelines, and a total of fourteen articles were selected for review. Results: in this review, we found that the government in every country has different procurement systems, revealing that each has its strengths and weaknesses. However, centralized procurement systems have a distinct advantage.
Tanka Prasad Upadhyaya
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 66-76; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i07.005

Abstract:
The commencement of financial sector reform initiated in early 1990’s changed India’s policy on development strategy absolutely. The preliminary approach of financing current account deficit mainly by way of debt flows and official development assistance has altered to harnessing non-debt creating capital flows. Under this approach since September 14, 1992; Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) were allowed to invest in financial instruments in India and consequently Indian financial markets have changed greatly in its volume, size, depth and nature. FIIs are important to emerging economies because they bring funds and capital to businesses in developing countries. Foreign institutional investors play a very important role in any economy, since these are the big companies such as investment banks, mutual funds etc, who invest considerable amount of money in the Indian markets. These investors typically include hedge funds, mutual funds, insurance companies and investment banks among others. FIIs generally hold equity positions in foreign financial markets. Due to this, the companies invested in by FIIs generally have improved capital structures due to healthy inflow of funds. Thus, FIIs facilitate financial innovation and growth in capital markets. The entry of an FII can cause a drastic swing in domestic financial markets. It increases demand for local currency and directs inflation. Therefore, there are restrictions put by the managing authority of a country on how much stake FIIs can hold in the domestic company. This ensures that the FII’s influence on the company is limited, so as to avoid exploitation. However, not every FII will make an FDI in the country it is investing in. FIIs directly impact the stock market of the country, its exchange rate and inflation. FIIs can invest in listed, unlisted, and to-be-listed companies on the stock markets, in both the primary and secondary markets. This paper tries to analyse the changing role of FIIs in Indian capital markets because of their increasing share in the market.
Richmond P. Ilao, Frederick Edward T. Fabella
Cognizance Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Volume 2, pp 35-61; https://doi.org/10.47760/cognizance.2022.v02i06.004

Abstract:
Middle school students face various developmental and academic challenges. As these grade levels are characteristically in-between elementary and high school years, the adolescent difficulties may be even more prominent in these stages, pre-pandemic and more so during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships of important variables to individuals in the middle school age group such as self-regulation, stress, and life satisfaction, and to analyze whether these variables differ when students are grouped according to sex, grade level, and socio-economic status which are deemed to be bases of a proposed program. One hundred (115) purposively sampled middle school students in Ekamai International School in Bangkok, Thailand were the respondents of this study. Results indicated that a significant positive relationship was found only between life satisfaction and self-regulation. This study also concludes that students may have a high level of life satisfaction despite experiencing stress. No significant difference was noted in self-regulation, stress, and life satisfaction when students are grouped according to sex, grade level, and socioeconomic status.
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