Journal of Analog and Digital Devices

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Naazaan Shaheen, Yogendra Singh
Published: 1 September 2022
Abstract:
Images acquired in low-light situations generally suffer from subjective visual effects on human eyes and the performance of different machine vision systems due to low brightness, low contrast, a limited gray range, color distortion, and high noise. Enhancing photographs taken in low light is done so that they may be used in other applications more effectively. In this study, we look back at some of the most important methods for improving images in dim light. We categorize these techniques into seven distinct groups: gray transformation, histogram equalization, Retinex, frequency-domain, picture fusion, defogging model, and machine learning. Methods are presented across the board, from the broadest to the most specific categories, emphasizing the underlying concepts and distinguishing features. Different improved picture quality assessment techniques are also described, as are comparisons of the various algorithms used. Finally, a state-of-the-art summary and recommendations for where the field should go are presented.
M. Jyothirmai, K. Sowjanyam, G. Sravani, G. Harsha Sree, A. Charitha
Abstract:
The main feature of any public space, including bus stops, train stations, and parks, is a notice board. But daily notice sticking is a somewhat challenging procedure. This notices display needs to be managed by a different individual. This idea is focused on a wireless notice board with cutting-edge technologies. The project's primary goal is to create a wireless digital notice board that can display notices when a message is transmitted from a user's mobile device. While the user sends a message from their mobile device, any smart-phone, tablet, etc. running the Android operating system can perform a remote operation using voice commands and a GUI (Graphical User Interface). Using an Android application-based device remote, transmitting ends transmits commands.These directives are converted at the receiver end into texts that are displayed on a 20X4 LCD that is interfaced to the micro-controller. A Bluetooth receiver connected to the micro-controller receives serial communication data sent by the Android-based application. The microcontroller's programme uses the received data to display the data on a 20X4 LCD. 230/12V step-down transformer power supply, which lowers voltage to 12V AC. In order to convert this to DC, a bridge rectifier is used. A capacitor is used to reduce ripples, and the voltage is then controlled to +5V (volts), which is necessary for the operation of the micro-controller, using a voltage regulator 7805.
Nam Chol Yu, Myong Jin Jo, Chol Sun Kim
Abstract:
This paper has described a simple absolute rotary angular sensor with a nonlinear transparent disc. This sensor consists of five elements: light-source, a shaft coupled nonlinear transparent optical disc, a lens, a pair of light-dependent resistors (LDR) and a signal processing circuit. This absolute rotary angular sensor is of non-contact potentiometer based on a characteristic of resistance via irradiance. It has the advantage of fabricating efficiently as the disc is made with fiber glass and a self-adhesive tape of which transparency is nonlinearlychanged in a range of 0-360. Also, this sensor has good linearity of R2=0.99999, good repeatability of maximum characteristic drift around ±0.10 and measurement error below ±0.50. And measurement stability is ±0.10within its operating range from 0° to 360°.
T. Tirupal, T.M. Sandhya, T. Sai Rishitha, V. B. Susmitha, C. Vimala
Abstract:
The Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process means the transition from examined primer or written images to a machine- adjudged document. The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) in cognitive processing uses OCR. The challenge is two primary clans word segmentation by letters and character recognition. Apply a new approach to include the two functions by Scale-Invariant Transforming Feature (SIFT) descriptors. To compare SIFT descriptors (RootSIFT), construct a new procedure, that offers outstanding results without accelerating calculation or repository conditions. In order to identify English characters, proposed system suggests that the reverse propagation neural network for bracket of character be employed. Conducted trials with further than 10 expedients aimed for every character and tried the delicacy for numerical figures, map letters, small letters, and alphanumeric symbols. The interpretation analysis of optimized neural network algorithm has attained an outside.
S Chandra Lingamaiah, Mukkaram Ahmed G M, Boya Naveen, R Nithesh Reddy, Muthayala Rohith
Abstract:
The significance of adder sub- systems is handily comprehended with the resource of the usage of a mastermind. Off the engineers is incorporating disquisition with them with the useful resource of using integrating new design patterns to smash rationality movement as lots because of the verity the circuit and drop reduction.  Adder experience- models in numerous operations like MPs, DPs, etc., specifically wherein the bottoms and bones gesture ie double is being reused. therefore it gives feasible consequences for low energy dissipation with the resource of the operation of the use of CMOS within side the appearance significance of adder, in this paper broached some makeshift substitute arrangements that consists of properties tracts a good deal broadly less transistors along elastic expanse and the transistors to apply the styles at the aspect of timer gating, transistors along further thresholds, and widening the length of the transistors are numerous strategies to reduce the stationary energy indicator.
Shyla Shree M
Abstract:
In this research, I present a new hybrid FA design (a blend of CMOS and transistor logic types) that tries to achieve high speed while consuming minimal power, hence the low PDP designation. Our proposed FA and seven other current FA designs were modelled on the spice with a 45 nm low power model file, a standard test bed, and a standard test pattern (56 input switching), and the impersonation results for eight designs are equivalent. Power outages, distribution delays, and PDP are all issues that need to be addressed.  The results of simulations show that our suggested FA design has the shortest broadcast delays and the lowest PDP across the whole power supply and frequency range.  
Ajhrudin Ansari, Siddharth Srivastava
Abstract:
Biometric identification using infrared vein pattern images has more distinctive features, intensity, and plagiarism issues than comparable methods. The vein pattern is authenticated by the fact that it is in a person, and cannot be seen under normal light. Internally it is immune to environmental effects and invisible under normal light, making it difficult for users to access without knowledge. A vein pattern identification using Gabor features has been implemented in this research. Specific biometric processing steps, including pre-processing, segmentation, edge detection, feature extraction, and classification of the vein patterns and current algorithms were studied. In this study, Gabor features and the SVM classification for effective recognition of vein patterns were used with 96.74 percent accuracy.
Anant Singh, Priyanka Jaiswal, Ravi Jaiswal
Abstract:
Iridology is in particular the systemic diagnosis of human conditions by observing iris changes. Alzheimer's disease is one of the main reasons for death in developed nations, research has become interested in understanding its cause, and in the prediction of disease by monitoring the iris. This paper aims to show that there are alternative methods to detect certain neuronal disorders, specifically Alzheimer's. To detect Alzheimer's, there is a requirement of the pattern associated with the iris of the eye through the digital processing of images in such a way that certain related to the alternative diagnosis can be issued. In this paper, an algorithm has been developed using Rubber Sheet Normalization and SVM classification techniques to classify Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer iris images.
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