Current Research in Agriculture and Farming

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EISSN : 2582-7146
Published by: Vital Biotech (10.18782)
Total articles ≅ 46
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Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.156

Abstract:
Reseаrсh study wаs соnduсted tо аnаlyze the effeсts оf Асасiа hоney аnd Аlоe verа gel оn lасerаted wоund induсed in rаbbits. Fоr this рurроse, а tоtаl оf 30 heаlthy mаle аdult rаbbits were seleсted аnd divided intо 3 grоuрs (А, B аnd С). Surgiсаl wоunds were induсed in аll rаbbits with the helр оf shаrр blunt sсissоr аnd eасh rаbbit frоm аll grоuрs wаs рre-mediсаted by аdministering аtrорine sulрhаte @0.035mg/kg bоdy weight thrоugh s/с rоute hаlf аn hоur рriоr tо surgiсаl interventiоn. Аnimаls were аnesthetized by tоtаl раrenterаl (intrаmusсulаr) аnesthesiа using а mixture оf ketаmine (35mg/kg) аnd xylаzine (5mg/kg). Rаbbits оf grоuр А were treаted with Асасiа hоney, аррlied twiсe dаily, grоuр B rаbbits were treаted with Аlоe verа gel tорiсаlly twiсe dаily while grоuр С served аs соntrоl аnd treаted with stаndаrd treаtment рyоdine. Wоunds were рrорerly соvered with sterile bаndаges tо reduсed mаximum infeсtiоns аnd the effiсасy оf these treаtments wаs evаluаted in terms оf their effeсts оn heаling time, wоund соntrасtiоn, рeriоd оf eрithelizаtiоn, tensile strength, histораthоlоgy аnd wоund index. Wоund соntrасtiоn rаte wаs higher in bоth grоuрs (А аnd B) аs соmраred tо the grоuр С (Соntrоl grоuр) аnd inсreаsed wоund соntrасtiоn were оbserved оn dаy 10 аnd wаs соmрleted оn 20 dаys. In саse оf eрithelizаtiоn, deсreаsed рeriоd оf eрithelizаtiоn wаs оbserved in grоuр А аnd B аs соmраred tо the С grоuр (соntrоl grоuр). Heаling time wаs lоwer аnd stаtistiсаlly signifiсаnt аs соmраred tо the соntrоl grоuр (grоuр С). Grоuр B wаs signifiсаnt аs соmраred tо the grоuр С. Wоund index vаlues were reduсed in bоth grоuрs А аnd B аnd grоuр С wаs higher wоund index vаlues оn dаy 15 аnd vаlue wаs 1.78 аs соmраred tо the оther treаtments grоuрs. The vаlues оf grоuр А аnd B wаs nоn signifiсаnt аt dаys 20 аs соmраred tо the соntrоl grоuр. Grоuр С wаs higher рeriоd оf eрithelizаtiоn аs соmраred tо the оther twо grоuрs А аnd B.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 9-25; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.151

Abstract:
Cotton is the world's most important source of renewable fiber, and it is largely utilized in the textile industry to make clothes. In contrast to the ovule epidermis, cotton fibers are single cells that have differentiated from it, making them an attractive model system for the study of polyploidization, production of cell wall and elongation of cell. Plant hormones, that are present in very small low quantities in the plant, play essential roles in a variety of developmental processes, and new research has found that hormones play a critical role in controlling cotton fiber formation, as well as other developmental processes. For example, it has been demonstrated that the exogenous administration of hormones can stimulate the start and development of fiber cells. However, there is currently a lack of a thorough knowledge of phytohormones that regulate the formation of fiber. This paper focuses on latest developments in the understanding of the roles of different phytohormones involved in fiber development, including brassinosteroid, gibberellin, cytokinin, auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid. This paper reviews the discovery of genes associated in hormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways, as well as the methods by which these phytohormones control the commencement and elongation of fiber cells in cotton. All of the hormones involved in fiber formation are beneficial; however, cytokinin and abscisic acid are detrimental. Auxin, gibberellin, brassinosteroid, ethylene, jasmonate, and strigolactones are among the hormones involved in fiber development. A complete analysis of the function of phytohormones in cotton fiber development is our goal.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 36-39; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.150

Abstract:
Optimistic and sustainable supply of nutrients to soil affects crop productivity and crop quality. In the present investigation, effects of Zinc (Zn), Sulphur (S), and Manganese (Mn) was observed on growth and quality attributes of onion (Allium cepa L. cv. NasikRed), belongs to family Alliaceae. For this, micronutrients were applied to soil in 8 combinations including 1 control (having no micronutrient). soil application of micronutrients ZnSO [email protected] 10 kg/ha + CuSO 4 10 kg/ha + MnSO 4 @ 10 kg/ha in combination with 50 kg N, 40 kg P 2 O 5 and 40 kg K 2 O per hectare before transplanting the onion crop is the most beneficial treatment for obtaining higher vegetative growth and quality of onion bulbs resulted high net income and maximum benefit of per rupee invested. However, for low input technology soil application of ZnSO 4 @ 10kg/ha + recommended dose of NPK can also be followed.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 46-52; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.152

Abstract:
Home gardens aid to improve food availability, ecology, job opportunities, social conditions for outstanding production, contributing to the conservation of diversity and maintenance of plant genetic resources and ecosystem. The objective of this review is to know about the major crops, vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, and cash plants materials and women's participation in home garden agroforestry practices in Bangladesh. The various species of home gardens are nutritionally and economically valued as they fulfill a demand. Women are more engaged than men in home garden activities. Common vegetables, fruits contain significant amounts of protein, sugars, salts, calcium, iron, vitamins, minerals, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, potassium, calcium, zinc, magnesium, and iron. The common medicinal plants are using plant parts such as fruit, leaf, bark as treatment of dysentery, cough, fever, and other diseases. The flower plants improve beautification in the home and also contain the aesthetic value. The profit plant helped in the economic sector. The responsible bodies should undertake positive actions like promoting specific study plans in the home garden to ensure biological balance to improve the capacity of women communities to manage and maintain home garden diversity.
, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Chhindwara (M.P.)
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 59-62; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.155

Abstract:
A ‘Smart Village’ will provide long-term social, economic, and environmental welfare activity for village community, which will enable and empower enhanced participation in local governance processes, promote entrepreneurship and build more resilient communities. At the same time, a ‘Smart Village’ will ensure proper sanitation facility, good education, better infrastructure, clean drinking water, health facilities, environment protection, resource use efficiency, waste management, renewable energy etc. There is an urgent need for designing and developing ‘Smart Village’, which are independent in providing the services and employment and yet well connected to the rest of the world. The Smart Village concept will be based on the local conditions, infrastructure, available resources in rural area and local demand as well as potential of export of good to urban areas. The present paper examine motivation behind the concept on ‘Smart Village’ is that the technology should acts as a catalyst for development, enabling education and local business opportunities, improving health and welfare, enhancing democratic engagement and overall enhancement of rural village dwellers. In the Indian context, villages are the heart of the nation. So we can achieve socio economic development of the Nation by enlarging the concept of smart villages on improving pattern.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.145

Abstract:
Basic soil composition, or more precisely, soil organic matter, soil clay mineralogy and soil texture have been in the core of most infrared spectroscopy research for soils. Of course, nutrient availability, soil structure, soil microbial activity and soil fertility have also been a major subject of interest over the past two decades. The determination of soil nutrients is now becoming a routine work at large scale to gain high yield. The large number of soil nutrients determining techniques are used. The current paper presented that among tested techniques, Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a best technique which has been used widely with minimum time, low in cost, ecofriendly and rapid determination of chemical, physical properties and organic matter present in soil. Obviously, this useful technique can be used to estimate properties such as mineral composition, SOM, water, percentage of carbon, nitrogen and clay content. It could be used directly in soil mapping, for monitoring soil, for making inferences about its quality and function, and making geomorphological interpretations of its distribution. The development of most accurate and trustworthy NIRS approaches are required.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.154

Abstract:
As anthropogenic activities rise over the world, representing an environmental threat, soil contamination and treatment of polluted areas have become a worldwide concern. Bioremediation is a sustainable technique that could be a cost-effective mitigating solution for heavy metal-polluted soil regeneration. Due to the difficulties in determining the optimum bioremediation methodology for each type of pollutant and the lack of literature on soil bioremediation, we reviewed the main in-situ type, their current properties, applications, and techniques, plants, and microbe’s efficiency for treatment of contaminated soil. In this review, we describe the deeper knowledge of the in-situ types of bioremediation and their different pollutant accumulation mechanisms.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 40-45; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.153

Abstract:
Inter cropping which is also known as mixed cropping has ability of increasing usage of nutrient and water efficiently, enhancing crop productivity, and plasticity to abiotic and biotic stress resulted by change in climate. In this agroecological farming method, two or more crops are cultivated together on the same farm area. Cereal with legume is a common combination. Crop selection is not profitable unless characteristics useful in intercrops, such as intercropping in legume and cereal cultivars, are considered. Inter cropping can result in enhanced soil fertility and structure, improved weed suppression, the conservation of soil moisture, and comparatively better control of diseases and pests, resulting greater yield and increased profitability. The biggest benefit of intercropping systems is the fact that they combine above-ground and below-ground benefits: these benefits include both short and tall plant components, which helps them to harness sunlight for photosynthesis, as well as deep and shallow rooted plant components, which assists them in using water and nutrients for crop production. Intercropping is popular in areas of the world including China, Mali, Indonesia, India, Ethiopia, and Niger due to its high growing popularity in agriculture. General & Specific Combining Ability principles in hybrid breeding have been applied for crop combinations and cultivars, and their impacts are recognized as General/ Specific Mixing Ability. The other considerable advantages of intercropping include greater land use efficiency, competitive ability towards weed, favorable exudates from the component legumes, and greater yield stability which cannot be achieved in monocropping. Plant breeding enables intercropping systems to better use their genetic diversity by conducting plant breeding research and harnessing this variability to cross-crop adaptability. High labor inputs in harvesting, higher cost of maintenance and reduction of the main crop are some disadvantages of intercropping.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.149

Abstract:
Brassica is the second-largest oilseed crop after Soybean. The total production of Brassica in the overall world is 71 million tons. In Pakistan, its total production per unit area is very low. Biotic and abiotic stresses mainly affect the brassica crop. In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of crops seeds before their ripening. The pod wall shatters and breaks apart when it loses its hydration and cells split in a dehiscence zone organized at a suture between the edge of the lignified pod and the vascular tissue replum. The degeneration of middle lamella and loss of cellular cohesion in the dehiscence zone are the main reasons for pod shattering and seed losses. Grain yield losses in Brassica vary from 10 to 25 percent due to shattering. More than 400 kg has-1 or 12% seed losses can be occurred due to pod shattering under unfavorable conditions. Insect pest and disease damage also accelerate ripening and pod shattering. The main breeding techniques for developing rapeseed grain yield potential are a good knowledge and application of the morphological, physiological, and genetic basis of grain yield. Modern technologies, such as embryo rescue, marker-assisted breeding, and novel variation (mutation), may make it much simpler to introduce new rapeseed types having shattering tolerance than traditional methods. Thus, an overview of anatomical and physiological aspects and genetics of shattering is presented in the context of recent advances in molecular genetics and several agronomic managements to avoid shattering in Brassica.
Dua-E- Zainab, Asma Zafa, Sidra Sohail, Sharjeel Haider, Bushra Rehman, Muhammad Saqlain Shah, Muhammad Nauman Aslam,
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 27-40; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.143

Abstract:
In light of declining freshwater supplies and soil salinization, it is critical to evaluate the ability of halophytic plant species to grow in semi-arid and arid environments, where crop plant production is significantly reduced. Soil salinity is a major agricultural issue in Pakistan, with alt-affected soils alone covering over six million hectares and more than 70% of tube-wells in saline areas pumping out salty water. Quinoa is a crop with seeds having a variety of nutrients in it as well as it’s seed are gluten-free with good agronomic, morphologic and biochemical characteristics and has a great potential to grow under combative climatic conditions; this property of quinoa makes it an excellent crop especially in the countries where adverse climatic conditions exist. It is a pseudo-cereal and is adaptable to different environmental needs, and has a great potential to deal with various abiotic stresses. Quinoa grows well under arid to semi-arid conditions where salinity and drought are common problems. Several studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms used by quinoa to cope with high salt levels in the soil at various stages of plant development, but further research is still needed. Despite several recent researches on quinoa abiotic tension, much detail remains undisclosed. The present review discusses the quinoa adaptation towards salinity and drought stress.
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