Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN : 2709-0159
Current Publisher: Baynoon Centre for Studies and Development (10.47631)
Total articles ≅ 18
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Mohsin Mumtaz, Nageen Hussain
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 75-90; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.93

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this review study is to outline rheumatoid arthritis and VEGF participation in rheumatoid arthritis disease development and also to help future researchers in this field. Study Design: A Review Study. Subjects and Methods: A number of research articles were systematically reviewed. More sixty research studies related to rheumatoid arthritis and the role of VEGF Gene were examined. The results of these studies are highlighted and compared. Results: Rheumatoid Arthritis is capable of causing joint damage, moreover, lead to long term disability in severe cases. Mutation in VEGF due to the involvement of multiple factors (environmental, genetic factors etc) lead to severity in RA patients as it has a role in certain inflammatory processes, angiogenesis etc. Further research needs to be done in this field because many of the factors involve in pathogenesis of RA such as factors that cause loss of tolerance and inflammation in joints, are still unclear. Conclusion: Although old diagnostic techniques are optimized, we further need to improve the diagnostic and treatment techniques in order to diagnose the patients at early stage. This will pacify patients’ disease severity and provide certain preventive measure that will assist in preventing the aggravation of disease in family members.
Rana Mohammed Tahir, Mustafa Hussein
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 123-132; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.118

Abstract:
Purpose: The concept of Pharmacovigilance (PhV) evolved to improve patient safety and the quality of provided healthcare. Community pharmacists are considered to be key players in the process of PhV and reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs).The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists in relation to pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Subjects and Methods: An observational cross-sectional survey was carried out among community pharmacists in Sudan to evaluate their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards Pharmacovigilance. The study was carried out between March and May 2020, including 201 community pharmacists who were selected through simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 24. Results: A total of 201 community pharmacists were included in the survey. Females constituted 68.7% of the study participants. Two-thirds of the study population were between 23 and 30 years of age. The majority had a career experience between 1 and 5 years (52.2%). The mean knowledge score among males was 3.48 (± 1.51), and 3.75 (± 1.36) among females. The difference in the mean knowledge score between the two genders was not statistically significant (p-value 0.197). 73.1% showed a positive attitude towards Pharmacovigilance. The mean attitude score was higher among females (2.97 vs 2.90). However, the difference was not statistically significant (p-value 0.662). Conclusion: Community pharmacists may have a prominent role in responding to the increase of ADR reporting if they have enough knowledge about Pharmacovigilance and how to report it. This survey showed that community pharmacists had a positive attitude about ADR but, unfortunately, many of them had insufficient knowledge.
Gurmeet Singh Sarla
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 109-115; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.133

Abstract:
Purpose: Yoga means unity of mind and body. It has an effective role in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression and thus it can be used as complementary medicine. It not only is effective for strengthening the body but also incorporates appropriate breathing techniques, mindfulness, and meditation in order to achieve the maximum benefits. The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. Subjects and Methods: In order to locate research studies and interventions that examined the therapeutic effects of yoga, databases were searched through Google Scholar and PubMed. The keywords entered into the database were Yoga, therapeutic effects, stress, anxiety, depression, chronic disease, arthritis, low backache, diabetes, cancer and pregnancy and articles from 1993 to 2007 were searched. Results: It is revealed that Yoga improves physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual health and offers an effective method of managing and reducing stress, anxiety and depression. It also triggers neurohormonal mechanisms that bring about health benefits, evidenced by the suppression of sympathetic activity. Yoga should be considered as a complementary therapy or alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders as it has been shown to create a greater sense of well-being, increase feelings of relaxation, improve self-confidence and body image, improve efficiency, better interpersonal relationships, increase attentiveness, lower irritability, and encourage an optimistic outlook on life. Conclusion: Yoga teaches us to slow down, quieten our minds and connect with our inner selves which ultimately help in relieving us from the pressures and stressors of this modern day life.
Farman Ullah Khan, Nageen Hussain
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 116-122; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.58

Abstract:
Purpose: The zoonosis caused by Toxoplasmagondii is known to be the third worldwide parasitic infectious disease. The living life, including human, chickens, cows and goats are at high risk because of its bulky circulation in the universe. The study was conducted to diagnoseT. gondii in Galliformes. The main objective of this study was to compare VetLine Toxoplasma with ToxPK1 gene as a marker for the detection of T. gondii. Study Design: An Experimental study. Subjects and Methods: The study subjects involved were 35 broilers in which 80% were females and 20% were males. Results: It was displayed that the female broilers have a little high rate of prevalence (29.63%) as compared to male broilers (25%). Conclusion: It was concluded that VetLine Toxoplasma in which protein A/G fixes to all IgGs subclasses from various mammalian species and the use of ToxPK1 gene as a molecular marker for the detection of T. gondiiwere100% matched. To eradicate and control this neglected zoonosis, there is an urgency need for risk factors control mechanisms; secondly specific, rapid and inexpensive diagnostic and treatment approaches.
Andi Muhrifan, Citrakesumasari Citrakesumasari, Natsir Djide, Saifuddin Sirajuddin, Nurhaedar Djafar, Furqan Naim
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 161-170; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.142

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to determine the oleic acid levels of mature breast milk (6-12 months) and to analyze the differences in oleic acid levels in mature breastfeeding mothers with chronic energy deficiency (CED) and normal nutritional status. Methods: This research was conducted in July - September 2020 in the work area of the Sudiang and Sudiang Raya puskesmas, Makassar City and the research laboratory of the State University Hospital (RSPTN) Unhas. The type of research used is analytic observation with a cross-sectional study approach. The population in the study amounted to 406 mothers. The sample in this study was breastfeeding mothers with 6-12 months of lactation. The sample size was determined by using the Dahlan formula with a total sample size of 38 participants consisting of 19 Chronic Energy Deficient breastfeeding mothers and 19 normal breastfeeding mothers. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling method. Data were analyzed using the Manwithney test. Results: The average levels of oleic acid in breastfeeding mothers with nutritional status of chronic energy deficiency were 1.00 ± 0.37 and breastfeeding mothers with normal nutritional status was 0.95 ± 0.36. The results of statistical tests found no significant differences (p> 0.05) between the oleic acid levels of breastfeeding mothers in chronic energy deficiency and normal nutritional status. Most of the found levels of oleic acid in the low category (reference 1.5) are namely 94.7% in normal nutritional status and 78.9% in nutritional status of women with chronic energy deficiency. Conclusion: The average oleic acid levels of breast milk in chronic energy deficiency and normal breastfeeding mothers were still low compared to the standard. There was no difference in oleic acid levels in breastfeeding mothers and breastfeeding mothers with normal nutritional status. A further qualitative research is needed in nursing mothers whose oleic acid levels are equal or exceed the reference.
Manal Mohamed Elsayed Ahmed, Ibrahim A., Abd El-Rahman M.
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 24-44; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.103

Abstract:
Purpose: The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis in Prince Sultan Armed Forces Hospital at Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. The aim was also to determine the most prevalent species of Brucella and to make a comparison between culture and serological methods in diagnosis and to evaluate the levels of sIL-2R and/or IFN-γ production to be used as markers of treatment efficacy. Study Design: Cross-sectional Study Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 65 patients with male: female ratio (2:1) suspected of having brucellosis. It was carried out using slide agglutination test for detection of anti-Brucella antibodies. Also, we estimated anti-Brucella IgG and IgM antibody levels in the sera of examined patients using ELISA. Quantization of human IFN-ɣ was performed. Results: The total incidence of brucellosis was 92.3%. The incidence among males (95.2%) was higher than that of female (87%). Brucellosis was detected in all age groups. Most of brucellosis patients were recovered during the period from January to June. Consumption of milk products, heating raw milk and milking animals were the highest risks with an incidence of 100% followed by drinking raw milk with an incidence of 95% while cutting raw meat and animal contact were the less risk with an incidence of 80% and 67%, respectively. The most prevalent species among examined patients was B. melitensis (86%) and B. abortus (6%). Brucellosis patients had 63% and 83%of anti BrucellaIg G and IgM, respectively. The highest (%) of patients having positive IgG and IgM levels in their sera were among 1/160 standard tube agglutination test (SAT) antibody titer group brucellosis patients were having positive levels of IFN-ɣ. All of them belonged to 1/80 antibody titer group. The mean IFN-ɣ levels according to SAT antibody titers were 224.25, 102 and 69.3 pg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Eradication of human brucellosis depends on the eradication of animal brucellosis. In countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where brucellosis is endemic; rapid, sensitive and highly specific diagnostic methods are required to make early diagnosis and prevent resistance as there is an overlap in therapy.
Mathieu Nahounou Bleyere, Jean-Baptiste N'Guessan Oussou, Jean Paul Aristide Amani, Paul Angoué Yapo
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 91-108; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.44

Abstract:
Purpose: The objective of this study is to compare the hematological and biochemical parameters in women with those of their newborns in order to assess the impact of the nutritional status of the former on the latter. Study Design: A cross sectional and prospective study. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted on 83 women who came to give birth in the hospitals of Abobo Sud (from April 3 to 20, 2017) and Yopougon Attié (from December 19, 2017 to January 18, 2018). The recruitment was based on their consent and according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The blood, taken from the elbow’s vein of the women in labor and in the umbilical cord after childbirth, is put in suitable tubes for the assays of the blood parameters. Results: The results showed that 29% of women in childbirth and 41% of newborns were anemic with the occurrence of almost all forms of anemia such as Normochromic Normocytic Anaemia (ANN), Normochromic Microcytic Anaemia (ANm) and Hypochromic Normocytic Anaemia (AHN), in both groups. The glycemia and lipid parameters studied as well as the atherogenicity indices were increased in women during childbirth, unlike newborns. Regarding hepatic and renal parameters, no significant differences were observed in total proteins, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin between women and newborns. However, the other parameters such as creatinine, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and conjugated bilirubin were elevated in newborns. As for the blood ion levels, the results showed high levels of calcium and potassium in newborns and high levels of chlorine in women. Conclusion: Women nutritional status significantly influences that of their newborn babies.
Muh. Kamil Muh. Arief, Erniwati Ibrahim, Wahiduddin Wahiduddin, Hasanuddin Ishak, Anwar Mallongi, Darmawansyah Darmawansyah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 140-150; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.138

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to determine the density of Aedes aegypti larvae based on the knowledge, attitudes, and actions of the managers and congregants of the Al-Markas Al-Islami Mosque in Makassar City. Methods: This type of research is descriptive observational. There are two types of samples in this study, namely the sample of the management and congregation of the Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque in Makassar City and the sample of containers. For container samples as many as 165 containers. Data analysis using univariate analysis. The assessment of larvae density used the Container Index (CI) and Density Figure (DF) values. Results: The results of the analysis showed that the number of positive containers larvae was 41 containers with a CI value of 24.85% and a DF value of 6 in the high density category. Two categories were used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and actions of the respondents, namely the good category and the unfavorable category. The results of data analysis showed that 19 (54.3%) respondents had good knowledge and 16 (45.7%) respondents had poor knowledge, 21 (60%) respondents had good attitudes and 14 (40%) respondents had good attitudes. unfavorable, as many as 18 (51.4%) respondents had good actions and 17 (48.6%) respondents had unfavorable actions. It is advisable to do counseling about the dangers of dengue disease and health training related to efforts to eradicate mosquito nests. Conclusion: The density of Aedes aegypti larvae in containers at the Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque in Makassar City and the congregation's house is in the high density category.
Kingsley Ubaoji, Onyeka Nwosu, Kingsley Agu, Kingsley Nwozor, Nma Ifedilichukwu, Antoinette Okaka
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 45-56; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.57

Abstract:
Purpose: Gingko biloba (GB) leaves have been recognized for their therapeutic effects, dating back to traditional Chinese medicine where the ground leaves were used to treat several health problems. GB extracts are renowned for their medicinal properties in Asia, Europe and South America. However, GB leaves are rarely grown and used in Nigeria. In this study, we screened the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of GB leaves (aqueous and ethanol extracts) grown in Enugu, Enugu State, South East Nigeria. Study Design: Experimental Materials and Methods: Quantitative analyses of phytochemicals were done using gas chromatography while disk diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activities. Results: The phytochemical analysis of aqueous and ethanol extracts showed high quantity of flavonoids (anthocyanin, rutin, epicatechin, kaemferol and catechin), alkaloids (lunamarine and ribalindine) and saponin while the moderate quantity of steroids and terpenes, tannin and phenols were also observed. The phytochemical analysis also showed very little concentration of antinutrients (phytate and oxalate) in both extracts. The ethanol extract showed some degree of antibacterial and antifungal activities as observed from their zones of inhibition (mm). Activity was observed on gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcusaureus (15.5+0.71mm) and less activity on gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (10.5+1.41mm) and Pseudomonasaeruginosa (no activity). Also there was an activity on yeast; Candida albicans (16.5+0.71mm) and less activity on moulds; Penicilliumcyclopium (9+1.41mm) and Aspergillus fumigatus (no activity). The aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity on both bacteria and fungi. Conclusion: This study revealed the medicinal potentials of Ginkgo biloba leaves grown in Nigeria. The findings, therefore, will be useful for pharmaceutical industries and medical practice in Nigeria and beyond for the provision of good health to individuals.
Venkatesh Hange
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 133-139; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.40

Abstract:
Carcinoma of lip develops due to formation of malignant cells in the lips and it is the most common site for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region. Oral cavity is among top five leading sites of cancer, regardless of gender distribution across India. Squamous cell carcinoma of lip occurs at myriad locations along the upper or lower lip or commissure of lip, but majority (80% to 95%) of cases are seen on the lower lip region. Majority of oral cavity carcinoma cases (> 90%) are seen in patients above the age of 45, having a male predilection in distribution. Lesions that includes up to one third of the lower lip are typically treated with V-type or W-type excisions. Lesions affecting between one to two thirds of the lower lip are typically treated by regional flaps of Abbe or Estlander. Larger lesions involving more than two thirds of the lower lip are treated with Bernard flap for middle lesions and nasolabial transpositional flap for lateral lesions. Alternatively, definitive radiotherapy can be used for local control of early-stage epithelial malignancies of the lips such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, but usually reserved for selected situations, also side effects of irradiation limits its use. Local resection along with elective SOHND is mandatory for long term survival rate and to avoid substantial worse prognosis. This case report describes an unusual presentation of carcinoma of lip mimicking benign soft tissue swelling.
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