Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2709-0159 / 2709-1511
Total articles ≅ 38
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Abdel-Moniem A. Makhlouf, Atef M. Mahmoud, Rania G. Ibrahim, Yasmeen S. Abdel Aziz
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.297

Abstract:
Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D and Simvastatin (SIM) on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced-obese rats. Methods: 40 adult male rats were divided into four groups: control group, HFD, HFD + vitamin D, and HFD + SIM for 14 weeks. Vitamin D or SIM supplementation was done for the last 6 weeks. Vitamin D dosage was 500 IU/kg, while SIM dosage was 10 mg/kg. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration and markers of oxidative stress including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione(GSH) concentrations in serum were determined using ELISA kits and spectrophotometry methods, respectively. Results: Treatment with vitamin D or SIM could significantly reduce IL-6 and MDA and increases SOD, GPx activities, and GSH levels. Oxidative stress can result not only from increased ROS production but also from dysfunctional antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: From the experimental results, it was observed that SIM and vitamin D could attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation markers associated with obesity.
Tara Devi Sen, Tanuja Thakur
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 75-103; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.309

Abstract:
Purpose: The study aims to document use value analysis of some ethnomedicinal plants in LADs preparation. Subject & Methods: Field data was collected through semi-structured interviews from knowledgeable people. The relative importance of each LADs & plant species useful in making of LADs was assessed by calculating a general Use Value Index (UV general), a current UV (UV current) and a past UV (UV past).Status of cultivation, occurrence and DMR score was also assessed to show additional uses of plants besides their use in LADs preparation. Results: Fifty-four plant (H=23, Sh=11, T= 20) species were recorded in present study. Out of which 30 (Herbs=11, Shrubs =7, Trees=12) belonging to 17 families and 25 genera (Cultivated=5;Wild=16;Both=9) were mainly used in making of LHDs. while 24 (Herbs=12, Shrubs=4, Trees=8) belonging to 20 families and 24 genera were used as herbal ingredients according to their availability and preference of local people. LADs were categorized into 7 main types. Among LADs aromatic drinks showed maximum (UVgeneral = 0.8) UVcurrent & effective value (0.4 each). DMR value was highest for Terminalia chebula (26) followed by Bauhinia variegata (25) and Prunus cerasoides (24). Conclusions: LADs proved to occupy a pivotal role in the traditional culture and social life of indigenous people in past, but traditional knowledge related to processing and utilization of LADs is on sharp decline and is further merge among young generation due to increased literacy, strict law against their production for commercial uses and easy availability of commercial alcoholic drinks even in villages. Some plant and ingredients useful in making LADs have potential nutraceutical and medicinal relevance that are well known by local people. These properties could constitute and contribute an additional socio-economic value for LAD's commercialization, which in turn could promote the local rural economy boost immunity and culinary tourism.
Lara R. Shoukry, Ahmed N. Mohamed, Alzahraa E. A. Sharaf, Osama B. S. Osman
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.319

Abstract:
Background: Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a major health problem throughout the world. The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging due to the non-specific nature of the clinical presentation, the variety of other neonatal disorders with the differential diagnostic workup, lack of sensitivity and specificity of available diagnostic procedures, and the delay in the results of blood cultures in addition to high negative results reported. The diagnosis of suspected sepsis has to be based on clinical symptoms together with biochemical parameters. A diagnostic marker with high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity would be a valuable tool for decreasing the burden of neonatal sepsis Purpose: Evaluate the validity of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis or the use of a combination of diagnostic markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6. Methods: The study included 30 patients with NS (Group I) and 30 healthy newborns as control (Group II) were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) from January 2017 to June 2017. All neonates were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including complete blood count (CBC), blood culture and sensitivity testing, CRP, and IL-6. Results: the most causative organism of neonatal sepsis in NICU was Klebsiella spp. followed by CONS. IL-6 results with cut-off value 50pg/ml, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 90.32%, the positive predictive value of 90.63%, negative predictive value, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.16. Moreover, IL-6 levels are significantly higher statistically in NS patients than controls. Conclusion: This study validated the diagnostic capability of IL-6 and showed that the combination of CRP and IL-6 as a panel for the early diagnosis of NS could enhance the sensitivity in the diagnosis of NS and may provide a new diagnostic strategy for NS patients Objective: Evaluate the validity of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis or the use of combination of diagnostic markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6. Patients and methods: The study included 30 patients with NS (Group I) and 30 apparently healthy newborns as control (Group II) were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) from January 2017 to June 2017. All neonates were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including: complete blood count (CBC), blood culture and sensitivity testing, CRP, and IL-6. Results: the most causative organism of neonatal sepsis in NICU was klebsiella spp. followed by CONS. IL-6 results with cut-off value 50pg/ml, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 90.32%, positive predictive value of 90.63%, negative predictive value, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.16. Moreover, IL-6 levels are significant higher statistically in NS patients than controls. Conclusion: This study validated the diagnostic capability of IL-6 and showed that the combination of CRP and IL-6 as a panel for the early diagnosis of NS could enhance the sensitivity in the diagnosis of NS and may provide a new diagnostic strategy for NS patients.
Mercy Ugbede Enemali, Danung Istifanus Yilkahan
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.322

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate biofilm forming capacity and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical wound specimen. Method: A total number of 60 wound specimens were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital for investigation, and screened for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strains were identified on the basis of cultural characteristics, Gram staining, biochemical tests such as citrate, urease, indole, fermentation of sugar using triple sugar agar. The biofilm forming capacity of the strains are tested using the test tube method after standardizing the strains to approximately standard inoculated into a cooked meat broth. The growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains after 48 hours incubation are measured by taking the absorbance using Densi-Check. The strain growth rate is also checked. Biofilm formation at the liquid interface (pellicle) is qualitatively scored from the first to the last strain. The clinical significance of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm forming capacity and resistance to antibiotics which could result to none healing, delayed healing, foul smell of wound infection are checked for the experiment. Results: The analysis of the study shows that the strains are more susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Streptomycin while the strains are less susceptible to Orfloxacin and Gentamycin. Conclusion: the data derived from human clinical studies make clear that biofilm have an important adverse effect on wound healing. Despite this, more fundamental scientific studies are required to understand what biofilm do to normal wound healing processes from cellular and immunological perspective.
Anjuman Ara, Laila Al Faria, A.H.M. Mahbubur Rahman
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 51-66; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.266

Abstract:
Purpose: The aims to investigate the angiosperm taxa in the study area. The present research also documented the species diversity and important medicinal plants. Subjects and Methods: Angiosperm flora in the Chaar Khidirpur area of Rajshahi, Bangladesh was carried out from November 2018 to October 2019 to cover the seasonal variations. Plant parts with either flower or fruits collected using traditional herbarium techniques to make voucher specimens for documentation. Results: The result focused that a total of 210 species belonging to177 genera under 71 families were recorded. Forty-five (45) medicinal plants were used for the treatment of more than 61 diseases. Conclusion: The present study was the first time to report angiosperm diversity and medicinal plants in the study area. In this research, the status of occurrence has been recorded for proper conservation management and sustainable utilization of the taxa resulting in 81.33% being common, 16.74% as rare and 1.91% are found as threatened in the study area.
Manal Mohamed Elsayed Ahmed
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 104-122; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.242

Abstract:
Polymyxins were used for the management of gram-negative infections in clinical practice science1940s. Parenteral administration waned in the seventies owing to polymyxins nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Because of the lack of treatment choices for MDR and/or XDRgram negative superbugs as well as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there is a growing need for effective prescribing of old antibiotics that are still effective. However, understanding of polymyxins pharmacokinetics (PK) was restricted and clinical experience is limited which leads to a lack of widespread availability of up-to-date dosing guidelines that could potentially result in the incorrect use of these “last resort” antibiotics. Recently, polymyxin B resistant strains are also a reason of concern. In this review, we discuss the importance of preserving the effectiveness of polymyxins for nosocomial gram-negative infections and strategies to improve polymyxins’ prescription. We recommend that polymyxins should only be used to manage significant MDR and/or XDRgram-negative infections, in optimum doses and if possible, in combination therapy
Joseph Olowo Arogbodo, Oyetayo Bolanle Faluyi, Festus Omotere Igbe
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.304

Abstract:
Purpose: The study aims to assess the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Hibiscus asper and Hibiscus sabdariffa against eight bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: An in vitro Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of the two plants against eight nosocomical and pathogenic bacteria viz; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE), Proteus vulgaris (PVU), Klebsiella aerogenes (KAE), Staphylococcus aureus (SAU), Bacillus cereus (BCE), Escherichia coli (ECO), Moraxella catarrhalis (MCA) and Salmonella typhi (STY) was carried out using agar well diffusion assay with the concentration range of 3.13 – 100 mg/mL. Results: H. asper and H. sabdariffa showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in antimicrobial activity against BCE over the rest of the isolates. Inhibition zone diameters exhibited by the isolates to ethanolic leaf extract of H. asper was in descending order of BCE (15.00 ± 1.00a) >ECO (11.67 ± 0.58b) >SAU (7.67 ± 0.58c) >PAE (6.67 ± 0.58d) >STY (5.67 ± 0.58e) while that of H. sabdariffa was in the order BCE (15.33 ± 1.15a) > MCA (11.33 ± 1.15b) > SAU (11.00 ± 1.00bc) > KAE (9.67 ± 0.58c) > PAE (8.00 ± 1.00d) >PVU (7.67 ± 0.57e). PVU, KAE and MCA were resistant to the extract of H. asper while only STY was resistant to that of H. sabdariffa. Conclusion: H. sabdariffa extract demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial isolates than H. asper. However, the two extracts minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) ranged from 25 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL. This is worthy of further exploration by pharmacological industries in the formulation of potent broad spectrum antibiotics for combating the present health challenge due to antimicrobial resistance.
Osuolale Peter Popoola, Matthew Taiwo Odusina, Wole Ayanniyi Ayanrinde
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 27-38; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i3.265

Abstract:
Purpose: This study investigates the effect of fertilizers (Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potassium) on Guava; examines which of the three elements of NPK contribute most to the weight of guava seed. It thus further determines at what proportion each of the three elements is to be applied for optimum yield. Subjects and Methods: A 3 x 3 factorial experiments were adopted in the data analysis; further tests were conducted using different Post Hoc test approaches and a multiple regression analysis was derived to investigate at what proportion the elements are to be applied for optimum yield. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that only Phosphorus and Potassium contribute to the growth and weight yield of guava. The Post-Hoc Tests showed that there was a significant difference between the mean pair of P0 & P20 and P0 & P40 with a p-value of 0.000 and 0.000 respectively. Also, there was a significant difference between the mean pair of K0 & K50 and K0 & P100 with a p-value of 0.004 and 0.008 respectively which is less than the significant level at 0.05. Furthermore, the overall multiple regression models for the weight yield of guava fruits were obtained as: (Y)=5.646+0.0556N-0.3611P+1.5694K+1.7167NP+1.1333NK+1.0361PK. Conclusion: Thus, to obtain an optimal yield of 12- 20t/ha of guava fruits, phosphorus and potassium are to be applied at 40k.g and 50kg respectively with spacing of 6 x 6m accommodating 277.7 plants per hectare.
Tamanna Zerin, Ariful Islam, Sabera Gulnahar, Noor E Farjana, Mosammat Asia Begum, Halima-E Sadia
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i2.264

Abstract:
Purpose: As bloodstream infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, the surveillance study is required to continuously monitor the pattern of infection and antibiotic resistance. Our study aimed to detect the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from patients in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted over 2 years from January 2019 to December 2020 with a total of 1,367 suspected hemocultures of inward and outward patients in Rajshahi medical college hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The standard microbiological methods were used in this study. Results: Out of overall 35% positive growth, 34% and 37% showed blood culture infection in the year 2019 and 2020, respectively. Females (55%) were found higher than males (45%). The patients were the highest in the age group 0-10 years (46%) but the number of infections rapidly decreased in the age 11-20 years (21%) followed by a gradual reduction of infection with the increasing age. All the infections were occurred due to single culture and E. coli was accounted as the most frequent infection (39.09%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albican, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella spp., Streptococcus viridans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Higher sensitivity towards Cefepime, and Meropenem was demonstrated by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bloodborne bacteria. A terrifying scenario was that a great number of those isolates showed resistance towards 4, 6, and more than 6 antibiotics, respectively. Conclusion: Our local work on bacteriological profile and antibiogram might help to rationalize empiric treatment strategies.
S. O. Aro, J. O Arogbodo, Ahmed M. A., Ademola O. F.
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i2.248

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim is to study the effects of stocking density on the performance characteristics, egg quality, and nutrient composition of the eggs of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-six (296) day-old sexed Japanese quails assigned to four different stocking densities (treatments) with four replicates conducted in the rainy season. The groups (I to IV) contained 11, 16, 21, and 26 quails in the approximate sex ratio of 1:1 (male: female) with stock densities 252.20 cm2, 173.43 cm2, 132.10 cm2, and 106.73 cm2/quail respectively. Standard procedures were adopted in data generation, collation and analyses. Results: The results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, hen-day production, hen-housed production, total egg /hen, external and internal egg parameters across the treatments. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.38 % and lowest mortality (2.27 %) were obtained from group one and compared with those in groups two and three. The highest mortality rate was observed in group IV (12.50 %). The proximate analysis and mineral composition of the eggs recorded the highest values from group I which was also compared with the rest of the groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that 173.43 cm2 and 132.10 cm2/quail bird compared well with the standard (252.20 cm2/quail bird) and hence could still be adopted in quail farming without compromising their welfare and performance.
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