Pan African Journal of Life sciences

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EISSN : 2672-5924
Published by: Lujosh Ventures Limited (10.36108)
Total articles ≅ 82
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Lydia E. Udofia, Etanguno E. Owowo
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 507-512; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0290

Abstract:
Background: Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease detrimental to pregnant women. They are prone to vaginal pH increase during pregnancy, creating a conducive environment for the parasite. This study assessed the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among pregnant women attending an ante-natal clinic in Immanuel General Hospital Eket, Akwa Ibom State. Methods: Pre-designed questionnaires were administered to randomly selected pregnant women aged 18-49. High vaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and T. vaginalis was diagnosed using wet mount and Giemsa-stained microscopy method. Results: Of the 200 samples collected, 28 (14%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection was highest among the age group 26-35 years, with a prevalence of 22 (78.57%). A higher prevalence of 16 (57.14%) was observed among women with elevated vaginal pH (>4.5) than those with lower pH (<4.5). The distribution of T. vaginalis by clinical manifestation revealed that all the positive women (28; 27.7%) had vaginal discharge and 11(14.3%) experienced itching. Few women experienced Dysuria (4;22.2%) and Dyspareunia (2; 10%). Chi-square analysis showed a significant difference in the age group (p< 0.05). Conclusions: Routine screening of all pregnant women is recommended so that appropriate treatment can be administered early to avoid childbirth complications due to this disease. There is also a need for routine health talks on personal hygiene and safe sex practices.
Sandra O. Onakhinor
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 447-452; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0220

Abstract:
Background: Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease globally. This study provides information on the prevalence and risk factors of Trichomoniasis among pregnant women in primary healthcare centres in Osogbo and Ede areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Methodology: High vaginal swab samples were obtained from 145 consenting pregnant women using sterile swab sticks and analysed through microscopic examination and PCR diagnostic techniques. Questionnaires were administered to investigate the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, hygiene practices, and knowledge and practices (KAP) about trichomoniasis. Result: The overall prevalence of trichomoniasis was 0%, as no trophozoite was detected in any sample. There was no statistical difference between the number of sexual partners, occupation, family type, and previous sexually transmitted infections. Many of the respondents (89.7%) were ignorant of this disease and its transmission mode. Conclusion: The molecular technique employed in this study has further confirmed the zero prevalence of trichomoniasis in the study area and may be a promising diagnostic test.
Akeem Abiodun Akindele
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 477-485; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0260

Abstract:
Background: Concomitant parasitic infections are common in the developing world, yet most studies focused on a single parasite in a narrow age group. This study investigated the extent of polyparasitism and co-infections in a rural community in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred and forty-seven consenting individuals consisting of 118 males and 129 females participated in this study. Faecal specimens, venous blood, and skin snips were collected from the participants. The Kato-Katz technique was used to screen the faecal samples for soil-transmitted helminth, while Giemsa-stained blood smears were used for Plasmodium falciparum detection. Skin snips microscopy and haematoxylin-stained blood smears were used to diagnose onchocerciasis and loiasis, respectively. Demographic information was collected from all the participants. Results: The prevalence of P. falciparum, hookworms and Ascaris lumbricoides were 55.9%, 19.4% and 26.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of the filarial infections was 4.5% for Loa loa microfilaremia, 23.5% for Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial. Thirty-eight per cent of the population harboured at least two parasites concurrently. Females (52.2%) were generally more infected with all the helminths than males (48.8%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.128). For onchocerciasis prevalence, males (29.7%) were more infected than females (17.8%), and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.035). Co-infection of malaria and loiasis was observed in 1.2% of the population (p=0.051), while 13% were co-infected with malaria and onchocerciasis (p=0.903). Co-infection of malaria and hookworm was observed in 10.5% of the population. The overall mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of the population was 40.03±5.84, and no significant difference (p=0.224) was observed between PCV and infection status. Also, no significant association (p=0.051) was observed between the age group and infection status. The intensity of the parasites was classified into 1-9, 10-99, 100-149, and 150 and above. Almost all the helminths except Ascaris lumbricoides had a low grade of helminths (1-9). The intensity was more pronounced in Ascaris lumbricoides than in other helminths. A. lumbricoides + P. falciparum co-infection had a higher geometric mean para-sites density (GMPD) value when compared with only P. falciparum infection. There was no significant difference in co-infection of P. falciparum + loa loa, P. falciparum + O .volvulus and P. falciparum + Hookworm with P. falciparum alone. Conclusion: This study confirmed that polyparasitism is still common in rural communities in the study area. The findings can be used to design and implement appropriate intervention strategies to alleviate morbidity and co-morbidity in rural communities.
Babatunde Joseph Dare
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 437-446; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0210

Abstract:
Background: Female reproductive organs are more susceptible to the risk of increased cadmium accumulation. Ivermectin is a known therapeutic drug in general medicine, while Allium cepa possesses antioxidant ability. This study investigated the effects of Ivermectin and Allium cepa on cadmium-induced ovarian and uterine damage in adult Wistar rats. Methodology: Twenty-Eight adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group (A); control group, Group (B); treated with 1.2 mg/kg b.w of Ivermectin, Group (C); treated with 1.2 mg/kg BW of Ivermectin and 2 mg/kg BW Cadmium respectively, Group (D); treated with 2 mg/kg BW Cadmium, Group (E); treated with 2 mg/kg BW Cadmium and 1.5 ml Allium cepa respectively, and Group (F); treated with 1.5 ml Allium cepa. The administration was done orogastrically and daily for four weeks. Animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation twenty- four hours after the last administration, Ovary and Uterus excised following abdominal incision, tissues for histological observation fixed in Bouins’ fluid for H/E stain, Masson trichrome, fuelgen stain, and toluidine blue stain respectively. Samples for enzymes assay were homogenized in 5% sucrose solution for lipid peroxidation using; MDA and the antioxidant enzymes using SOD and CAT. Result: Cadmium treatment exerted oxidative stress, elevated the enzyme markers for oxidative damage in the ovary and uterus, and increased lipid peroxidation leading to cell membrane damage. Histological alterations, degeneration of ovarian follicles, and loss of endometrial lining characterized the animals exposed to cadmium. Allium cepa increased the antioxidant enzymes; SOD and CAT while lowering the MDA activities in Cadmium-induced oxidative stress. Histological integrity of the ovary and uterus was maintained; follicular development was evident at various stages, and the endometrial lining integrity was maintained. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the protective role of Allium cepa and Ivermectin against cadmium toxicity on the reproductive organs in female adult Wistar rats
Chika John Nworie
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 495-506; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0280

Abstract:
Background: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic infections in the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, ranking second only to malaria in terms of its socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas. There is an urgent need for updated information on the intensity of the disease at the community level to ensure effective disease monitoring. Materials and methods: The study was carried out in sixteen communities in the four local government areas of Ebonyi State. A total of 1,800 urine samples were collected from people of all ages randomly selected for this study. Urine samples were examined for Schistosoma haematobium egg using the standard parasitological method of diagnosis. Haematuria was evaluated using reagent test strips. Results: In this study, 342 (19.0%) persons were infected with S. haematobium. The infection was recorded in all the Communities in the study area, with Enyibichiri having the highest prevalence, n=39 (32.2%), followed by Umuoghara, n = 26 (25.5), while Oshugbu Community had the least prevalence, 5 (6.6%). More males, 225 (20.3%) than females, 117 (16.9%) were significantly infected. Infection prevalence was higher significantly (27.3%) among the age group 11-20 years. Those with light infection intensity 207 (60.5%) were excreting below 50 eggs/10ml urine, 110 (32.2%) had moderate infection intensity excreting between 50-100 eggs/10ml urine while 25 (7.3%) had heavy infection intensity excreting above 100egg/10ml urine. Peak intensity 14 (10.2%) was recorded among 11-20 egg groups. Prevalence of light and moderate intensities varied significantly (P 0.05). The prevalence of haematuria was 188 (55.0%). The highest prevalence of haematuria (86; 62.3%) was recorded in the age group 11-20 years, while the least was recorded in age 31-40. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection in the Central Ebonyi State falls within the WHO classification of endemicity. Urgent need for decisive interventions through mass chemotherapy, focal application of molluscicides in the water bodies during the dry season and sanitation facilities are recommended. Health education is highly advocated
Olutoyin Catherine Adekunle
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 453-459; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0230

Abstract:
Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent human pathogen and a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In humans, C. jejuni colonises the intestinal tract, and its tolerance to bile is crucial for bacteria to survive and establish infection. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have the highest rate of foodborne-related clinical Campylobacteriosis. The study aims to determine the effect of bile salts, acid, and bacteriocin on campylobacter isolates obtained from stool samples. Methods: Campylobacters were identified phenotypically in this study using biochemical tests and genotypically using 16S rRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR. The confirmed twenty-five Campylobacter isolates comprising18 C. jejuni and 7 C. coli were tested for physiological factors such as bile tolerance, bacteriocin tolerance and ability to synthesise proteolytic enzymes on a solid medium. Results: Campylobacter isolates survived at different concentrations of bile (2.1 -6.8%), low pH (7.1- 3.2) and in the presence of bacteriocin (3.8-6.8 AU/mL) with the production of proteolytic enzymes in the range of 16.2-15.2 mm. Conclusion: The ability of Campylobacter spp to survive in the presence of bacteriocin and different concentrations of acid and bile salt indicates the strains’ virulence
Folasade Muibat Adeyemi
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 460-471; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0240

Abstract:
Background: The continuous rise of the menace of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms remains a global health problem, and this places a significant burden on the effective management of infections caused by multiple-resistant species. Phytocompounds are being constantly assessed for bioactive components to discover new products. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activity of oils from four plants – sweet almond (SAO), avocado (AO), black seed (BSO), and coconut (CO) against gentamicin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria from environmental sources. Methods: Fifty-seven water and soil samples were collected, and gentamicin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria isolates were recovered and identified with the ABIS online Microbiology software. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) of isolates evaluated. The antibacterial activity of plant oils was evaluated with the agar well diffusion technique, and analyses of bioactive compounds in the oil samples using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Results: Altogether, 60 Gram-positive Gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates were recovered. The isolates spanned 34 species belonging to 11 genera, namely Staphylococcus spp. (27), Bacillus spp. (18), Enterococcus spp. (2), Listeria spp. (2), Macrococcus spp. (3), Corynebacterium sp. (1), Lactobacillus sp. (1), Paenibacillus sp. (1), Rothia sp. (1), Salinicoccus sp. (1) and Streptococcus spp. (3). A high proportion of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and oxacillin at 96.7%, and ampicillin at 86.7%. Meropenem was observed to be the most effective in-vitro. All isolates (100.0%) exhibited multidrug resistance and had MARI above 0.4. In undiluted forms, plant oils exhibited very low inhibitory activity against isolates but improved upon dilution of the plant oils in the order BSO > SAO > CO > AO. Conclusion: The extremely high levels of multidrug resistance suggest the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance traits in the community and are quite bothersome. The plant oils exhibited low antimicrobial activity, emphasising the need for a continuous search for bioactive compounds against multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study, therefore, recommends the in-vivo investigation of the plant oils and the possibility of a synergistic relation-ship of these plant oils with conventional antibiotics.
Abiola T. Owolabi
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 486-494; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0270

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19, a global pandemic ravaging many countries, shares some semblances with influenza, whose transmission can be affected by many factors. Atmospheric temperature and population density have been identified as two key factors influencing the spread of viruses. Nigerian states with different weather patterns and varying populations across her states have recorded about 173,908 COVID-19 cumulative confirmed cases between March 2020 and July 2021. Methods: Data sets of confirmed Covid-19 cases, average monthly temperature and population of each State, and Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory were obtained. A test of assumptions of linear regression was carried out and there is the presence of outliers in the dataset. M-estimator as an alternative to Ordinary Least Square (O.L.S.) estimator for regression analysis was used to investigate the impacts of each State’s population size and atmospheric temperature on the rate of COVID-19 cases confirmed. The spearman rank correlation coefficient was also used to investigate the strength of the relationship be-tween the confirmed cases, the population and temperature. Results: Results show no multicollinearity (VIF=1.041) between the independent variables, and there is no autocorrelation as the Durbin-Watson test value gives 2.113 (approximately 2). There is a weak positive correlation between cumulative confirmed cases and population (r = 0.281), but a weak negative correlation exists between COVID-19 cumulative confirmed cases and atmospheric temperature (r = -0.341). For OLS estimation method, only population is significant (β1= 0.002, p < 0.002) but the population (β1= 0.0006, p < 0.05) and the atmospheric temperature ( β2= -683, p < 0.05) are both significant when M-estimation method was applied. Conclusion: The findings in this study show that population size and temperature are important factors in the spread of Covid-19. The spread of the pandemic may be partially suppressed with higher temperatures but increases with an increased population.
Mary Aigbiremo Oboh
Published: 31 August 2022
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 472-476; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0250

Abstract:
Background: Tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a nocturnal obligate blood-sucking ectoparasite of humans that is highly prevalent in Nigeria. Bed bug controls heavily rely on the application of several insecticide-based formulations. Insecticide resistance in bed bug populations has been widely reported. In this study, we assessed the mortality of bed bugs following exposure to different classes of insecticides. Methodology: Active adult female bed bugs were collected from students’ halls of residence and exposed to DDT (4%), permethrin (0.75), bendiocarb (0.1) and malathion (4%) insecticide-impregnated papers. Mortality and number of eggs laid by each exposed group were recorded at 90 minutes, 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs. Results: The impact of the different assays on bugs mortality revealed DDT to produce a time-dependent outcome with the highest mortality rate [(36.7% (Cl 32.7±38.9)], this was followed by Bendiocarb [31.6% (CI 27.2±35.1)]. In comparison, permethrin and malathion produced the same effect [26.7% (CI 23±30.5)] 24 hours post-exposure. In contrast, malathion and bendiocarb impacted the most mortality [53.3% (49.3±58.7) and 46.6%(42.2±49.5)], followed by permethrin [18.9% (CI 44.6±56.8) after 72 hours. The relative numbers of eggs produced by bedbugs in the DDT, bendiocarb and malathion assays were lower than what was observed in the control and permethrin group 24 hours after exposure. The highest reduction in egg production was observed in the malathion exposed group 48- and 72-hours post-exposure compared to the other insecticides and the control group. Conclusion: This study revealed suspected insecticide resistance to all classes of insecticide used on bed bug populations in Lagos State, Nigeria.
John O. Fatoki
Pan African Journal of Life sciences, Volume 6, pp 386-394; https://doi.org/10.36108/pajols/2202/60.0130

Abstract:
Background: The use of herbal concoctions as a means of medication with no regard for quality assurance and toxicological study increases daily. Meanwhile, cases of accidental poisoning due to consumption of herbal concoctions had been previously reported. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre methanolic leaf extract on mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes in the brain and liver Methods: Fresh leaf of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre was collected at Igbajo, South West, Nigeria. The methanolic extract of the leave was administered at varying doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg for 14, 28, and 42 days respectively. The liver and brain were excised from the rat after the last administration, and mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes were assessed in the brain and liver samples of the rat Results: The Hepatic Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was up-regulated at 200mg/kg-600mg/kg (28days) and 200-600mg/kg (42days), while other doses had no significant SDH activity. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity increased at all doses, with its peak activity observed at 600mg/kg (42days). Increased hepatic Complex I+III activity was observed at all doses, with its peak at 200mg/kg(42days). Furthermore, the activity of hepatic Complex II+III was upregulated at all doses of administration. Liver Complex IV activity significantly increased at 400mg/kg (28days) instead of the declined activity recorded at other doses. Neural SDH activity increased at all doses. MDH activity significantly decreased at all doses except at 200mg/kg (28days) and 600mg/kg (42days). There was an observed up-regulation of neural Complex I+III activity at all doses; Complex II+III activity increased at all doses. Neural Complex IV activity increased significantly at 400-600mg/kg (42days). All data are relative to control. Conclusion: Data from this study indicate perturbations (increase and decrease) in the neuro-hepatic mitochondrial metabolizing enzymes
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