Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_58_2020
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. The infection has spread in more than 150 countries and is a pandemic. Governments across the world have adopted rigorous measures to reduce both the spread by lockdown and cancelling most visas. It has detrimental effects on health-care systems and on the whole economy of world including the USA.
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_10_2021
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a pandemic due to a high rate of infection by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). People with comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, Type II diabetes, and COPD have been having acute symptoms and higher rate of mortality. Further, increased severity and lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been observed among men than in women. SARSCoV-2 infects human cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its spike protein (S-Protein). ACE2 is a critical transmembrane protein of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which modulates the cardiovascular system and fluid homeostasis. This article reviews the current knowledge about the mechanisms of sex-based differences that may cause variations in COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes among males and females. Males have been shown to have a delayed viral clearance due to increased retention of coronavirus as compared to females. Recent studies indicate that a severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 impairs spermatogenesis in males, however, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 damages testicular cells need more studies. We discuss here the distinctive features such as sex hormone milieu, receptor biology, and immunology that may be responsible for the gender-based differences in the outcome of COVID-19.
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_39_2020
Extensive research has unraveled a niche for melatonin that is of great significance for the female reproductive physiology. The potency of melatonin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agent is being utilized to benefit female reproductive anomalies. Melatonin receptors have been localized in the Supra Chaismatic Nucleus (SCN), pars tuberalis (PT), and the gonads suggesting the regulation of reproduction by melatonin not only at a higher level but also on the gonads through complex interrelated mechanisms. Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland acts on the hypothalamus to regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone and subsequently gonadotropin (FSH/LH) release from the PT. However, the de novo synthesis of this indoleamine reported in the gonads gave rise to the idea of a more localized action. The mammalian ovary has all the molecular machinery required for the biosynthesis of melatonin and interestingly concentration of melatonin in the follicular fluid of pre-ovulatory follicles is much higher than circulatory melatonin even in humans. This locally produced melatonin has been shown to modulate various pathways governing ovarian steroidogenesis. Further, melatonin and its receptors play a significant role in antioxidant defense mechanism of ovary for follicular growth and maturation. Exposure to stress strongly influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and elevated glucocorticoid levels suppress various ovarian functions including implantation thereby pregnancy. Melatonin acts antagonistically with glucocorticoids, making it crucial for the management of the female reproductive functions/dysfunctions. Usage of melatonin during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures has been found to improve oocyte quality, survival, and fecundity. Therefore, in future, melatonin can be implicated as preferable therapeutic especially in IVF and assisted reproductive techniques.
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_5_2021
The coronavirus pandemic had been wreaking havoc in our lives for almost a year now. The pandemic and response to the pandemic by authorities and public had decreased the utilization of both essential and non-essential health-care services. This is a case study about how a clinic under National Institute of Health and Family Welfare was able to provide infertility services during the pandemic following safety precautions. Furthermore, the case study observed a reduction in utilization of infertility services during the pandemic era.
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_18_2020
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of synthetic organic chemicals that are persistent in the environment as well as in wildlife and human body. Further, PFASs are considered as persistent organic pollutants. PFASs have been extensively used in many industrial and consumer products over the past several decades and, therefore, they are found in various environmental matrices. A large number of studies during the past decades have reported the toxic effects of these compounds on the male reproductive health including damage to the seminiferous tubules, changes in reproductive hormones level, and low sperm counts and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in such effects. In the present review, we have summarized the reproductive toxicity of some PFASs, namely, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorododecanoic acid, and perfluorononanoic acid in the male. This article briefly describes the findings on PFASs which may attract the attention of the reproductive toxicologists to examine the potential risk to the male reproductive health because of the continued contamination of the environment by these compounds.
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_51_2020
Appraising SARS-CoV-2 virus under the taxonomy category of coronaviridae family, which has been responsible for more than two million fatalities across the globe. It not only jeopardizes the normal life, but also potentiating the evolutionary progress towards a more lethal form. The lethal form, albeit is a bit virulent, is likely to predominate, thereby causing cumulative damage in any cluster that cannot even combat the wide spectrum of genetic variation. The impact on the vertical COVID-19 transmissibility of antenatal population is still sketchy about “nosocomial transmission” and the measures crude. The paper has reviewed the placental pathological findings of pregnant women afflicted with SARS-CoV-2 including the information, gathered from the subsequent stages of gestational outcomes. The possibility of the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 due to the probable placental barrier damage caused by the severe maternal hypoxia, Homo sapiens (human) angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (hACE2) influenced transplacental migration of SARS-CoV-2 in advanced gestational age, the plausible presence of RNAemia (detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the blood) in hematogenous route was reviewed in this paper. Nevertheless, the probability of susceptible intrauterine or perinatal infection of fetus does not conclusively decide as chances of involving placental coexpression of hACE2 and transmembrane protease, serine 2 in cytoplasmic entry of SARS-CoV-2 remains insignificant, exhibiting the probable relative insensitivity to transplacental infection. The present paper will provide an important insight about the wider understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in the placenta that canvassed across all trimesters of pregnancy in response to the indiscriminate spread across globe at the time of therapeutic interventions.
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_36_2020
The coronavirus pandemic has had a great impact on many health sectors including pregnancy and infertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization, intrauterine insemination, ovulation induction, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and assisted reproductive techniques. Due to this situation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and relaxation permitted by government, allowing the non-essential services in a gradual manner, infertility services have been resumed as per the guidelines set by ministry of health and family welfare of India. The staff has to be triaged to meet the demands of this situation. Diagnostic evaluation using RT-PCR should be done at the commencement of treatment. If donor tests positive, cycle has to be called off. It is important to know, the effect of SARS-CoV2 on gametes, embryos, and early pregnancy. According to ESHRE, the probability of contamination of gametes and early stages of embryo by this virus is low. Certain new evidences are indicating possible transmission of this virus from mother to newborn, thus putting the pregnant women into high risk category. It is still not known if patients who continue to test positive for PCR remain infective throughout the period or their infectivity dissipates over time. Universal good practices must be followed in view of safety for both doctors and patients. COVID-19 has actually changed the way of infertility treatment is provided. Extensive guidelines and new protocols must be set up so as to have minimum risks.
Published: 22 February 2021
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2, pp 65-71; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_55_2020
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an astonishing universal situation and all countries have adopted their own strategies to eradicate the corona virus transmission. All measures are followed according to the World Health Organization recommendations. As it is a new infection, scientific data are limited, although progressing relentlessly. The infectivity and mortality are higher than other pandemics and the propagation has fluctuated extensively by location. Coronavirus belonging to the family Coronaviridae (CoV) cause acute respiratory syndrome and infect unciliated bronchial epithelial cells and pneumonocytes Type II, predominantly harbored in mammals. It has become imperative to make out the ability of virus in COVID-19 era that how it affects the reproductive capacity in humans and whether pregnant women are at higher risk of fatality or comorbidity. In this article, the possible outcomes of COVID-19 in relation to reproduction and fertility with emphasis on impact on contraceptive assess, risk on pregnancy, fetal health, and regulation of assisted reproduction have been reviewed.
Published: 22 February 2021
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2, pp 2-6; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_49_2020
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to analyze the prevalence of coronavirus disease (COVID) real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity among asymptomatic patients undergoing infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study done in five centers in five different cities in India, analyzing the prevalence of COVID RT-PCR-positive rates among asymptomatic patients willing to undergo infertility treatment. All patients underwent triage and COVID RT-PCR testing as per the national guidelines. Patients tested positive for COVID RT-PCR were advised to discontinue treatment. Results: The overall prevalence of COVID RT-PCR positivity in low-risk patients undergoing infertility treatment was found to be low. The incidence of COVID RT-PCR positivity in staff and doctors providing infertility care and not dealing directly with COVID-positive patients was observed to be 10.7%. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of the virus in asymptomatic people is low and elective procedure like assisted reproduction technology can be carried out with all precautions and sanitization protocols in place.
Published: 22 February 2021
Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine, Volume 2, pp 126-128; https://doi.org/10.25259/jrhm_35_2020