Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2709-0159 / 2709-1511
Total articles ≅ 24
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Sharaf Alawdi, Ajay B. Solanki
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 50-64; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.213

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this article is to present a review of mucoadhesion drug delivery systems. The review covers the mucoadhesive concepts, polymers used, theories and mechanisms of mucoadhesion, and factors affecting the mucoadhesive dosage forms. Study Design: An extensive review was carried out on mucoadhesion formulations, applications, mechanisms, theories, and polymers used in these dosage forms. Results: Mucoadhesive drug delivery system can interact with the mucus membrane, which covers the mucin molecules and mucosal epithelial surface. This interaction leads to an increment of the dosage form residence time at the site of absorption and hence increasing the bioavailability, efficacy of drugs, and improving therapeutic outcomes. Polymers are used to provide muco-adhesion of the dosage form, enhancing drug release pattern, solubility and dissolution of inadequately soluble drugs. Conclusion: Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were found to be the best alternative approaches for the traditional dosage forms to enhance bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs and to avoid GIT degradation and first pass metabolism of some drugs.
Ferdiana Casanova Daulay, Sudiro Sudiro, Asriwati Amirah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 42-49; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.218

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to analyze infection control prevention management on nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital. Methods: An analytical survey was employed with a cross-sectional design. The population included the nurses who served in the in-patient rooms of Regional General Hospital (RSUD) Rantauprapat with a sample of 64 participants. The data was collected using purposive sampling. For data analysis, univariate, bivariate analysis with chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used. Results:The results showed that there is a relationship between infection control prevention management and nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital in 2020 with the results of the chi-squares-p = 0.0001 test. In addition, there is a relationship between infection control prevention management based on policy / SPO on nurses’ compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital in 2020 with the results of the chi-square sig-p = 0.001. The most dominant variable that affects nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene is supervision because it has the greatest regression coefficient (B), which is 2.444 with an Exp (B). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that regular supervision and training serve as the most effective option in infection control prevention management. Moreover, nurses’ compliance with the implementation of hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital has a direct relationship with good infection control prevention management.
Nosaiba Ahmed Hussein Abdelseed
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-9; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.149

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term glycemic control by glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and to assess knowledge about the diabetic regimen. The results of glycemic control in this study were compared with the results of a study conducted in 2018 that targeted almost a similar population. Study Design: A Cross-Sectional Study. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in October 2012 to December 2012 in a major referral Diabetic Centre. Diabetic children aged 8 to 18 years old who were attending the referral diabetic clinics were included in the study (n = 90). Knowledge of diabetes management was evaluated by using a semi-structured questionnaire and HbA1c results were obtained from medical records, available for only 71. Later, these Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c results were compared with the results of a recent study carried out among Sudanese diabetic children and adolescents in 2018. Results: Out of 71 diabetic children 78.9% were of poor glycemic control with mean HbA1c 10.36±2.14. On the other hand, the majority had good knowledge about the diabetic treatment including insulin administration, its storage conditions, and also the effect of exercise on blood glucose. However, almost 18.8% of studied participants did not know hypoglycemia symptoms, and about 11% of these patients were unaware of hypoglycemia management. Conclusion: The study has indicated that a significant percentage of studied diabetic children and adolescents had poor glycemic control. Although children’s knowledge about insulin therapy was good, further study must be conducted to investigate factors related to glycemic control among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Salim Mohamed Al Khreem, Mugahed Al-Khadher
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 30-41; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.178

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess nurses’ perception of medication errors nurses in Maternity and Child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among 72 nurses in Maternity and child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through a questionnaire, consisting of two parts: Part 1 covers demographical data, which includes age, gender, educational level, and years of experience and place of work in the hospital. Part 2 of the questionnaire consists of (23) questions about the nurses' perception of the causes, reporting medication error, and perceptions of barriers to reporting medication errors. Data were analyzed by using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Results: The results of the study indicate that most of the participants had a good perception of the causes of medication errors. Nevertheless, the data analysis showed that many of the participants had reporting medication errors. More importantly, the participants indicated that there exist multiple barriers to reporting medication errors. Two-thirds of them had moderate barriers to concerns over the consequences of reporting. More than half of them had minor barriers to blaming nurses if patients are harmed, while, about one-quarter of them had major barriers to fear of punishment. There was no statistically significant relationship between the studied nurses’ perception of the causes of medication errors and their characteristics (P value > 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that nurses at Maternity and Child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia, Had a good perception of the causes of medication errors. In addition, there was no statistically significant relationship between the participants’ reporting medication errors and their characteristics except age and years of experience.
Hawar M.H. Zebari, Hoger M. Hidayet, Assel. A. I. Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar Hussein, Reski Pebriani, Nurhaedar Jafar, Wahiduddin, Healthy Hidayanti, Burhanuddin, Ummu Salamah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 19-29; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.128

Abstract:
Purpose: The normal behavior of goat kids is influenced by painful husbandry procedures such as ear tagging, with kids reducing peripheral temperature and increase restlessness. The present study was designed to elucidate that pain caused by ear tagging affects peripheral temperatures and behavioral observations in Karadi kid goats. Study Design: Experimental Study Design. Subjects and Methods: Nineteen native black goat kids, aged 10-14 days, were used in this study as a sample. Eye and nasal temperatures were recorded before ear tagging process (control) and after ear tagging 5 times in 30 minutes. In addition, the behavior of each kid was observed for 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after ear tagging using focal sampling recorded with instantaneous time sampling to measure the duration and frequency of each behavior of the kids. Results: It was revealed that peripheral temperatures were significantly decreased for both eye (P
Konan Kouassi Serge-Olivier, Bleyere Mathieu, Yves Bénarèce Tra Dje Bi, Soualio Kamagate, Paul Angoué
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 10-18; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.217

Abstract:
Purpose: This article aims to evaluate the effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and some blood biochemical composition of male Japanese quail. Study Design: Qualitative Descriptive Design. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred, three week old apparently healthy male Japanese quail were used in this experiment. The birds were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 3 replicates of 20 birds for 21 days of experimental period and placed in cages, measuring 100 cm (length) x100 cm (width) x 80 cm (height). Group A was fed on diet 1 containing 18% crude protein, Group B was fed on diet 2 containing 20% crude protein, Group C was fed on diet 3 containing 22% crude protein, Group D was fed on diet 4 containing 24% crude protein and Group E was fed on diet 5containing 26% crude protein. All groups were subjected to similar management practices. Results: The findings showed that growth performance parameters significantly improved as dietary crude protein level increased. However dietary protein level beyond 22% has no beneficial effect on growth. Biochemical examination results demonstrated that the crude protein level in diet was not significantly affected the blood glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus and liver enzyme activities (ASAT and ALT). However, we noticed a significant effect (P
Manal Mohamed Elsayed Ahmed, Ibrahim A., Abd El-Rahman M.
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 24-44; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.103

Abstract:
Purpose: The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis in Prince Sultan Armed Forces Hospital at Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. The aim was also to determine the most prevalent species of Brucella and to make a comparison between culture and serological methods in diagnosis and to evaluate the levels of sIL-2R and/or IFN-γ production to be used as markers of treatment efficacy. Study Design: Cross-sectional Study Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 65 patients with male: female ratio (2:1) suspected of having brucellosis. It was carried out using slide agglutination test for detection of anti-Brucella antibodies. Also, we estimated anti-Brucella IgG and IgM antibody levels in the sera of examined patients using ELISA. Quantization of human IFN-ɣ was performed. Results: The total incidence of brucellosis was 92.3%. The incidence among males (95.2%) was higher than that of female (87%). Brucellosis was detected in all age groups. Most of brucellosis patients were recovered during the period from January to June. Consumption of milk products, heating raw milk and milking animals were the highest risks with an incidence of 100% followed by drinking raw milk with an incidence of 95% while cutting raw meat and animal contact were the less risk with an incidence of 80% and 67%, respectively. The most prevalent species among examined patients was B. melitensis (86%) and B. abortus (6%). Brucellosis patients had 63% and 83%of anti BrucellaIg G and IgM, respectively. The highest (%) of patients having positive IgG and IgM levels in their sera were among 1/160 standard tube agglutination test (SAT) antibody titer group brucellosis patients were having positive levels of IFN-ɣ. All of them belonged to 1/80 antibody titer group. The mean IFN-ɣ levels according to SAT antibody titers were 224.25, 102 and 69.3 pg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Eradication of human brucellosis depends on the eradication of animal brucellosis. In countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where brucellosis is endemic; rapid, sensitive and highly specific diagnostic methods are required to make early diagnosis and prevent resistance as there is an overlap in therapy.
Mathieu Nahounou Bleyere, Jean-Baptiste N'Guessan Oussou, Jean Paul Aristide Amani, Paul Angoué Yapo
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 91-108; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.44

Abstract:
Purpose: The objective of this study is to compare the hematological and biochemical parameters in women with those of their newborns in order to assess the impact of the nutritional status of the former on the latter. Study Design: A cross sectional and prospective study. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted on 83 women who came to give birth in the hospitals of Abobo Sud (from April 3 to 20, 2017) and Yopougon Attié (from December 19, 2017 to January 18, 2018). The recruitment was based on their consent and according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The blood, taken from the elbow’s vein of the women in labor and in the umbilical cord after childbirth, is put in suitable tubes for the assays of the blood parameters. Results: The results showed that 29% of women in childbirth and 41% of newborns were anemic with the occurrence of almost all forms of anemia such as Normochromic Normocytic Anaemia (ANN), Normochromic Microcytic Anaemia (ANm) and Hypochromic Normocytic Anaemia (AHN), in both groups. The glycemia and lipid parameters studied as well as the atherogenicity indices were increased in women during childbirth, unlike newborns. Regarding hepatic and renal parameters, no significant differences were observed in total proteins, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin between women and newborns. However, the other parameters such as creatinine, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and conjugated bilirubin were elevated in newborns. As for the blood ion levels, the results showed high levels of calcium and potassium in newborns and high levels of chlorine in women. Conclusion: Women nutritional status significantly influences that of their newborn babies.
Muh. Kamil Muh. Arief, Erniwati Ibrahim, Wahiduddin Wahiduddin, Hasanuddin Ishak, Anwar Mallongi, Darmawansyah Darmawansyah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 140-150; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.138

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to determine the density of Aedes aegypti larvae based on the knowledge, attitudes, and actions of the managers and congregants of the Al-Markas Al-Islami Mosque in Makassar City. Methods: This type of research is descriptive observational. There are two types of samples in this study, namely the sample of the management and congregation of the Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque in Makassar City and the sample of containers. For container samples as many as 165 containers. Data analysis using univariate analysis. The assessment of larvae density used the Container Index (CI) and Density Figure (DF) values. Results: The results of the analysis showed that the number of positive containers larvae was 41 containers with a CI value of 24.85% and a DF value of 6 in the high density category. Two categories were used to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and actions of the respondents, namely the good category and the unfavorable category. The results of data analysis showed that 19 (54.3%) respondents had good knowledge and 16 (45.7%) respondents had poor knowledge, 21 (60%) respondents had good attitudes and 14 (40%) respondents had good attitudes. unfavorable, as many as 18 (51.4%) respondents had good actions and 17 (48.6%) respondents had unfavorable actions. It is advisable to do counseling about the dangers of dengue disease and health training related to efforts to eradicate mosquito nests. Conclusion: The density of Aedes aegypti larvae in containers at the Al-Markaz Al-Islami Mosque in Makassar City and the congregation's house is in the high density category.
Mohsin Mumtaz, Nageen Hussain
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 75-90; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.93

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this review study is to outline rheumatoid arthritis and VEGF participation in rheumatoid arthritis disease development and also to help future researchers in this field. Study Design: A Review Study. Subjects and Methods: A number of research articles were systematically reviewed. More sixty research studies related to rheumatoid arthritis and the role of VEGF Gene were examined. The results of these studies are highlighted and compared. Results: Rheumatoid Arthritis is capable of causing joint damage, moreover, lead to long term disability in severe cases. Mutation in VEGF due to the involvement of multiple factors (environmental, genetic factors etc) lead to severity in RA patients as it has a role in certain inflammatory processes, angiogenesis etc. Further research needs to be done in this field because many of the factors involve in pathogenesis of RA such as factors that cause loss of tolerance and inflammation in joints, are still unclear. Conclusion: Although old diagnostic techniques are optimized, we further need to improve the diagnostic and treatment techniques in order to diagnose the patients at early stage. This will pacify patients’ disease severity and provide certain preventive measure that will assist in preventing the aggravation of disease in family members.
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