Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI)

Journal Information
EISSN : 2722-1369
Published by: Literacy Institute (10.47540)
Total articles ≅ 72
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Prajwol Babu Subedi, Prakash Ojha, Amit Adhikari, Suman Acharya, Seema Acharya
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 67-80; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.468

Abstract:
Understanding changes in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) is essential for managing and monitoring natural resources and development, particularly where urbanization is expanding. So, this study aimed to assess the level of changes in LULC of Nepalgunj Sub-metropolitan city using temporal Landsat satellite imageries of 1996, 2008, and 2020 AD, and the key drivers of LULC change were observed through a purposive household survey (N=140) with a sampling intensity of 0.5%. LULC maps were generated using initial unsupervised and later supervised classification. LULC changes were computed using the post-change detection classification technique. LULC map of 1996 AD, 2008 AD, and 2020 AD showed accuracy of 84.44 %, 85.45%, and 83.64% with a kappa value of 0.8381, 0.8497, and 0.829 respectively. Bareland, Human buildup, and grassland were found to have increased by 13.34%, 5.07%, and 29.62% respectively while sparse vegetation, dense vegetation, and water bodies were found to have decreased by 44.10%, 17.82%, and 13.34% respectively between 1996 and 2008. Likewise, there was decrease in grassland area (-26%), dense vegetation area (-9.48%), sparse vegetation area (-5%), water bodies (-0.12%), and increase in Bareland (+20%) and Human buildup (+20.6%) in between 2008 to 2020. Eight key drivers of LULC, development of infrastructure, government policy, plans, and land market, forest encroachment, forest, and its products, political condition, economic opportunities, and hotel and tourism activities, were recognized in the study area. Further research is required to determine the specific ramifications of the aforementioned LULC change drivers, as well as the area's long-term viability.
Asha Siddika, Zakia Parveen
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.417

Abstract:
From the beginning of the industrial revolution, metal refining industries using the pyrometallurgical process are generating remarkable emissions of heavy metals. As the main objective of these pollutants, a great number of soils are now contaminated over extensive areas depending on exposure level, and duration, and pose a major risk to human health worldwide. Biochar, a co-product of the pyrolysis process, can be used to nourish soil health, and remediate heavy metals. They are nowadays modified to enhance the sorption capacity of biochar and immobilization of heavy metals. Immobilization, as an in-situ application method, is a cost-effective method for environmental remediation of heavy metals in the soils. The research statistics on biochar and modified biochar influences on heavy metal remediation from the soil are scarce. Therefore, the purposes of this review are (1) to combine modification processes of biochar (2) to offer possible mechanisms associated with the reduction of heavy metals (iii) to combine the available data on the positive effects of biochars and modified biochars on heavy metal remediation(iv) identify researchable priorities.
Gemechu Kaba, Omer Hinde, Getachew Desalegn, Azmera Belachew, SaifU Amanuel, Eyuel Girmay, Mahadi Mussa, Asfaw Gelan
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 81-88; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.492

Abstract:
Demand for all forest products has been increasing in Ethiopia, due to population, economic growth, and the rise in the construction sector. In the past, about 85% of this demand has been covered by indigenous timber species which are now endangered and protected from harvest. As an alternative, there are potential lesser-used timber species in the country that can be utilized to narrow down the gap between supply and demand. This study aims to describe the utilization practices of timber species and identify factors affecting the utilization of lesser-used timber species in furniture industries. The study was conducted in four (4) purposively selected towns based on their Wood business transaction and resource availability. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. A binary logit model was employed to estimate factors influencing the utilization of lesser-used timber species for industrial application. The results show that the majority of wood furniture industries still depend on pit sawed valuable indigenous timber species of the country. The result indicated that Cordia africana is the main type of timber species preferred to be utilized in the majority of furniture industries. It also indicated that there is a negative perception towards lesser-used timber species, less access to appropriate information, and skill training on wood processing. Therefore, the study implicates the need to intervene in changing perceptions toward these species and build the technical capacity of the wood industries through skill training.
Jigme Tenzin, Yeshi Yangdon, Karma Wangchuk, Pema Rinchen, Tashi
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 49-57; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.452

Abstract:
The Kingdom of Bhutan is endowed with abundant water resources. However, owing to rugged topography and associated climatic variations, accessibility remains a major challenge with communities facing seasonal and local scarcity of water. Generally, freshwater appears in the form of glaciers, lakes, wetlands, marshes, springs, and streams which support diverse life and livelihood. However, comprehensive inventories of water resources seem lacking in a water-rich country like Bhutan. Thus, water sources inventory was carried out using Focus Group Discussion and semi-structured questionnaires survey with 81 households (27 villages) from three highly populated gewog under Sarpang district in 2016 and collected the geo-coordinates (location) of each water source using Garmin GPS. The survey recorded a total of 104 perennial water sources from three gewogs under the district. Among the three gewogs, Samtenling and Dekiling have the highest water sources (n = 40) and Gelephu has the lowest (n = 24). While, in the case of source types, Samtenling gewog has the highest (n = 29), followed by Gelephu (n = 18) and Dekiling has the lowest (n = 14). Likewise, Dekiling has the highest number of streams (n = 24), followed by Samtenling (n = 9) and the lowest was Gelephu (n = 6). Therefore, periodic monitor of existing water sources, strengthening water governance, and adaptation of an integrated watershed management plan backed with detailed hydro-geological assessment covering entire watersheds are suggested for ensuring sustainable management of water sources, but also mitigates the climate change effects of these regions in the future.
Partha Pratim Dube
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 58-66; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.436

Abstract:
Increased human populations and the resulting encroachment of related anthropogenic land uses into natural landscapes which once afforded wildlife habitats is a global conservation concern. Of particular concern, are the human-wildlife conflicts perpetuated because of human populations’ growth in the area where large carnivores occur? These increasing conflicts may further impact the conservation of carnivores because of public concerns for human health and safety and economic impacts on subsistence agriculture. In India, increased population growth has impacted the natural habitats for the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the related conflicts have impacted efforts to conserve the species. To better describe the social factors that may affect large carnivore conservation in India, we surveyed the tiger-affected people, the relatives of the people killed by tigers, and the common villagers in the adjacent villages of Bandhavgarh National Park of Madhya Pradesh in India. All of our questionnaires are related to the protection of tigers and the reasons behind it. This study featured the first assessment and basic data for understanding Bengal tigers in the area of Bandhavgarh Forest.
Yamuna Paudel, SujitA Shrestha
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.390

Abstract:
Agroforestry systems have been used from a long time ago. The traditional agroforestry concept and knowledge of integration of the trees in the farm have been passed from one generation to another, especially in the South Asian countries. The study is aimed at collecting information on agroforestry practices prevailing in SAARC countries. Information related to prevailing practices of agroforestry was collected from reviewing literature for each country differently. In Afghanistan, the Government has given the seedlings of trees to grow along with the agricultural land. Multistoried agroforestry system with integration of other plants in different spatial designs is mostly used in Bangladesh. Shifting cultivation is the traditional system, integration of crop production, grazing animals, and forest areas in Bhutan is practiced. Being the first and second country to formulate the Agroforestry policy, both India and Nepal respectively follows a traditional system along with some research-based agroforestry system. Pakistan mostly used the farm-based agroforestry system while in Maldives and Srilanka, Coconut based agroforestry system is used mostly. The communities of the SAARC countries have improved livelihood through the generation of the multi-product through the introduction of the new agroforestry systems. The different systems applied in the SAARC countries should be explored and the issues need to be resolved by the formulation of the policies, conduct research, extensions, and training related to the advancement of the Agroforestry. The knowledge and concept of the different agroforestry systems should be disseminated and other systems should be developed from the consultation with the farmers.
Muhamad Ferdy Firmansyah, Nanang Rusliana, Siti Sarawati Johar, Haikal Zulian Maulana, Zahra Firdausa Sunarya
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 89-100; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.374

Abstract:
Environmental degradation is one of the many environmental problems that need to be faced by every country in the world. Both developed and developing countries can find environmental degradation problems in various conditions and phenomena. One of the environmental problems in Southeast Asia is related to smog. Indonesia is one of the countries with high cases of smog pollution, this is because the vast forest area with massive land clearing makes forest fires frequent. respond. The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution is an agreement to control haze pollution that occurs in the Southeast Asian region. This study uses secondary data originating from the Indonesia Central Statistics Agency (BPS) with a quantitative method approach. This study seeks to find the phenomenon of environmental pollution, economy, and emission developments in Indonesia. It was found that energy emissions, FOLU, and forest fires were the three emissions that were not affected by the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution policy. The policy that Indonesia needs to take is to improve energy emission, fire disaster and FOLU control.
Namgay Wangmo, Jambay, Ugyen Dorji, Om Katel
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 37-48; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.442

Abstract:
Water is a fundamental resource and for millions of people living in the Himalayas, springs are their only source of water for household and farming. To meet the water requirements, the communities depend on rain-fed springs which are highly sensitive to climate change. Rural communities in developing countries would be the most affected among other communities around the world as they have limited resources at their disposal. The objective of this study is to document the local people's awareness of climate change and their knowledge of water source dynamics constrained by climate change impacts in Phobjikha and Gangtey Gewogs, one of the Ramsar sites in Bhutan. A total of 248 households were interviewed using structured questionnaires employing simple random sampling techniques. Chi-Square test of independence was conducted. Results indicate that education is associated with awareness and water source dynamics. However, the majority of the residents do not have a clear understanding of how climate change affects water sources and how those sources should be protected. We recommend the relevant agency provide education and awareness on climate change impacts and training on water sources protection and management to local people. This would not only help local people enhance their resilience against climate change impacts but also protect their local resources for sustainable livelihoods. Also, Phobjikha and Gangtey are important locations to study climate change impacts in high altitude areas concerning both local peoples' adaptation strategies and dynamics of water as vital natural resources.
Sakhawat Hossain, S. M. Abidur Rahman, Mizanur Rahman, Ali Muztaba, Uttam Ray
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 3, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v3i1.427

Abstract:
Arsenic contamination is one of the major concerns today in Bangladesh. Various potential and threatening health risks for humankind could be occurred due to the consumption of Arsenic which has mixed with the food chain like fish and vegetables. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed 100 samples of deep tube well water, sediment, soil, vegetable, and fish samples, collected from five different Upazila of Joypurhat district in Bangladesh. The farming process, unplanned groundwater consumption, etc. could be marked as the main culprit for arsenic contamination in a region. However, Arsenic concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy followed by the wet digestion method. From this analysis, a shocking result has been found that almost every sample contains arsenic and its level crossed the permissible limit set by WHO guidelines for water and food samples (vegetable and rice) which is an alarming issue for southeast Asian countries.
Melinda Calipusan-Elnar, Ferdinand Tesado Abocejo
Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), Volume 2, pp 271-283; https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v2i3.298

Abstract:
This study described the meaning of lived experiences of the municipal leaders of Loboc, Bohol, Philippines, prior, during, and after typhoon “Seniang” in 2014. It investigated the initiatives and practices of the local government unit (LGU) and captured the household experiences through a qualitative research approach following the Husserlian descriptive phenomenology utilizing Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. Purposive sampling was employed through face-to-face interviews with 12 key informants after reaching saturation point. All narrative accounts were transcribed and served as the primary source of qualitative data. The extracted accounts were organized through thematic categorization yielding 77 significant statements, 28 formulated meanings, 15 clusters, and 4 emergent themes. These emergent themes include awareness of disaster, experiences during the disaster, good local governance practices, and experienced challenges. Grounded on these findings, it is concluded that effective disaster response and quick and successful recovery fundamentally depend on authentic and effective governance by Loboc local leaders concretized through collaborative, concrete observance, implementation of responsive policy processes and the harmonious team works among community members. Altogether, proactive involvement makes a community more resilient. The researchers recommend that Loboc local leaders, employees, and residents, altogether put a premium on active participation, profess a positive outlook with enduring commitment to immediately rebound from any experienced disaster.
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