PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2707-1308 / 2707-1316
Published by: Jimma University (10.46404)
Total articles ≅ 36

Latest articles in this journal

PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 119-145;

Gamal Abdel Nasser established the praetorian regime in 1952. Nasser ruled Egypt with the ‘party-state’ system to maintain the ‘social contract’ between the state and the Egyptians. The government thrived on the patrimonial relationship and de-politicization of the population. The ‘Egyptian upheaval’ in 2011 sought the protection of individuals’ rights, equality, and freedom against the military-led praetorian regime. A short-democratic experiment led to the arrival of Islamist majority rule in Egypt under the leadership of President Mohammed Morsi. The liberal-secular oppositions and the military removed President Morsi because Islamists failed to achieve the protesters’ aspirations. Egyptians supported the military’s rule that led to the election of General Abdel Fatah al-Sisi as President of Egypt. Fatah al-Sisi shifted the dynamics of government from ‘party-state’ to ‘ruler-arbiter’ praetorian rule that centralized the authority and power under his leadership through military domination to counter the Islamists and revolutionary aspirations. The research explains the causality behind the Egyptian military's intervention in politics, structuring of the praetorian regime in Egypt; the return of military praetorianism after the removal of President Hosni Mubarak; the rise of the Sisi as ‘ruler-arbiter’ and its implications on the democratization process. The paper’s method is explanatory to study the ‘structural’ (military) and ‘agential’ (Sisi’s rule) factors to determine the causes of establishing the praetorian ‘ruler-arbiter’ type Sisi’s regime. The approach to examine the ruler-arbiter phenomenon is the ‘actor-centric’ instead of the ‘mechanistic’ to understand the praetorian rule in Egypt. The research finds that the rise of the ‘ruler-arbiter’ regime under the leadership of the Sisi, caused by the military-established praetorian authority and President Sisi's choices and decisions, led to the failure of the democratization in Egypt.
Amal Ali Mukhtad, Fatima Mohammed Alomamy, Aya Abdullah Almukassbi, Aya Joma Rafa Abbas, Amira Abu Baker Alfseiy
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 31-49;

Occupational health and safety (OHS) is an essential area concerned with the protection, health, and safety plus the welfare of individuals involved in any kind of occupation. This study aimed at assessing the occupational health and safety awareness and practices among the healthcare workers in the pediatric hospital in Benghazi city, Libya. The study adopted descriptive survey research in the Benghazi pediatric hospital. The study randomly selected 246 healthcare workers and the response rate was 96%. A questionnaire was used as the main data collection instrument. The data were coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics; frequencies and percentages and inferential analysis of correlation. Around 50% of the participants reported a lower level of awareness regarding occupational health and safety (OHS). The study proposes that the ministry of health should conduct specialist training in occupational health and safety for their staff, they also should confirm provisions of this policy and technical guidelines apply to all health institutions and administrative units within the health sector. Further hospital risk management should put in place a regular monitoring team who will certify that workers notice in firm terms safety measures put in place to avoid any accidents/injuries. Lastly, the study recommends that further research on the factors determining the implementation of occupational health and safety awareness and practices at public health care facilities in Libya.
Mustafa Kassim Kipingu, Deodatus Patrick Shayo
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 81-106;

This paper explores how digital transformation has improved the delivery of immigration services. In contrast, this refers to the fact that, despite the existence of e-immigration services, there has been inadequate research to examine the e-immigration system in Tanzania. This paper explores the e-immigration portal, its advantages, and its challenges. Using a mixed-method, data were collected from secondary and primary sources through document review, portal analysis, interviews, and questionnaires. Primary and secondary data show that e-immigration portals can be accessed using personal computers, smartphones, and internet cafes. Also, the time for applicants to receive passports and travel documents has decreased from more than seven days in the old manual system to three days on average in the new e–immigration system. Following the transforming government process, immigration service delivery has been improved by implementing the e–immigration system. Thee–immigration services offer advantages to users like online application, online payment, time-saving, and costs, but challenges like digital literacy, inaccuracy of information, feedback, and network problems impact the system's smooth operation. Here digital literacy campaign, feedback mechanism, applicant support desk, and digital service desk are recommended.
Evans Tetteh
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 3-30;

In the current interdependent globalized world, inter-polity engagements are anticipated to unleash and empower economic development. To a larger extent, this, however, could be said not to be the case as evidenced in the African context where relations with the developed world have triggered dependence on foreign aid as a conduit to pursue and gratify vital development needs. Contemporaneously, China’s intensive forays and engagement in Africa since the turn of the twenty-first century has been one characterized by irresistible development assistance to the latter. This situation has ensuingly excited agitations, cardinal among which borders on the claim about the potential deadweight and stymying effect of foreign aid on Africa’s growth and development – thereby adding more odium to the discourse on the call for an ‘Africa beyond aid’ – currently a bourgeoning research sphere. To this end, the objective of this article is to explore how the Chinese aid engagement could relate to the Ghanaian leadership’s clarion call for Africa’s development beyond aid. Consequently, the study employed qualitative data and analysis to interrogate the Chinese aid policies towards Africa, as well as projects implemented across the continent. The findings show that gauging from the policy perspective, much as Chinese aid tends to be well suited to the ‘Africa beyond aid agenda’, it nonetheless exhibits some disquieting implementation features that could impede in the long term, Africa’s development beyond aid. This unappealing situation makes it imperatively urgent for Africa to understand, and strategically align with China’s aid - with recourse to the vision of Africa beyond aid.
Raymond Kwasi Boasinke
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 146-169;

The participation of women in local government is one of the burning governance issues in the world today. Such participation is expected to serve as a springboard to propel women to participate at the national level. However, an analysis of women’s participation in local government reveals that women are grossly underrepresented. This study assessed the factors that enhance and inhibit women’s participation in local government as elected representatives in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem Municipality of the Central Region of Ghana. The qualitative approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews using a census of all the elected past and present assembly members in the Municipality. The study revealed that women's participation at the household level, training and education by Non-Governmental Organizations, and cordial working relationship with male colleagues in local government were the main enhancers of women's participation in local government. The inhibiting factors revealed by the study included financial constraints, unreasonably high expectations, and the non-cooperative attitudes of community members. It is recommended that women and girls be made an integral part of household decision-making. Women who contest local elections should be supported financially. The NGOs that ran programs to empower women to participate in local government should be encouraged and supported.
Tesfaye Gudeta, Minhaj Alam, Damena Tolassa
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 50-80;

The study's main objective was assessing the practices and challenges of fiscal decentralization at Bedelle woreda, with particular reference to basic selected sectors (Education, Agriculture, Health, Water, and Road). According to the nature of this study, a descriptive research design with qualitative and quantitative methods was adopted. The population of the study was government employees working in selected sectors of Bedelle Woreda. The census sampling technique was used in this research because the study population was manageable. To this effect, 128 participants were selected using a census sampling size. Besides this, Woreda (District) Finance and Economic Development and Woreda Revenue Office Authority officials were purposely selected to conduct interviews. The data-gathering instruments were questionnaires, key informant interviews, and document analyses. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used for data analysis. In descriptive using frequencies and percentages and inferential statistics, multiple linear regression was used to assess relationships between the independent variables (legal framework, revenue, expenditure, employee experience, employee training, management commitment, and fiscal transfers) and the dependent variable (fiscal decentralization). The findings show that internal revenue raising and utilization in the selected sectors was very low. Besides, lack of autonomy in expenditure decisions of sectors, insufficient capacity building, the extent of fiscal transfer, and financial resource were the major challenges in the study area. Overall, the regression analysis revealed that, Revenue raising (β = -0.164, p<0.05), Expenditure decision (β = 0.236, p<0.05), Employee experience (β = 0.525, p<0.05), and Commitment of management (β = 0.172, p<0.05), all have statistically significant and positive effect on fiscal decentralization. Based on the study's findings, it is recommended that existing legal frameworks be modified to enable the sectors to use their budget in line with their action plan to generate and utilize sufficient revenues. Special emphasis should be given to an employee's capacity building, independence of planning and budgeting, and clear autonomy of expenditure assignments. Inter-governmental fiscal relations should also be planned to reduce the horizontal imbalances observed at selected sectors of the woreda under study.
Anthony Chinedu Ugwu, Al Chukwuma Okoli
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 206-231;

The study interrogates the politics of poverty alleviation amidst the prevalence of poverty in Africa, focusing on Nigeria. Nigeria currently ranks among the poor countries in the world. While many studies have examined aspects of poverty mitigation within the national development frameworks, the politics underlying such endeavors have been under-explored. This study narrows this gap by investigating how politicians bastardize social investment programs through tokenish material 'hand-outs' designed to serve immediate political ends. The study is based on textual and contextual analysis of secondary sources, as complemented by corroborated anecdotes. Appropriating Marxian production theory, the study posits that the prevalence of poverty in Africa has been occasioned by macro and micro-level politics. At the macro-level, the balance of trade cum balance of payment asymmetries has reproduced conditions that perpetuate dependency and underdevelopment in the developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular. At the micro-level, local politicians trivialize social investments by exploiting the poverty situation of the populace for electoral gains through ad hoc material 'hand-outs.' This has weakened the social investment policy environment and alienated the citizenry in decision-making concerning wealth creation, distribution, and social investments priorities. The study recommends mainstreaming social investment governance into national development programing for sustainability.
Center For PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 1-2;

Multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary journal of Jimma University. Political science, governance, development, leadership, national and international law, globalization, human rights, economics, environmental science, public policy, international relations, international organizations, gender, peace and conflict management, international political economy, multiculturalism, civil society, etc.
Memory Rumbidzai V. Mandikiana, Yogesh Awasthi, Isaac Ignatius Dambudzo
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 170-205;

Refugee, asylum seekers, and migrant (displaced) children are at protracted vulnerability levels, and COVID-19 has exacerbated the situation. Zimbabwe accepts refugees but enforces an encampment policy, and displaced populations are encamped at Tongogara Refugee Camp (TRC). The research gap is that there is very little literature on refugees in Zimbabwe. The research objectives for the study were to explore the challenges that refugees, asylum seekers, and displaced children at TRC face, ascertain how COVID-19 has affected children at TRC, and propose solutions to these challenges. This research relied upon a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approach considering the immediacy of the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary data is referred from published articles and organizational reports. The population size of 2,304 children aged 12 to 17 was obtained through the United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR)’s January 2021 population statistics for TRC. A 10% sample of 230 respondents was selected. Non-probability sampling techniques were used in administering a questionnaire through individual and focus group interviews, which were fed into KoBo Toolbox. Data cleaning and analysis were conducted, with SPSS and NViVo for quantitative and qualitative data analysis, respectively. Ethical considerations of consent, confidentiality, do no harm, and statements to withdraw from the study were employed. The process involved strict observance of World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on COVID-19. The research was conducted between April 2020 and February 2021. Results showed that displaced children suffered a spectrum of challenges before COVID-19. During the COVID-19 period, respondents had limited access to child protection services, experienced increased conflicts at home, and limited access to formal learning and entertainment: their already dire situation was exacerbated by COVID-19. The study recommends the upgrade of the local secondary school to advanced level status, adoption of educational innovations in lieu of the COVID-19 pandemic, including radio, television, and virtual learning platforms; improved child protection mechanisms; accommodation; dietary diversity; access to water and sanitation hygiene; provision of electricity; adequate street lighting; activities for entertainment; and increasing awareness against child abuse and gender-based violence (GBV).
Stephen Chinedu Chioke
PanAfrican Journal of Governance and Development (PJGD), Volume 2, pp 232-256;

There is a dearth of reliable literature that appropriately coined and conveyed the conceptual framework of federalism, scarcity of reliable information that analytically x-rayed the structural arrangement of Nigerian federalism, and challenges militating against the expected gains of federalism and the prospects thereof. The paper relied on qualitative methods like document analyses, personal experiences, key informant interviews, and discussions in generating relevant data that were thematically presented and resultantly analyzed using content analysis. The results show that there are works of literature that wrongly conceptualized federalism. Police brutality, political godfatherism, corruption, secession, revenue allocation problem, sectionalism, and conflicts were among the predominant challenges facing Nigerian federalism. Furthermore, the results show that sustainable development and efficient service delivery are part of the prospects. The paper concluded that many Nigerians do not have an adequate understanding of the nitty-gritty of federalism. As a corollary to this, destructive tendencies have troubled Nigerian federalism, making the center epileptic. The study for policy and practice implies that Nigeria, the largest populated country of Africa, has continued its federalist operations on the side of very low cohesion and unification of existing ethnic groups.
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