Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments

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EISSN : 2582-0117
Total articles ≅ 15
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Varunesh Chaturvedi, Saloni Goyal, Mohammad Mukim, Monika Meghani, Faheem Patwekar, Mohsina Patwekar, Shabana Kausar Khan, G. N. Sharma
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 4, pp 17-36; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2022.v04i02.003

Abstract:
Catharanthus roseus is a beautiful flowering perennial herb which is always in bloom as ornamental plant. It is known as Madagascar periwinkle. This plant characterized as terpenoids indole alkaloid producing plant cultivated in warm region. Besides alkaloid it is rich in phenolic compounds, organic acids and amino acid of pharmacological significance in its different parts. Traditionally, this herbal plant is boon to provide protective action for many deadly health problems being faced by humans by their direct or indirect usage in skin disease, high blood pressure, rheumatism, menstrual disorders, indigestion etc. But nowadays, transition to modern and formulated treatment has been increased. Alkaloid vincristine, vinblastine, vinflunine, vinorelbine and vindesine are clinically approved for treatment regimen. Its pharmacological actions are ranging from antimicrobial to anti-neoplastic which are discussed to understand the health promoting properties. Catharanthus roseus is a nontoxic traditional medicinal plant but its semi-finished and finished products are prone to certain kind of toxic effects. Major anticancer drugs isolated from C. Roseus are Oncovin and Velban marketed world widely in millions of tons. This article provides evidence for clinical effectiveness and toxicity of approved phytoconstituents which is relevant for safety evaluation of various folksier and pharmacological activities.
Mahmud Younis
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 4, pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2022.v04i02.002

Abstract:
Introduction: Diabetic neuropathy is a concern of all diabetic patients and their families because of the severe pain that can prevent sleep. Gabapentin works by decreasing nerve excitability by modifying neurotransmitter expression, which is attributed to its action on calcium channels on the nervous system. Topically applied gabapentin is proven to be effective in treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Design: 3 months Observational study. Materials and Methods: Observational study with follow up of 180 patients of type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus in 3 groups. Group 1 received topical gabapentin; group 2 received oral gabapentin, group 3 as a control. Conclusion: Peripheral neuropathy of diabetes is estimated to be a serious problem which impairs the quality of life of a great percentage of diabetic patients by pain which is severe in most cases; topical gabapentin is estimated to be a new treatment choice of the pain associated with diabetic neuropathy without side effects.
Elsye Gunawan, Rafsanjani Abdul Rasyid, Daniel Lantang
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 4, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2022.v04i02.001

Abstract:
Batik leaf (Graptophyllum pictum (L) Griff) is one of the medicinal plants of the Graptophyllum genus. It is traditionally used by the community to treat diarrhea, lungs, and anemia, especially by the Papua community. The increases of various types of diseases influence the use of drugs from natural ingredients. One of which is infectious diseases caused by bacteria. Based on the test results, the Batik leaf (Graptophyllum pictum (L) Griff) extract was possibly becoming antibacterial. This study aims to determine the secondary metabolite compounds in extract and fraction of Batik leaf (Graptophyllum pictum (L) Griff.) and to obtain the most effective concentration in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi bacteria. The results of phytochemical screening in extract and fraction of batik leaf (Graptophyllum pictum (L) Griff.) showed that it contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenes compounds. In the research, it mentioned that the compounds could perform as antibacterial. The method of antibacterial testing used was the disc diffusion method. It used a completely randomized design with 5 (five) treatments, namely concentrations of 30%, 70%, 100%, ciprofloxacin (positive control), sterile distilled water (negative control) with 3 (three) repetitions, followed by the Tukey test (BNJ). The antibacterial test results of the batik leaf (Graptophyllum pictum (L) Griff.) fraction showed that it was able to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi bacteria at concentrations of 30%, 70%, and 100%. The results of the BNJ test showed that there was a significant difference in each concentration. Thus, the most effective concentration for inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi bacteria was 30% which was the lowest concentration that was able to give antibacterial activity.
Elsye Gunawan, Lensi Nura M. Bandaso, Daniel Lantang
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 4, pp 17-22; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2022.v04i01.003

Abstract:
The stem bark of Suon (Datura sp.) is one of the Papuan endemic plants. It is used as a traditional medicinal plant as an antimalarial and new or old wound medicine by the Yali Tribe in Sabelebi Village, Heriapini District, Yahukimo Regency by wrapping the young and flexible stem bark of Suon in the wound area. This plant has secondary metabolite compounds potential as an antibacterial, such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, and saponins. This research aimed to determine the inhibition of antibacterial activity and the most effective concentration in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. The research sample used the stem bark of Suon obtained from Sabelebi village, Yahukimo regency. Samples were extracted by maceration method using 96% ethanol solvent, then fractionated using n-Hexane, Ethyl-acetate, and Ethanol as solvents. Antibacterial activity test using disc diffusion method. The results of the Suon stem bark fraction (Datura sp.) against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria have the most effective inhibitory power and concentration, the ethanol-water fraction 50 ppm, the ethyl acetate fraction 50 ppm, and the n-Hexane fraction 50 ppm. Furthermore, Staphylococcus epidermidis have the most effective inhibitory power and concentration, the ethanol-water fraction 50 ppm, the ethyl acetate fraction 50 ppm, and the n-Hexane fraction 50 ppm. From the test results, it can conclude that the stem bark of Suon (Datura sp.) potentially inhibits Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria.
Sree Lakshmi N., Veeresh Babu P., Mounica A., Ganga Raju M.
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 4, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2022.v04i01.001

Abstract:
Obesity is a condition in which there is excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle etc. It is a major concern for developing various disorders like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, aqueous extract of Pennisetum glaucum seeds (AEPG) was screened for its anti-obesity and antioxidant activities by using in vitro models. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols and carbohydrates. The pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of the AEPG revealed its anti-obesity activity. Antioxidant activity of AEPG was performed by superoxide radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, in which plant extract exhibited concentration dependent inhibitory action on respective free radicals. Pharmacokinetic studies i.e. in vitro ADME studies were also performed to components like Tricin, p-Coumaric acid and Syringic acid using Swiss ADME web tool. The ADME data of Tricin, p-Coumaric acid and Syringic acid suggest that these three molecules had good bioavailability score and which was further supported by their gastrointestinal absorption and good penetration power to the tissues. However further studies are required to establish its pharmacological actions in in vivo models and to isolate phytoconstituents that are actually responsible for antiobesity activity.
Malak M. Albahri, Amna S. Al. Mamri, Zainab A. Fawaz, Nadin S. Lotfi, Faisal Auf, Manickam Balamurugan, Sohail Akhtar
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 4, pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2022.v04i01.002

Abstract:
In recent times, shampoo made from chemical agents are used all over the world but now a days people are getting alert of their toxic effects on eyes, hairs and skin. Good foam production is the main distinctive character of shampoo has an important role in its suitability. Typically, certain chemicals like stable foams are produced from alkanolamides, but it was found potentially carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, this study aimed to remove these harmful ingredients from shampoo and replace them with a safe ingredients from natural origin, namely Murraya koenigii (Curry leaves), Aloe dhufarensis and Azadirachta indica and Acacia concinna (Shikakai). The poly herbal shampoo was formulated by using wet gum method. The shampoo was evaluated for different quality control tests and the results were found good. Further there is a need to formulate the polyherbal shampoo on industrial scale and detailed stability study required to be done. There is also need to test the performance of shampoo in human hairs to check its quality.
Elsye Gunawan, Enrick Kharo Etmond, Linus Yhani Chrystomo
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2021.v03i02.007

Abstract:
Papua has a diversity of flora species, one of which is the Papuan Grape (Sararanga sinuosa Hemsley). It is commonly used by the Depapre community, Jayapura, as a stamina booster. This research aims to identify the secondary metabolite compounds, to test the cytotoxic activity of Papuan Grape (Sararanga sinuosa Hemsley) extract, and to determine the best concentration that inhabits the growth of Artemia salina larvae using the BSLT method. This study was conducted with the extraction stage using the maceration method by making use of 96% ethanol solvent. Subsequently, the concentration series 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 ppm of Papuan Grape (Sararanga sinuosa Hemsley) extract were made to test the cytotoxic activity on the mortality of Artemia salina shrimp larvae. The results showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, and Tannins were compounded as secondary metabolite. An antioxidant research that had been carried out previously had LC50 of green-white fruit (12,49 ± 0,35 mg/ml), orange-red fruit (17,62 ± 3,49 mg/ml) and red fruit (12,23 ± 0,46 mg/ml). The community process one stalk of it into juice and used or consumed it two times a day. An inappropriate dose of traditional medicine usage can affect the organ system and had adverse effects in the future The result of cytotoxic research obtained the value of LC50 in ethanol extract of Papuan Grape was 140,863 ppm, and concentration of 250 ppm was the best concentration to inhibit the growth of shrimp larvae (Artemia salina L). The conclusion of this study was the ethanol extract of Papuan Grape (Sararanga sinuosa Hemsley) showed the highest cytotoxic activity and potentially become an anti-cancer agent.
Mevi Irianti Tonapa, Rani Dewi Pratiwi, Elsye Gunawan
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2021.v03i02.008

Abstract:
Kenop Flower (Gomphrena globosa L.) is used in the manufacture of lip cream because contains betacyanin pigments that function as color pigments. This study aims to determine the physical quality and stability of the lip cream preparation of the ethanol extract of kenop flower (Gomphrena globosa L.). This research was conducted experimentally, including the manufacture of lip cream formulations with ethanol extract of kenop flower (Gomphrena globosa L.) with a concentration of 10%. The results of the physical examination test for lip cream preparations for all preparations have a distinctive vanilla aroma with a semi-solid texture, F0 has ivory white color and F1-F3 has a brown color. The preparations had a homogeneous composition, average pH 6-7, had good greasing power, 5.0-5.8 average dispersion and 60.33-66.67 seconds average adhesion. The stability test carried out on day 28 found that all preparations were stable, had a distinctive vanilla aroma with a semi-solid texture, F0 had ivory white color and F1-F3 had a brown color. The preparation has a homogeneous composition; the average pH is 6-7. Where the lip cream formulas F1 and F3 decreased the pH value on the 28th day from 7 to 6 but tended to be stable and in the pH range that matched the lip pH. And there is no phase separation in all formulas.
Dian Kusumaningtyas
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2021.v03i02.005

Abstract:
Every woman experiences menstruation, which is the process of releasing blood, mucus, and cell debris from the dissertation of the uterine mucosa by removing the endometrium (desquamation) periodically and cyclically. It begins about 14 days after ovulation. Sometimes menstruation causes pain (primary dysmenorrhea) during menstruation. Primary dysmenorrhea can be reduced with natural ingredients, one of which is cinnamon, which has the main compounds cinnamaldehyde and eugenol as anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of cinnamon in reducing the intensity of menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea). The method used Systematic Literature Review or SLR to analyze articles from some databases The results showed that eight from ten studies were researched with the intervention group (cinnamon) and two journals were descriptive studies. Eight cinnamon intervention groups, three used pills, two used aromatherapy massage, one used cinnamon tea, one used cinnamon extract, and one did not explain the method. All journals show that cinnamon is effective for reducing the intensity of dysmenorrhea.
Eva Susanty Simaremare
Journal of Pharmacological Research and Developments, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.46610/jprd.2021.v03i02.004

Abstract:
Many antioxidants are obtained from plants that contain secondary metabolic compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, etc. Thus, the search for plants that are rich in natural antioxidants is conducted continuously, including orchids. Dendrobium lasianthera and Geodorum densiflorum are orchids having secondary metabolites that are thought to have antioxidant activity. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of these two types of orchids using the DPPH method (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine). The results showed that the IC50 of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of D. lasianthera was 288.24 ppm and the stem was 26.27 ppm. The IC50 of the ethanol extract of leaves of G. densiflorum was 277.65 ppm and of the tubers was 197.48 ppm. Finally, the leaves have negligible antioxidant activity, but the stems and tubers had activity ranging from weak to very strong.
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