ACS ES&T Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN : 2690-0645
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 173
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ESCI
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Changxu Ren, Eric Y. Bi, Jinyu Gao,
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Wen Zhao, Samantha Joy B. Rubio, Yanliu Dang,
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Ernesto F. Martinez Paz, Meagan Tobias, Estefania Escobar, Lutgarde Raskin, Elizabeth F. S. Roberts, , Branko Kerkez
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Kaleisha D. Miller, , Joseph N. Ryan, , Caleb Larison, Benjamin A. Kienzle, Lynn E. Katz, Alana M. Wilson, Jordan T. Cox, Parthiv Kurup, et al.
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P. Takunda Chazovachii, Julie M. Rieland, Violet V. Sheffey, Timothy M. E. Jugovic, Paul M. Zimmerman, , ,
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Abraham Noe-Hays, Ryan John Homeyer, Arthur P. Davis,
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Mark Seelos, Edwin Rivas Meraz, Marc Beutel, Samuel J. Traina, Byran Furhmann, Julia Burmistrova, Dimitri Vlassopoulos,
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Léopold Dobelle, Seungkyeum Kim, Axl X. LeVan, Hugo Leandri, Michael R. Hoffmann,
Abstract:
The efficacy of an uncoupled electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) prototype reactor system for the treatment of synthetic graywater is determined. The two-stage E-peroxone process integrates ozonation with the in situ production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a first stage reactor before ozone (O3) is converted via the peroxone reaction to a hydroxyl radical (•OH). The two-stage prototype reactor system allows for the generation of H2O2 via cathodic oxygen reduction in the first-stage reactor before mixing with O3 in the second-stage reactor. This approach prevents the degradation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated carbon cathodes by •OH that takes place in a single well-mixed reactor that combines electrochemical peroxide generation with O3. The dosage of H2O2 into the second-stage reactor is optimized to enhance graywater treatment. Under these conditions, the uncoupled E-peroxone system is capable of treating synthetic graywater with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD0) of 358 mg O2/L, a total organic carbon (TOC0) of 96.9 mg/L, a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD0) of 162 mg O2/L, and a turbidity of 11.2 NTU. The two-stage electro-peroxone system can reduce the initial COD0 by 89%, the TOC0 by 91%, BOD0 by 86%, and the turbidity by 95% after 90 min of treatment. At this performance level, the reactor effluent is acceptable for discharge and for use in nonpotable applications such as toilet-water flushing. A portion of the effluent is recycled back into the first-stage reactor to minimize water consumption. Recycling can be repeated consecutively for four or more cycles, although the time required to achieve the desired H2O2 concentration increased slightly from one cycle to another. The two-stage E-peroxone system is shown to be potentially useful for onsite or decentralized graywater treatment suitable for arid water-sensitive areas.
Liniker de Sousa, Christian Harmoko, ,
Abstract:
Cu-based gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) show excellent performance in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to ethylene. In the present work, we evaluate how the solvent of ink formulations containing Nafion-ionomer and unsupported Cu particles affects the polymerized Nafion-copper distribution in the as-prepared GDE and the obtained performance in the electrochemical reduction of CO2. Isopropanol (IPA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), or N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)) were used. Microscopic analyses of the Cu-GDEs demonstrate that NMP and DMSO lead to exposed islands of copper, with Nafion acting predominantly as an interparticle binder. Such geometry is confirmed by the relatively high electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and the low charge-transfer resistance (Rct). IPA or EG induce the formation of Cu-catalyst particles embedded into and covered by (polymerized) Nafion films, in agreement with the relatively low ECSA, and high Rct, likely due to significant polymerization and agglomeration of Nafion in the ink formulation induced by the protic solvents prior to preparation of the catalyst layer. When evaluated in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 at −1.1 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), the exposed particles prepared using NMP and DMSO lead to higher FE toward ethylene than EG or IPA-based GDEs (23.5% and 19.2% vs 10.2% and 13.4%, respectively). The lower ethylene FE for Nafion covered systems is tentatively attributed to the acidity and highly effective transport of protons by Nafion.
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