Pan African Journal of Life Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2672-5924
Current Publisher: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 32
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Pan African Journal of Life Sciences; doi:10.36108/pajols

Idowu A. Taiwo
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0370)

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains a global health threat. Assessment of the genetic relatedness of the genome sequence is a prerequisite to understanding the dynamics, which is important to improve diagnosis and preventive measures. This study determined genomic diversity and SNP characteristic of genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from Africa and the rest of the world. The study involved molecular and phylogenetic analyses to understand the phylogeny and transmission dynamics of the virus. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence data were mined and retrieved from major databases for one year in two phases: Phase 1; December 2019 to May 2020 and Phase 2; June 2020 to December 2020. A maximum of the four sequences that fulfilled the following predetermined criteria from each country were randomly selected for inclusion in the study: (i) sequence length >29,700 nt, (ii) number of Ns in the sequence not >5%, (iii) inclusion of Poly-A tail in the sequence record to ensure completeness. Results: The similarity of SARS-Cov-2 genomes within and between countries was generally high with an average of 99.9%. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 vary between countries and continents by 0.1% as a result of SNPs in its genome. Phylogenetic data revealed multiple origin of SARS-CoV-2 in Africa and also suggested that the virus spreads by ‘founder’s effect’; whereby few viruses newly introduced into a population multiply rapidly and accumulate mutations as they spread quickly by community transfer to create population-based identity. Tree of continental consensus sequences retrieved in Phase 1 suggested that SARS-CoV-2 virus is of two major clusters: African cluster consisting of Africa, Europe, and North America and Asian cluster made up of Asia, South America, and Oceania. However, this clustering pattern vanished in phase 2. Thus, upholding the view that SARS-CoV-2 is constantly evolving. Conclusion: This dynamism and genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 have important implications in diagnosis, transmission, and prevention strategy.
Nchang F. Cho
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0320)

Abstract:
Background: Long-lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) are effective in the prevention of malaria, but universal utilisation continues to be declining in parts of Cameroon. This study aimed to explore the predictors and incidences of LLINs ownership/ utilisation in a semi-urban community in the Bamenda Health District (BHD). . Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 448 randomly selected household heads was conducted between March and April 2018 in the BHD. Data on LLINs ownership and utilisation were collected with structured questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was used to establish the predictors of LLINs utilisation and ownership. Results: Household owner ship of at least one LLINs and universal usage was 93.3% and 43.1% respectively. Conclusion: The utilisation of LLINs was low and had no significant association with ownership. Continuous educational efforts and monitoring schemes with specific emphasis on vulnerable groups should be stepped up.
Christianah A. Dare, Nelson O. Elvis
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0340)

Abstract:
Background: This study was aimed at analysing the phytochemicals in Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon extract and their in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: The Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon methanol extract (CCME) was phytochemically screened, and flavonoids and phenol contents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays were carried out on the extract using standard procedures. Results: Phytochemicals analysis revealed the presence of steroids, tannins, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenes and xanthoproteins. The phenolic concentration, total flavonoids concentration and sugar concentration were found to be 26.720.048 μg of Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE /mg, 23.121.92 μg of Rutin Equivalent (RTE)/mg (10.491.12 μg of Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/mg) and 778.3812.82 μg of glucose/ml respectively. The extract demonstrated significant (P
Abiola T. Owolabi, Susannah T. Adepoju, Olawale Oladejo, Kunle I. Oreagba
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0360)

Abstract:
Background: Cataract surgery is the most common operation performed in ophthalmology. It is the commonest cause of reversible blindness globally, in Sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria. The study examined some factors affecting the outcome of cataracts surgery measured by Visual acuity after 6 weeks. Methods: Data was collected from the records of ophthalmic patients who had cataract surgery at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso, from the period of January 2013 to December 2018. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients’ records were retrieved for the study. Logistic Regression was used to investigate factors associated with the outcome of Cataracts Surgery. The goodness of fit test was used to determine the fit of the model to the data. Results: Two variables; intraoperative complication, and unaided visual acuity on the fir st postoperative day were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). The outcome of surgery using unaided visual acuity after six weeks of surgery showed that 47.1% of the patients had a good visual outcome (6/18) or better and 52.9% had a poor outcome (worse than 6/60). Factors such as complications within six weeks, presence of ocular and systemic comorbidity, and presence of intraoperative complications were found to increase the likelihood of poor outcomes in cataract surgery. Conclusion: This study has shown that Intraoperative complications and unaided visual acuity on the first postoperative day are important to the outcome of cataract surgery. Therefore, the two factors should be given attention during cataract surgery
Kemi O. Adesalu
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0330)

Abstract:
Background: Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti is of major concern to the control of several arboviral infections. The major mechanisms of Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes are target-site insensitivity and elevation in the activity of detoxification enzymes. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti population from Lagos to Pyrethroid and the impact of metabolic enzymes on resistance development. Methods: Larvae of Aedes aegypti were collected from differ ent habitats in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos state. Adult mosquitoes of 2-5 days were exposed to diagnostic dose of permethrin and Deltamethrin using the CDC method. Synergist assay was done with pre-exposure of samples to PBO before exposure to insecticide. Esterase and GST activities were measured using standard protocol. Regression Probit was used to compute the KDT50 and KDT95. Analysis of variance was used to compare the difference in mean of enzymes activities. Results: Aedes aegypti population from the study location is resistant to permethrin (33% ) and Deltamethrin (80%) within the diagnostic time. PBO pre-exposure increases percentage knockdown from 33% to 82% and 80% to 87% for permethrin and Deltamethrin respectively. The activity of GST was higher (P
Segun I. Oyedeji, Ikenna M. Odoh, Peter U. Bass, Henrietta O. Awobode
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0350)

Abstract:
Background: Cytokines are key regulator s of human immune response to malaria but polymorphisms within the regulatory or coding regions of their genes may lead to differences in expression levels which may consequently influence disease susceptibility. In this study, we characterized an adeninecytosine (AC)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (rs36213840) at the promoter region of the Interleukin 18 Receptor 1 (IL18R1) gene and investigated its association with severe malaria. Methods: We utilised the case-control study design to enrol a total of 207 children including 87 severe malaria cases and 120 asymptomatic controls. DNA was extracted from blood spot on filter paper using QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Genotyping for dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms was done by PCR and capillary electrophoresis of sequenced products on ABI PRISM® 3100 DNA sequencer (PE Applied Biosystems). Results: The genotype frequencies of the dinucleotide repeats differed significantly between the two groups (χ2 = 8.69, P=0.026). We found a significantly higher frequency of the 14bp (AC)7 allele in severe malaria patients than in asymptomatic controls (odds ratio 1.945, 95% CI: 1.23 – 3.09, P = 0.005) while the frequency of the 16bp (AC)8 allele was significant higher in the asymptomatic controls than in severe cases (odds ratio 0.431, 95% CI: 0.244 – 0.761, P = 0.004). Conclusion: Results of this suggest that the 14bp (AC)7 dinucleotide repeats might be a genetic risk factor for susceptibility to severe malaria while the 16bp (AC)8 dinucleotide repeats might be a protective factor against severe malaria
Bala S. Audu, Jamiu O. Omirinde, Audu I. Wakawa, Ibrahim A. Dalhatu, Jacinta B. Sale
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0310)

Abstract:
Background: Increased rate of water pollution has detrimental effects on the health of fish and other aquatic organisms. This invariably affects humans by causing food insecurity, hunger and poverty. In an effort to curb this menace, this study investigated the effects of crude tuber peel extract of Tacca leontopetaliodes on the biochemical and histological parameters of Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Acute toxicity (96 hr . LC50) test was conducted after a range finding test from which definitive test concentrations of 5.00, 4.00, 3.00, 2.00, and 1.00 g/L were obtained with 0.00 g/L as control. One hundred and twenty (120) mixed sex C. gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight, 12.5 g ± 0.5; length, 13.2 cm ± 0.5) were administered definitive concentrations of crude tuber peel extract in duplicate replication. Water quality parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity), tissue enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and histopathological assessments were analysed using standard procedures. Results: Physico-chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide and alkalinity) of test tanks containing graded concentrations of T. leontopetaliodes were significantly altered (p
Racheal O. Folarin, Jamiu O. Omirinde, Idris A. Azeez, Naanman J. Plang
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4, pp 43-50; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0220)

Abstract:
Background: Vitellaria paradoxa is a tropical plant with diverse folkloric health benefits that could be optimised in health product development. This study was therefore designed to investigate morphophysiological changes in the liver of rats exposed to acute and chronic concentrations of Vitellaria paradoxa Methods: A total of seventy-four (74) animals (Wistar rats and mice) were randomly assigned into two main groups based on toxicity plan; acute group consist of 9 sub-groups [0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 80,160, 320, 640 and 1280 mg/kg; n=6] while the chronic group consists of 4 sub-groups [0 (control), 32, 64 and 128 mg/kg; n=20] were orally exposed to Vitellaria paradoxa. The 96 hour LC50 value of Vitellaria paradoxa was calculated as 640mg/kg body Results: The acute concentrations of Vitellaria paradoxa induced dose-dependent severity in clinical signs such as: twitching, increase rate of respiration, sedation, abdominal muscle contractions and increased motor activity. The chronic concentrated grades of Vitellaria paradoxa more particularly the higher doses (64 and 128mg/kg) elicited significantly increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST) values compared to the control. Similarly, several hepatic histoarchitectural lesions such as: mild to severe, central venous and sinusoidal congestion, hepatic degeneration, and necrosis with loss of cord arrangement were strikingly visible at the higher doses. There was no significant difference in the haematological parameters across the different concentrations Conclusion: This study has shown that Vitellaria paradoxa seems to be unsafe following a prolonged administration. Therefore, caution should be taken in its both short and long term usage
Kehinde A. Kemabonta, Ayodeji A. Ikerodah, Prudence C. Anumud
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 4, pp 98-103; doi:10.36108/pajols/0202/40(0280)

Abstract:
Background: Petrol, xylene, and thinner are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a major class of pollutants that affect the chemistry of the atmosphere and animals including man. The principal mode of contamination is via inhalation. This study aims to elucidate the effects of these compounds on bio-chemical functions in the body of the mouse, Mus musculus Methods: One hundred and twenty adult albino Mus musculus species were randomly assigned to groups (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, and D1) based on their weights (8-13g for juveniles and 15 – 21g for adults) with specific treatments. The control treatment, A1, was housed in a plastic experimental house free from the test chemical vapor while groups A2 and B1; B2 and C1; C2 and D1 were exposed to pet-rol, thinner, and xylene respectively in wooden exposure chambers for six hours daily for sixty days. Levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH, SOD, CAT, and MDA) were determined using the spectrophotometry. Results: A significant decrease in the values of GSH, activities of SOD and CAT, were observed when compared to the mice in the control experiment as daily exposure to the selected vapor increased. On the other hand, MDA levels increased significantly with increasing daily exposure to vapor from the test chemicals, when compared to the control rats. Conclusion: Based on the findings from this study, the decrease in the SOD, CAT and GSH levels are indications of toxic build up in the blood implying that exposures to these VOCs inhibit natural processes. Thus, VOCs are detrimental to human health and long-term exposure to these organic com-pounds could result in deleterious sub-lethal effects, especially to individual exposed occupationally to them
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