International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2709-4952 / 2709-7390
Total articles ≅ 44
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Tia Byer
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 28-42; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i2.456

Abstract:
This article interrogates cosmopolitanism in Henry James’s ‘Daisy Miller’, arguing that transatlantic mobility and travel expose America’s residual postcolonial insecurity. Fear of transatlantic acculturation undermines the national ideology and identity of the American Adam, as incorruptible in his fundamental innocence. By tracing the language of contagion surrounding biological pollution, this analysis examines how anxieties surrounding transatlantic flirtation, acculturation, and sexual union, in James’s text, expose America’s post-revolutionary fear of cultural permeability and fragility. When cosmopolitanism reveals American culture to be porous, this threatens its ideological self-definition, attesting to the imaginary and mythologized nature of the founding Adamic belief. I argue that ‘Daisy Miller’, focuses on the question of what happens to Americans when they have lived too long in Europe and how acculturation affects self-knowledge. Told from the perspective of Europeanized Americans, these American expatriates in the cosmopolitan residences of Geneva and Rome appear unaware of the extent of their acculturation until the naïve all-American girl Daisy, through her unfamiliar and highly ambiguous manners of flirting, appears to disrupt codes of female propriety and the Europeanized Americans’ perceived nativist loyalty. The novel acts as provocations to American characters who have very fixed ideas about what national identity is, and this article will trace how transatlantic flirtation and the subsequent relationships it produces, become a disruptive force. This article will show how fear of cultural flirtations derives from fear of potential sexual contact and thus interbreeding.
Adetunji Adelokun
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 16-27; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i2.414

Abstract:
This paper critically examines the manifestation of protest agitations in post-apartheid South African poetry. The paper considered the insightful reflections of two South African poets on the influence of the apartheid administration and other forms of racial profiling and segregation. It is pertinent to note that the paper does not only record the outburst of these writers against apartheid; the crux of the paper is channeled towards the exposition of the perspectives of the selected poets about the traumatic experience of apartheid and the obnoxious nature of the post-apartheid experience. One collection of poetry from Seitlhamo Motsapi and Mxolisi Nyezwa was selected for critical and literary analysis. The paper considers the expression of disaffection by writers in their portrayal of the struggles for socio-political sanity and socioeconomic equanimity after the dehumanizing apartheid regime. The paper posits that writers should continually engage the thesis of post-apartheid and evoke the consciousness of the masses to the nefarious realities of their circumstances. The paper concludes that Africans need to realize their distinctions and peculiarities by looking inwards and reflecting on new ways to chart a new course for future generations.
Athina Ntoulia
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 55-66; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i2.429

Abstract:
The coexistence of students in the classroom from different cultural backgrounds is a challenge. Literature as a cultural product may contribute to the cultivation of intercultural empathy and acceptance of diversity in various ways. This study examines how literature may contribute to the treatment of issues related to stereotypes, gender discrimination, and how it may eliminate prejudices in the classroom. Initially, through the bibliographic review, the effect of literature on the psycho-emotional development of the individual, the strengthening of resilience and on the development of emotional intelligence is investigated as a key element for the development of healthy interpersonal relationships. Then, this study presents the results of an action research that utilized literature to break stereotypes in a pluralistic class. The action research took place at schools in Chania (Crete, Greece), and it highlights the empathic function of literature in removing stereotypes and discrimination in the classroom through various experiential activities and cooperative role play. Literature cultivates empathy and students may get into “others' shoes’’, accepting diversity. Through structured literature-based programs, a teacher may cultivate intercultural understanding and empathy, promoting human rights and enhancing the learners as future citizens with an inclusive and humanitarian attitude.
Charles Feghabo
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i2.430

Abstract:
The Nigerian Civil War has birthed much writing with the actors and victims reimagining the dark historical experience, highlighting the divergent role(s) in different literary genres. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun, one of the latest additions to the corpus of the war narratives, marks its distinctiveness by its fictive feminization, valorizing the marginal ‘other’. Available studies on the text focus on gender and trauma, with a passing mention of education. With the feminist theory as its thrust, this paper examines Adichie’s redefinition of the status of femininity vis-à-vis education. Through the actions of male/female genders and the rural illiterate/highly educated female gender captured in duality, Adichie, in the text, configures education as an undercurrent for the exploits of the educated female even as it (education) serves as the author’s strategy of subverting gender bias in society.
Mourad Romdhani
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i2.422

Abstract:
For decades, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1899) has been subject to different readings and interpretations. Transcending the boundaries of time and place, Conrad’s novella is still a relevant text for modern critical readings. Although many critics have studied characters referring to different theories and perspectives, characterization is still a rich source of meaning. This paper aims to study the characters in Heart of Darkness and examine Conrad’s narrative strategy in terms of binarism and doubling. The paper also explores how, despite their depiction as powerful characters, Marlow and Kurtz show symptoms of failure and trauma while the black female character, usually depicted as an emblem of absence and negation, shows signs of power and resilience despite her muteness and minor presence. Feminist, Psychoanalytical and trauma theories are referred to in the revisiting of characters in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.
Mao Feng, Lyu Wenhui, Yang Xinle, Wu Biyu
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i1.415

Abstract:
Chen Kaige, a famous Chinese “scholar-type director”, usually contains rich cultural connotations in his films and his works are always full of Chen Kaige-style romanticism. Although he is good at narrative, making The Battle of Changjin Lake a pure war film is a challenge. Therefore, this article takes the film as the research focus. The analysis of aesthetic elements, such as scenes and scope, picture composition, color and so on, expounds into detail the narrative style of romanticism displayed by Chen Kaige in the film.
Yasser Aman
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 28-35; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i1.404

Abstract:
Texts’ souls have been cloned and their selves reproduced. History of ideas have been passed from generation to generation and translated from one language to another. In each generation, a text represents an author’s ideas that are enclosed in a time-space frame. Representation of ideas may take another turn with the death of the author: soul cloning or self-reproduction. Between cloning and reproduction, translation stands as a reconstruction of memory and a channel through which a rebirth of texts, loaded with ideas, concepts, traditions, and cultural practices, are transmitted. Between the source text and the target, text a third text lingers in space and time waiting to be reborn. I argue that space and time play an important role in the emergence of the ever-evolving third text giving it an identity based on Mikhail Bakhtin’s chronotope. The third text is constructed by the readers’ interpretations rather than the authors’ intentions as Roland Barthes maintains. The author is dead, the reader is there to interpret and the text floats, mutates and is reshaped through time and space.
Nizam Ul Hossain, Nodi Islam
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v3i1.390

Abstract:
The article addresses how the migrant Bangladeshi workers, in their bid to be a part of the Middle Eastern Muslim Cosmopolis, make sense of the negotiation between the concepts of nation-state and umma. The article also examines whether these migrants’ endorsement of a ‘foreign’ Muslim culture in Bangladesh has created a community of ‘other’ Muslims perceived to be less Muslim because of being less exposed to the Middle East culture. In a rapidly changing context in terms of cultural identification, it is pertinent to investigate if the power, prestige, and privilege that these Bangladeshi migrants enjoy in Bangladesh rely solely on their becoming ‘better’ Muslims or rather chiefly stem from their monetary gain. The article explores whether a good financial status becomes the driving force in creating the Muslim ‘other,’ and how it has been inspiring others to migrate to the Middle East to become successful and ‘Global’ Muslim Citizens. The concepts of umma and cosmopolitan constitute the conceptual framework of the study. The study also presents a critique of cultural influence and identity construction based on faith. In addition, some migrants were interviewed to reflect upon their experience and the role of religious affiliation in the construction of cosmopolitan Muslim identity. Both collective conscience and the sense of religious affinity are addressed.
Amal Alshamsi
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v2i6.375

Abstract:
Olivia Laing’s Crudo and Ben Lerner’s 10:04 depict the constant interruption of the personal by global concerns and politics. Both novels are concerned with the decision between the personal and the global selves, and how these impending social, environmental, or political crises cloud the narrators’ minds. Their structure reflects this confusion and dislocation of the personal self, as the novels contain non-sequiturs, urban noise, and unrelated sections that have been pieced together deliberately. These novels capture the overstimulation of contemporary life and mass media or the information age while trying to navigate how art can reflect that and encapsulate a reality that is at once absurd and (seemingly) not contrived. While the barrier between the personal and global collapses, Lerner and Laing find a space in between where a realist yet raw (or ‘crudo’) retelling of contemporary media-addled experience can be represented. This essay incorporates commentary on how these texts engage with the idea of the troubled personal and the demise of individuality in the light of 21st-century overstimulation.
Honeylet Alerta
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 14-31; https://doi.org/10.47631/ijecls.v2i6.353

Abstract:
At present, the Philippines is the only country that still implements the remote learning setup due to the COVID19 pandemic. This ongoing condition has placed educators to rethink how to scaffold the lessons and hone the demands of the 21st century amidst the current limitations of Filipino teachers and students. The challenge is to commit to a consistent dialogue in the virtual classroom without compromising the necessary skills, content, and learning competencies to hone the students’ literary competence. Even before the pandemic, the discipline of comparative literature has had ongoing debates about its interdisciplinarity, its framework and method as a mode of inquiry in the academia, and its pedagogy in relation to teaching world literature. With the COVID19 pandemic, the compelling issues of the discipline resurface as another layer of challenge is apparent: engaging the students to read and examine the literary texts not just through close reading, but with an eye for parity in online distance learning. This perspective article seeks to showcase how, for now, the only comparative literature program in the country offered at the Department of English and Comparative Literature of the University of the Philippines Diliman can be integrated into teaching literature in universities and classrooms in the Philippines. More importantly, this paper seeks to propose ways to streamline the program in making up for the Philippine comparative literary studies through its method, and pedagogy.
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