Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2709-0159 / 2709-1511
Current Publisher: Baynoon Centre for Studies and Development (10.47631)
Total articles ≅ 24
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Salim Mohamed Al Khreem, Mugahed Al-Khadher
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 30-41; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.178

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess nurses’ perception of medication errors nurses in Maternity and Child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among 72 nurses in Maternity and child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through a questionnaire, consisting of two parts: Part 1 covers demographical data, which includes age, gender, educational level, and years of experience and place of work in the hospital. Part 2 of the questionnaire consists of (23) questions about the nurses' perception of the causes, reporting medication error, and perceptions of barriers to reporting medication errors. Data were analyzed by using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Results: The results of the study indicate that most of the participants had a good perception of the causes of medication errors. Nevertheless, the data analysis showed that many of the participants had reporting medication errors. More importantly, the participants indicated that there exist multiple barriers to reporting medication errors. Two-thirds of them had moderate barriers to concerns over the consequences of reporting. More than half of them had minor barriers to blaming nurses if patients are harmed, while, about one-quarter of them had major barriers to fear of punishment. There was no statistically significant relationship between the studied nurses’ perception of the causes of medication errors and their characteristics (P value > 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that nurses at Maternity and Child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia, Had a good perception of the causes of medication errors. In addition, there was no statistically significant relationship between the participants’ reporting medication errors and their characteristics except age and years of experience.
Hawar M.H. Zebari, Hoger M. Hidayet, Assel. A. I. Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar Hussein, Reski Pebriani, Nurhaedar Jafar, Wahiduddin, Healthy Hidayanti, Burhanuddin, Ummu Salamah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 19-29; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.128

Abstract:
Purpose: The normal behavior of goat kids is influenced by painful husbandry procedures such as ear tagging, with kids reducing peripheral temperature and increase restlessness. The present study was designed to elucidate that pain caused by ear tagging affects peripheral temperatures and behavioral observations in Karadi kid goats. Study Design: Experimental Study Design. Subjects and Methods: Nineteen native black goat kids, aged 10-14 days, were used in this study as a sample. Eye and nasal temperatures were recorded before ear tagging process (control) and after ear tagging 5 times in 30 minutes. In addition, the behavior of each kid was observed for 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after ear tagging using focal sampling recorded with instantaneous time sampling to measure the duration and frequency of each behavior of the kids. Results: It was revealed that peripheral temperatures were significantly decreased for both eye (P
Konan Kouassi Serge-Olivier, Bleyere Mathieu, Yves Bénarèce Tra Dje Bi, Soualio Kamagate, Paul Angoué
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 10-18; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.217

Abstract:
Purpose: This article aims to evaluate the effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and some blood biochemical composition of male Japanese quail. Study Design: Qualitative Descriptive Design. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred, three week old apparently healthy male Japanese quail were used in this experiment. The birds were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 3 replicates of 20 birds for 21 days of experimental period and placed in cages, measuring 100 cm (length) x100 cm (width) x 80 cm (height). Group A was fed on diet 1 containing 18% crude protein, Group B was fed on diet 2 containing 20% crude protein, Group C was fed on diet 3 containing 22% crude protein, Group D was fed on diet 4 containing 24% crude protein and Group E was fed on diet 5containing 26% crude protein. All groups were subjected to similar management practices. Results: The findings showed that growth performance parameters significantly improved as dietary crude protein level increased. However dietary protein level beyond 22% has no beneficial effect on growth. Biochemical examination results demonstrated that the crude protein level in diet was not significantly affected the blood glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus and liver enzyme activities (ASAT and ALT). However, we noticed a significant effect (P
Sharaf Alawdi, Ajay B. Solanki
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 50-64; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.213

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this article is to present a review of mucoadhesion drug delivery systems. The review covers the mucoadhesive concepts, polymers used, theories and mechanisms of mucoadhesion, and factors affecting the mucoadhesive dosage forms. Study Design: An extensive review was carried out on mucoadhesion formulations, applications, mechanisms, theories, and polymers used in these dosage forms. Results: Mucoadhesive drug delivery system can interact with the mucus membrane, which covers the mucin molecules and mucosal epithelial surface. This interaction leads to an increment of the dosage form residence time at the site of absorption and hence increasing the bioavailability, efficacy of drugs, and improving therapeutic outcomes. Polymers are used to provide muco-adhesion of the dosage form, enhancing drug release pattern, solubility and dissolution of inadequately soluble drugs. Conclusion: Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were found to be the best alternative approaches for the traditional dosage forms to enhance bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs and to avoid GIT degradation and first pass metabolism of some drugs.
Ferdiana Casanova Daulay, Sudiro Sudiro, Asriwati Amirah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 42-49; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.218

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to analyze infection control prevention management on nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital. Methods: An analytical survey was employed with a cross-sectional design. The population included the nurses who served in the in-patient rooms of Regional General Hospital (RSUD) Rantauprapat with a sample of 64 participants. The data was collected using purposive sampling. For data analysis, univariate, bivariate analysis with chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used. Results:The results showed that there is a relationship between infection control prevention management and nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital in 2020 with the results of the chi-squares-p = 0.0001 test. In addition, there is a relationship between infection control prevention management based on policy / SPO on nurses’ compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital in 2020 with the results of the chi-square sig-p = 0.001. The most dominant variable that affects nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene is supervision because it has the greatest regression coefficient (B), which is 2.444 with an Exp (B). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that regular supervision and training serve as the most effective option in infection control prevention management. Moreover, nurses’ compliance with the implementation of hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital has a direct relationship with good infection control prevention management.
Nosaiba Ahmed Hussein Abdelseed
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-9; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.149

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term glycemic control by glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and to assess knowledge about the diabetic regimen. The results of glycemic control in this study were compared with the results of a study conducted in 2018 that targeted almost a similar population. Study Design: A Cross-Sectional Study. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in October 2012 to December 2012 in a major referral Diabetic Centre. Diabetic children aged 8 to 18 years old who were attending the referral diabetic clinics were included in the study (n = 90). Knowledge of diabetes management was evaluated by using a semi-structured questionnaire and HbA1c results were obtained from medical records, available for only 71. Later, these Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c results were compared with the results of a recent study carried out among Sudanese diabetic children and adolescents in 2018. Results: Out of 71 diabetic children 78.9% were of poor glycemic control with mean HbA1c 10.36±2.14. On the other hand, the majority had good knowledge about the diabetic treatment including insulin administration, its storage conditions, and also the effect of exercise on blood glucose. However, almost 18.8% of studied participants did not know hypoglycemia symptoms, and about 11% of these patients were unaware of hypoglycemia management. Conclusion: The study has indicated that a significant percentage of studied diabetic children and adolescents had poor glycemic control. Although children’s knowledge about insulin therapy was good, further study must be conducted to investigate factors related to glycemic control among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Mohsin Mumtaz, Nageen Hussain
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 75-90; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.93

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this review study is to outline rheumatoid arthritis and VEGF participation in rheumatoid arthritis disease development and also to help future researchers in this field. Study Design: A Review Study. Subjects and Methods: A number of research articles were systematically reviewed. More sixty research studies related to rheumatoid arthritis and the role of VEGF Gene were examined. The results of these studies are highlighted and compared. Results: Rheumatoid Arthritis is capable of causing joint damage, moreover, lead to long term disability in severe cases. Mutation in VEGF due to the involvement of multiple factors (environmental, genetic factors etc) lead to severity in RA patients as it has a role in certain inflammatory processes, angiogenesis etc. Further research needs to be done in this field because many of the factors involve in pathogenesis of RA such as factors that cause loss of tolerance and inflammation in joints, are still unclear. Conclusion: Although old diagnostic techniques are optimized, we further need to improve the diagnostic and treatment techniques in order to diagnose the patients at early stage. This will pacify patients’ disease severity and provide certain preventive measure that will assist in preventing the aggravation of disease in family members.
Rana Mohammed Tahir, Mustafa Hussein
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 123-132; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.118

Abstract:
Purpose: The concept of Pharmacovigilance (PhV) evolved to improve patient safety and the quality of provided healthcare. Community pharmacists are considered to be key players in the process of PhV and reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs).The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists in relation to pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions. Study Design: A cross sectional study. Subjects and Methods: An observational cross-sectional survey was carried out among community pharmacists in Sudan to evaluate their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards Pharmacovigilance. The study was carried out between March and May 2020, including 201 community pharmacists who were selected through simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 24. Results: A total of 201 community pharmacists were included in the survey. Females constituted 68.7% of the study participants. Two-thirds of the study population were between 23 and 30 years of age. The majority had a career experience between 1 and 5 years (52.2%). The mean knowledge score among males was 3.48 (± 1.51), and 3.75 (± 1.36) among females. The difference in the mean knowledge score between the two genders was not statistically significant (p-value 0.197). 73.1% showed a positive attitude towards Pharmacovigilance. The mean attitude score was higher among females (2.97 vs 2.90). However, the difference was not statistically significant (p-value 0.662). Conclusion: Community pharmacists may have a prominent role in responding to the increase of ADR reporting if they have enough knowledge about Pharmacovigilance and how to report it. This survey showed that community pharmacists had a positive attitude about ADR but, unfortunately, many of them had insufficient knowledge.
Gurmeet Singh Sarla
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 109-115; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.133

Abstract:
Purpose: Yoga means unity of mind and body. It has an effective role in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression and thus it can be used as complementary medicine. It not only is effective for strengthening the body but also incorporates appropriate breathing techniques, mindfulness, and meditation in order to achieve the maximum benefits. The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. Subjects and Methods: In order to locate research studies and interventions that examined the therapeutic effects of yoga, databases were searched through Google Scholar and PubMed. The keywords entered into the database were Yoga, therapeutic effects, stress, anxiety, depression, chronic disease, arthritis, low backache, diabetes, cancer and pregnancy and articles from 1993 to 2007 were searched. Results: It is revealed that Yoga improves physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual health and offers an effective method of managing and reducing stress, anxiety and depression. It also triggers neurohormonal mechanisms that bring about health benefits, evidenced by the suppression of sympathetic activity. Yoga should be considered as a complementary therapy or alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders as it has been shown to create a greater sense of well-being, increase feelings of relaxation, improve self-confidence and body image, improve efficiency, better interpersonal relationships, increase attentiveness, lower irritability, and encourage an optimistic outlook on life. Conclusion: Yoga teaches us to slow down, quieten our minds and connect with our inner selves which ultimately help in relieving us from the pressures and stressors of this modern day life.
Farman Ullah Khan, Nageen Hussain
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 1, pp 116-122; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v1i2.58

Abstract:
Purpose: The zoonosis caused by Toxoplasmagondii is known to be the third worldwide parasitic infectious disease. The living life, including human, chickens, cows and goats are at high risk because of its bulky circulation in the universe. The study was conducted to diagnoseT. gondii in Galliformes. The main objective of this study was to compare VetLine Toxoplasma with ToxPK1 gene as a marker for the detection of T. gondii. Study Design: An Experimental study. Subjects and Methods: The study subjects involved were 35 broilers in which 80% were females and 20% were males. Results: It was displayed that the female broilers have a little high rate of prevalence (29.63%) as compared to male broilers (25%). Conclusion: It was concluded that VetLine Toxoplasma in which protein A/G fixes to all IgGs subclasses from various mammalian species and the use of ToxPK1 gene as a molecular marker for the detection of T. gondiiwere100% matched. To eradicate and control this neglected zoonosis, there is an urgency need for risk factors control mechanisms; secondly specific, rapid and inexpensive diagnostic and treatment approaches.
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