Pan African Journal of Life Sciences

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EISSN : 2672-5924
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 65
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Roland I. Funwei
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 257-262; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0230

Abstract:
Background: Malaria is highly endemic in Nigeria, making malaria morbidity and mortality a leading public health challenge. The most at risk population of malaria attack is under-five years’ children. However, malaria is presumptively treated in older age groups. This study aimed to determine the age-dependent prevalence of malaria amongst three age groups in a rural community in south-south Nigeria. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey comprising febrile and afebrile participants (n = 300) were randomly selected and included for the study. The study participants were grouped into three groups: under-five years old children (n = 100), older children of aged 6-15 years (n = 100) and 16 years and above (n = 100). Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and Giemsa-stained microscopy were used for malaria diagnosis and parasite detection. Clinical and demographic parameters as well as malaria prevalence were analyzed. The level of statistical significance was considered at ρ = 0.05 Results: Malaria prevalence in the under-five age group was 73% by RDTs and 49% by microscopy. For the 6–15 years, the prevalence of malaria was 60% and 43% by RDTs and microscopy respectively while RDTs accounted for 38% and microscopy 17% for the 16 years and above group. Conclusion: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) administration to older children and adults should be based on parasitological confirmation of suspected cases with at least malaria RDTs to reduce drug pressure.
Omonike C. Bakare
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0280

Abstract:
Background: The study of the length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) are critical in fisheries research and management. However, there is currently a dearth of information on the growth pattern and state of health of Parachanna obscura in Epe lagoon Methods: A total of 252 species of P. obscura ranging from 19.50 to 36.70 cm (standard length = 28.22 ± 4.95 cm) and 58.80 to 331.00 g (total weight = 267.69 ± 72.16 g) were obtained from the catches of local fishermen at the chief market fish landing station monthly for six months (January – June, 2018) at Epe lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Standard Length (SL) and Body Weight (BW) were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.01 g using digital Vernier calliper and electronic precision balance, respectively. Length-Weight Relationships and condition factor (K) were calculated using standard formula. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α 0.05. Results: The LWRs for males, females and combined sexes were 2.60, 2.70, and 2.65, respectively, indicating a negative allometric growth pattern. The mean K value in females (1.36±0.70) was higher than in males (1.18±0.48). Conclusion: The findings indicated that Parachanna obscura in Epe lagoon, Nigeria were heavy and in good health within the study period
Abiodun O. Owoade
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 246-256; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0220

Abstract:
Background: Medicinal plants are natural sources of antioxidants effective in the treatment of radical mediated diseases. This study evaluated the in-vitro antioxidant and phytochemical constituents of the methanolic leaves extract of Andrographis paniculata . Methods: Fresh A. paniculata leaves were harvested from a local far m, air -dried and extracted with methanol. Chemical composition, antioxidant activities, and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory potentials of the extract were determined Results: The extract of A. paniculata concentration-dependently scavenges 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acids) (ABTS) radicals. It scavenges nitric oxide radicals with IC50 of 145.99 μg/ml compared to 167.17 μg/ml of standard ascorbic acid and has 41% activity of standard ascorbic acid ferric reducing power. The extract also inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation and α-Amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The phytochemical assays employed revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in the extract. Further analysis with gas-chromatography revealed the possible presence of Andrographolide, Deoxyandrographolide, Apigenin, Kaempferol, Quercetin, Methyl vanillate, Methyl Caffeate, Beta-sitosterol, Vanillic acid in the extract. The total phenolics content was found to be 29.11mg GAE/g, and proximate analysis revealed the moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash, and Nitrogen free extract to be 21.89%, 5.66%, 8.74%, 0.95%, 6.87%, and 55.89% respectively. Conclusion: The plant A. paniculata demonstrated good antioxidant potentials and contain various phytochemicals. Therefore, it could be inferred that the effectiveness of A. paniculata as a medicinal plant could be due to the presence of various phenolics and antioxidant compounds in the plant.
Oloruntoba A. Ekun
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 238-245; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0210

Abstract:
Background: A link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and haematological as well as co-agulation disorders has been postulated. This study aims to evaluate haematological and haemostatic changes among Nigerians with major depressive disorder Methods: Two hundred volunteers consisting of an equal number of individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) based on DMS-IV criteria and apparently healthy control participated in this study. The blood sample was collected into tri-sodium citrate K2EDTA bottles respectively and was evaluated for some haemostatic parameters , using ELISA, Clauss, Quick’s One Stage, Proctor and Rapaport’s methods. Results: The mean WBC, hemoglobin and differential lymphocyte were significantly higher among MDD total volunteers (p < 0.001). The red cell indices and platelet count were lower among MDD (p <0.001). Also the prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen, protein-C and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) were all raised (p <0.001) among volunteers with MDD. Positive associations existed be-tween MCV and RBC (r: 0.364; p<0.001), PT and APTT (r: 0.319 p <0.001), APTT and fibrinogen (r: 0.239, p = 0.017) as well as PT and fibrinogen (r: 0.275 p = 0.006) at 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: Changes in total leucocytes count, lymphocytes values and haemostatic parameters among volunteers with depression may impacts deleterious effects on the immune response as well as haemostatic homeostasis, while decreased red cell indices may suggest occult nutritional anaemia.
Joseph B. Dare
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 274-281; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0250

Abstract:
Background: Finger dermatoglyphics has been useful in diagnosing genetically related diseases and detecting crimes. A cross-sectional study was carried out to establish the relationship between fingerprint traits and biometric indices Methods: Finger dermatoglyphics data were obtained using the ink method among the Health Sciences Students of Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria. Finger pattern intensity, finger pattern distribution, and finger ridge counts were measured and compared. These were done by counting and classifying ridge patterns and pattern configuration of arches, loops, and whorls and counting their ridge densities. The subject’s height, weight, and colour of the pupil were measured and recorded, respectively Results: The ulnar loops and arches were the most predominant finger patter ns in females, while males showed significantly spiral whorls. The sex differences between these patterns were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Subjects with brown pupils demonstrated higher ulnar loop and elliptical whorl, while those with black pupils possessed significantly well-distributed arches, and were insignificant in pattern width and intensity. Body Mass Index (BMI) polymorphism showed the lowest pattern size (Finger Ridge Counts) demonstrated by significantly reduced total finger ridge count among the subjects with BMI range of 24-26 and predominance of the concentric whorl, radial loop, and arches. However, higher pattern size was observed in subjects with a higher BMI value 27-29 BMI range with corresponding ulanr and spiral whorl respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the prevalent biometrics measure of finger dermatoglyphics traits, in relations to the biometrics distribution of pupillary colour and body mass index among the Health Sciences Students of Osun State University, Osogbo Nigeria
Taiwo A. Abayomi
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 282-288; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0260

Abstract:
Background: Though the neuroprotective roles of ascorbic acid are well established, the therapeutic role of nicotine in various neurological disorders is attracting increasing attention. This study evaluated the putative ameliorative role of the synergetic treatment of nicotine and ascorbic acid against neurodegenerative consequences associated with free radical species and amyloid plaques generation in adult male Wistar rats Methods: A total of 35 Wistar rats were distributed into five groups labeled A-E. Group A served as the control group; animals in group B were treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) for 21 days. Group C animals were treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride for 21 days and post-treated with 14mg/kg body weight of nicotine for 21 days. Group D was treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride for 21 days and post-treated with 100mg/kg bodyweight of ascorbic acid for 21 days. Group E animals were treated with 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium chloride for 21 days and post-treated with 100mg/kg bodyweight of ascorbic acid and 14mg/kg body weight of nicotine. On completion of treatments, the prefrontal cortex was excised and processed for biochemical and histochemical examinations. Results: Oxidative stress was evident from the diminished level of catalase and glutathione per oxidase and elevated lipid peroxidation levels in animals administered with aluminium in addition to the presence of amyloid plaques in these animals. However, synergetic administration of ascorbic acid and nicotine attenuated these oxidative and histochemical perturbations induced by aluminium. Conclusion: Synergetic treatment with ascorbic acid and nicotine provided better ameliorative potential against aluminium-induced neurotoxicity compared to either ascorbic acid or nicotine treatments alone
Sunday O. Oladoye
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 289-298; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0270

Abstract:
Background: The development of resistance by pathogenic organisms has caused renewed interest in medicinal plants as alternative antimicrobial agents in treating diseases and infections. Lantana camara is an evergreen shrub commonly found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, different parts of the plant have been used traditionally in the treatment of fever, diarrheal, scabies, cold, skin infections etc. This study therefore, seeks to investigate the phytochemical composition and potential of Lantana camara extracts as an alternative antimicrobial agents. Methods: According to standard methods in this study, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of Lantana camara leaves extracts was done. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the extract were evaluated against gram-positive and negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhi) and fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspegillus fumigatus, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium solani) using well-diffusion and mycelia inhibition method, respectively. Results: Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed saponins, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and alkaloids, with tannins (70.454 ± 0.002 mg/g) found to be abundant in ethanolic extract. The extracts displayed moderate to high inhibitory activities on the tested strains with E.coli and A. flavus highly inhibited by the extracts. Conclusion: The present study clearly showed that the crude extracts are rich in diverse phytochemicals and are potential sources of antimicrobial principles that could be used in the management of diseases and infections.
Kehinde S. Salako
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5, pp 263-273; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202.50.0240

Abstract:
Background: Cancer is one of the foremost contributors to global disease bur den and constantly requires new therapeutic options. The development of new drugs has failed to keep up with its incidence. Hence, drug reprofiling strategies are emerging as novel therapeutic options. The study aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of amodiaquine (anti-malarial drug) using a combination of murine and human breast cancer cell lines Methods: Amodiaquine was authenticated by ultra-violet spectrophotometry, high- performance liquid chromatography and 1D nuclear magnetic resonance. In vitro cytotoxicity of amodiaquine was evaluated against three breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-453, 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells were incubated with the drug at different concentrations (0.78, 1.56, 3.13, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, 100.00 μM) for 72 h, after which cell viability testing was conducted using the cell counting kit-8 assay. Negative control in which no drug was added to the cells was also evaluated. The flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells when treated with amodiaquine was also evaluated by a flow cytometer using annexin V/propidium iodide staining assay. Results: Cell viability studies showed that the IC50 values of amodiaquine on MDA-MB-453, 4T1, and MDAMB-231 cells were 6.48 ± 1.12, 10.50 ± 1.17, and 19.23 ± 1.16 μM, respectively. The flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with amodiaquine showed cancer cell death by necrosis. Conclusion: This study has shown that amodiaquine may be potentially reprofiled as an anti-cancer agent in managing androgen receptor-positive / HER-2 positive and triple-negative breast cancer types. An additional probable mechanism of action of anti-cancer activity of amodiaquine was found to be necrosis .
Vincent P. Gyang
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202/50.0120

Abstract:
Background: Buruli ulcer is a chronic, indolent, necrotizing infectious disease of the skin and soft tissues characterized by the formation of large ulcers, often in the arms or legs. Nigeria is a Buruli ulcer disease (BUD)endemic country with its control programme still in infancy. As a result, samples are sent to laboratories outside the country. Some patients go to neighbouring countries with more established programmes for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a basis of diagnosis and treatment. Hence, this study was embarked upon to assist the national control programme in overcoming the PCR diagnosis test challenge. Method: This was a cross-sectional and community-based type of study of Buruli ulcer patients from 15 states,mostly from southern Nigeria; Abia, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Cross Rivers, Delta, Ebonyi, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Rivers and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja. Swab and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples were received from January 2016 to June 2018. DNA was extracted, and each sample was subjected to IS2404-based nested PCR. Results: Out of 920 samples received, 427 (46.4% ) were IS2404-based nested PCR positive. Of which 204were males, and 223 were females. The patients’ mean age was 35.7 ± 19.94, with 172 (18.7%) being children ≤15 years, while 748 (81.3%) were ≥ 15 years. During the study period, the highest number of samples, 171(18.6%) and 170 (18.5%) were received from Cross Rivers and Delta states, respectively. In contrast, the least number of samples, 2 (0.2%) and 3 (0.3%), came from Ekiti and Lagos states, respectively. Conclusion: This is the first in-country PCR confirmed diagnosis of a large cohort of BU patients. The results show a high prevalence in southern Nigeria, which is an indicator of high transmission. Our findings suggest the need for a prompt intervention by the government by providing the needed health facilities and education for the communities.
Taiwo A. Abayomi
Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/1202/50.0150

Abstract:
Background: Consumption of a healthy diet abundant in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, offers an effective and least expensive way to prevent neurodegeneration. Herein, the role of Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) enriched diet in chronic stress-induced cerebellar neuropathology was investigated Methodology: Twenty-one male Wistar rats were used for this investigation. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B, and C), each consisting of 7 rats (n = 7). Group A (Control group) were fed control diet; group B rats were subjected to different chronic unpredictable stressors (CUS) + control diet for 21 days, while group C rats were subjected to CUS + Walnut-enriched diet for 21 days. Serum corticosterone levels, the expression level of antioxidant and inflammatory markers, and cytoarchitectural changes in cerebellum were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunohistochemistry methods. Results: The walnut-enriched diet prevented astrogliosis, modulated serum corticosterone expression, and tumor necrotic factor-α in the cerebellum. The walnut-enriched diet also caused an improvement in the antioxidant profile, indicating that it suppressed chronic unpredictable stress-induced perturbations. Conclusion: Our results suggest that African walnut exerts protective effects against oxidative stress-driven dysfunction by reducing serum corticosterone levels, modulating oxidative stress pathways, and preventing neuronal morphological damage in the cerebellum.
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