ISSN / EISSN : 2654-394X / 2654-4261
Published by: Universitas Muslim Maros (10.46918)
Total articles ≅ 19
Latest articles in this journal
Emik, Volume 4, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v4i1.851
Pandemic of Covid-19 has impacted on almost all aspects of life, including the field of economic. This is due to a government policy to work from home (WFH) and to study from home which causes changes in people's daily routines. One of the activities that generate money in the midst of the pandemic of Covid-19 is by starting an online culinary business that is intertwined with government policies related to preventing the transmission of Covid-19. This research was conducted in the city of Makassar, the capital city of South Sulawesi, as one of the areas with the highest rate of cases infected by Covid-19, and as a city known for its culinary. There were ten informants who participated in this study, who are varied on the basis of age (between 21 and 23 years), sex (eight women and two men), status (seven of whom were college students, two fresh graduates and an entrepreneur), position (owners, managers, employees). How they manage this startup culinary business is depended on the management and this is the key to running it. There are four aspects deals with this management, namely the marketing concept, the division of labor, the profit-sharing system, and how the time is divided between education, main work and the startup culinary business. To market their products in this startup culinary business, the strategies used include the use of technology, consistency of product quality (such as ingredients and taste)/services (such as attitudes towards consumers), and promotions to attract consumers (such as promotion of savings packages, Friday 'at blessing, free shipping, discounted prices, holding a give a way).
Emik, Volume 4, pp 84-97; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v4i1.934
Selama masa pandemi virus Covid-19, banyak tantangan baru yang dialami oleh masyarakat termasuk generasi millenial. Tantangan yang dimaksud seperti perubahan pada rutinitas yang signifikan, kesulitan berinteraksi, keuangan, manajemen energi dan adaptasi terhadap teknologi. Pola kehidupan baru perlu diterapkan oleh generasi millenial agar dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan kondisi saat ini dan siap menghadapi masa pandemi Covid-19 dengan cara menerapkan tiga macam strategi untuk bertahan hidup dalam mengatasi goncangan dan tekanan ekonomi yaitu menggunakan strategi aktif, strategi pasif, dan strategi jaringan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dan kota Makassar dipilih sebagai lokasi penelitian karena merupakan salah satu kota yang terindikasi rawan tinggi dalam konteks pandemi Covid-19, semakin tinggi pula kerentanan masyarakat yang ikut terdampak dalam hal ekonomi maupun kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari. Informan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari seseorang yang lahir dari antara tahun 1980 sampai 2000 atau yang disebut dengan generasi millenial, karena merupakan generasi yang paling membutuhkan strategi bertahan hidup dan dalam menghidupi keluarganya yang disebabkan oleh pandemi Covid-19. Ada 10 informan yang terkategorikan sebagai generasi millenial yang berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini berdasarkan kisaran umur yaitu (antara 20 sampai 40 tahun), terdiri dari 7 perempuan dan 3 laki-laki, memiliki pekerjaan sebagai mahasiswa, wirausaha, ibu rumah tangga (IRT), dan vikaris. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa selama masa pandemi Covid-19, penyebaran Covid-19 yang semakin meluas menjadi dampak bagi generasi millenial sehingga menyebabkan batasan ruang gerak yang membuat banyak aktivitas yang tergantikan serta mengubah perilaku generasi millenial menjadi lebih banyak dirumah. Segala perilaku yang lama sebelum masa pandemi Covid-19 sudah tidak relevan lagi untuk masa covid-19. Oleh sebab itu, generasi millenial menyikapi tantangan masa pandemi dengan cepat beradaptasi pada keadaan, kritis dalam masalah dan kreatif atau mampu berkolaborasi agar mampu bertahan hidup melalui penerapan strategi aktif, strategi pasif, dan strategi jaringan. Strategi tersebut mampu membuat generasi millenial tetap bertahan hidup secara produktif dan mampu mengatasi jumlah pengeluaran dengan kebutuhan hidup yang besar selama masa pandemi Covid-19.
Emik, Volume 4, pp 37-51; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v4i1.850
In early 2020 the world was shocked by the outbreak of a new type of virus (SARS-CoV-2) known as Corona virus disease 2019 (abbreviated as Covid-19), whose first case was discovered at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The outbreak of the Covid-19 was known to have entered Indonesia in mid-March 2020, resulting in Indonesia entering the Disaster Emergency Period. The entry of Covid-19 in Indonesia prompted the government to adopt a Large-Scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy to stop the wider spread of Covid-19. With this policy, people's activities outside the home are limited, and more people's activities are diverted at home, including shopping online through applications. In this context, the ease of shopping online may resulted in consumptive behavior when one can't control him/herself. This research was conducted between September and November 2020 in the city of Makassar City. Makassar was chosen because based on online observations, many housewives in the Makassar area tend to behave consumptively during the outbreak Covid-19. This can be seen from the habit of shopping online which is supported by technology and the ease of accessing online applications. Data was collected through in-depth interviews and observation. Those who participated in this study were ten housewives who had a history of routine shopping online using a shopping application. The study indicates that the Covid-19 pandemi has limited people's mobility, one of which is social restriction policies issued by the government which has changed many aspect of human life, including their shopping method. This shopping method has changed from direct shopping through which human interaction occurs to more often online shopping, using online shopping applications. Housewives perceive online shopping in various ways, from relating it to the simplicity of shopping; transaction process using advanced technology; to shopping by using online shopping applications. The reasons why online shopping is in favour among housewives during the Covid-19 pandemi are the availability of a variety of offered goods, its convenience and practicality, its safety and comfort, and its discount offers. During the Covid-19 pandemi, this way of shopping intensifies. In addition to its advantages, online shopping also has weaknesses, namely the discrepancy between the appearance of the goods ordered and the reality of the goods received; the purchased goods cannot be received directly because it requires delivery time; vulnerability to damage to goods in the shipping process, and vulnerability to fraud. Therefore, consumers must consider the needs and desires in order to be able to control themselves in shopping because not all the desired items are needed items. In addition, fraud is vulnerable in online shopping. Thus consumers not only have to question the goods to be purchased in as much detail as possible; selective in choosing online stores; but also one must identify the track record of intended online store.
Emik, Volume 4, pp 52-69; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v4i1.867
In the digital era, deposit service (jastip) which were previously carried out offline, are now also developing and can be done by online and become a very promising business. In Indonesia, the term jastip by shopping online is starting to be widely known by the wider community, especially for those who use social media, such as Facebook. This business benefits from a predetermined additional fee for each consumer ordered goods, so those who order goods do not need to go to the store to buy goods or leave the house. Buying goods online through jastip has become increasingly popular during the Covid-19 pandemic, especially since the government launched large-scale social restrictions (PSBB) that limit people's mobility. This research was conducted on social media, namely Facebook on jastip providers and consumers based on observations on social media, such as Facebook, which showed the widespread purchase of goods through jastip among women in Bulukumba Regency. There are them women involved in this study. Thye are varied based on age (between 23 and 40 years), occupation (five housewives, four entrepreneurs, and jastip provider), and status (nine buyers and a jastip provider). The results of this study indicate that jastip of Informa products is the choice among mothers who are purchased online through a jastip service provider posted through social media Facebook. Among other jastip items on Facebook, home furnishings (sofa, dining table, patio chairs, etc.) are the most popular items. Model, status display, price, and quality are four main reasons why women choose Informa's jastip products, especially during this Covid-19 pandemic. The increase in the use of jastip during the Covid-19 pandemic is intertwined with an increase in jastip turnover (@jastipbyarumi 9). The reason for the jastip provider (@jastipbyarumi) presenting jastip product is because women in Bulukumba Regency love to shop online, and Informa is the most popular products among women. Thus, this is seen by jastip provider as a business opportunity, a way of satisfying hobbies, and as a source of income. In promoting jastip, the strategies used by jastip provider are promoting products along with its discounted price, uploading products in stories, and opening social gathering lots. In running such service business, the main capital is not money itself, but most importantly trust, perseverance, and business ethics.
Emik, Volume 4, pp 19-36; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v4i1.866
The Covid-19 pandemic has not only created social fear, but has also affected various aspects of human life, including in the field of economy. To reduce the spread of Covid-19, the government issued a work from home (WFH) policy and study from home. This not only limits the interaction between people, but this condition also causes people to be creative and look for alternatives to earn income. One that has the potential to be done is a digital business, which is not only easy and simple (using gadgets and internet networks), but can also be done anywhere, especially at home because of the "stay at home" policy, so that between looking for income and protecting oneself from spreading virus by staying at home is compatible with each other. This study was conducted between September and December 2020 and is located in the city of Makassar. Makassar was chosen because digital business grew significantly. Based on data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), the economy in the Eastern part of Indonesia (KTI) grew by an average of 8%, especially during the pandemic. There are seven participants who participated in this study who are varied based on age, occupation. Each informant is a user of one of the digital business platforms, namely VTube, Jempol Preneur, and Goins. The study shows that digital business is one type of business by utilizing digital devices such as gadgets (mobile phones and laptops) and internet networks. Every digital business is now has a digital platform and has its own way of managing, as well as different advantages for its consumers. There are so many platforms that are engaged in digital business because it can be done easily, with a simple way of working, with the promise of a pretty lucrative income, and can be done anywhere. This fits perfectly with the Covid-19 pandemic situation where people stay at home. VTube, Jempol Preneur, and Goins are three applications that each have their own specifications and how they work. Vtube and Goins are digital platforms engaged in advertising, while Jempol Preneur is a platform digital business on online shop. Although there are similarities between the three, that is, making money even though each has its own variant. The income of VTube users depends on what users achieve by watching ads. In the application system of the Jempol Preneur, one must be a member to be able to run an online shop. As members, they not only choose the type and promote the goods that have been provided by the application, but this can also be run without capital (dropship), or with personal capital (reseller). Additional income can also be obtained through the sale of the Jempol Preneur license. The more licenses sold, the more income they can earned. Meanwhile, in Goins, users are supposed to carry out a mission by liking and watching advertising videos on the Instagram application. The more people who are invited to join, the more income is earned. However, despite the advantages that each application has, each has its drawbacks. If Jempol Preneur already has legality, then VTube and Goins are under construction, which shows that the legality of the two is not yet clear and this is related to the basis of the business being run. For this reason, users who have already run this business must be prepared to bear the risks, such as no return of money at all and the lack of clarity from the parties concerned. Another aspect that is considered a drawback of Jempol Preneur is the obligation to pay a registration fee while VTube and Goins do not require it.
Emik, Volume 4, pp 70-83; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v4i1.853
The online motorcycle taxi application (ojol) has become one of the most widely used applications by the people of Indonesia. However, since the outbreak of Covid-19 in Indonesia, including Makassar, something has been "missing" from the applications, such as Gojek and Grab. At Gojek there is no longer a motorbike ordering menu (Goride); while in Grab, the GrabBike menu also disappeared. The menu disappeared as a result of government policies through the implementation of Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) in order to break the chain of the spread of Covid-19. In order to continue to work in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, ojol drivers use various strategies. This article focuses on how the strategy of ojol drivers to survive during the Covid-19 pandemic. Using qualitative approach, this study was carried out in Makassar as a metropolitan city, as one of the cities where ojol transportation drivers operate, as well as the city with the highest number of Covid-19 cases. There are fifteen informants who participated in this study, consisting of eight Gojek drivers and the rest were Grab drivers. Data was collected using the combination of observation and in-depth interview techniques. The study shows that the income of ojol drivers has decreased drastically since the Covid-19 outbreak, as the consequence of government policies through the PSBB which limited people’s mobility, including ojol drivers. In order to survive, ojol drivers use various strategies, such as living in a state of frugality, taking additional work (such as selling food in offline system, being a construction worker, opening a small tavern, etc.). When conditions gradually improve and the PSBB policy is relaxed, they can again work with the application of general health protocols (3M: wearing masks, washing hands, and maintaining distance) and the application of specific health protocols is also enforced (such as the use of plastic insulators for taxi drivers or passengers carrying their own helmets for motorcycle taxis), so that they can continue to work to make a living in the middle of pandemic Covid-19, even though the income is not yet fully recovered.
Emik, Volume 3, pp 189-205; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v3i2.697
Internet users are growing rapidly from time to time throughout the world, including Indonesia. As a result, consumer needs in terms of making payments have changed towards non-cash payments, namely e-wallets, which have become a huge potential in the e-commerce market. The preference for e-wallet transactions is increasing compared to using cash on hand. Most of its users are millennials, including students. This study examines knowledge related to the use of e-wallets and the reasons behind its use. The study involve ten college students, consisting of nine female students, and a male student whose age varies between 19 and 23 years. They come from various universities. Using qualitative approach, this study use in-depth interview as the primary data collection technique and secondary data obtained from relevant website. This research shows that e-wallet is not only understood as a place to store money electronically, but also as a digital payment. In Indonesia there are various e-wallet products. Among others OVO, Gopay, and DANA are the most popular ones. There are three aspects related to the students’ knowledge about e-wallet: source of information, features, and its use. Advertisements from social media, television, and transportation applications are the main sources of information about e-wallets. E-wallet offered various features, such as topping up, paying bills and pulses, and transferring and withdrawing from e-wallets to bank partners. E-wallet is used for a variety of purpose, such as to pay online transportation, to buy food/drinks, to pay bills, etc. There are three basic reasons why students use e-wallet as a payment method, namely because of the promos offered, convenience in transactions, and ease to operate. To attract people to use e-wallets, service providers must work with various merchants, whose promos are increasingly attracting users to use e-wallet for payment. In using e-wallets, students not only feel comfortable, but also convenience in payment because it can be done anywhere as long as the user is connected to the internet. Keywords : Millenial generation, students, e-wallet, internet, cashless, and digital payment.
Emik, Volume 3, pp 206-222; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v3i2.705
The treatment of ruqyah syar'iyah (hereinafter referred to as ruqyah) is one of the treatments practiced in time of Rasulullas SAW. In the last few years, such treatment has been popularly practiced in Indonesia, including in Makassar, one of the cities in Indonesia where the practice of ruqyah is mushrooming. While many literatures deal with the practice of ruqyah from spiritual point of view, the new contribution of this article lies in the practice of various types of ruqyah. This study was conducted in the city of Makassar, the capital city of South Sulawesi where more than 80% of its population are Muslims. Using qualitative approach, this study involved 14 informants, consisting of eight patients, two peruqyah, staff of ruqyah clinic and patients’ families respectively. Data was collected using the combination of interview and observation. This study shows that whether or not one is intended to cure his/herself depends very much on their belief in the treatment. Some started with modern medical treatment, others had full faith from the start. Some did it on the basis of their own desire, others influenced by close relatives. Ruqyah is part of Tibbun Nabawi and in its development ruqyah itself is divided into three types, namely, mass ruqyah, clinic ruqyah, and independent ruqyah. Despite the fact that the stages of each type are relatively the same: pra-ruqyah, main ruqyah, and post-ruqyah, each has its own uniqueness. Ruqyah not only helps to heal someone, especially those who suffer from disorders of spirits, but also strives to be a medium of preaching for patients. Curative healing is the main axis in the treatment of ruqyah, but preventive measures are also introduced as a bulwark against disturbance by spirits. Even though ruqyah is an islamic treatment, non-Muslim is not prohibit to take such treatment as long as they believe and follow the rule. This indicates that the belief to such treatment breaks down religious barriers. However, healing through ruqyah treatment is not entirely dependended on peruqyah, but it is mainly depended on the patient him/herself, by improving his/her quality of life after the ruqyah treatment.
Emik, Volume 3, pp 137-159; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v3i2.662
Androgyny combines masculine and feminine characters at once. Despite the fact that the way one’s talk, gestures, emotions, interests and talents are indicators of androgyny, fashion or the way they dress has become the main indicator. While the existing literatures deal more on characteristics, behavior, interests and talents, and self-representation through social media, this article is focused on how androgyny men exptress their gender through fashion. This study was conducted in the city of Makassar which involved 12 male college students. They are varied based on age (between 20 and 24 years), and profession (master of ceremony, model, dancer, make up artist, disc jockey). Data was collected using in-depth interview, focus discussion group (FGD), and observation as the primary data sources as well website and social media (i.e. Instagram), as the secondary data sources. The study indicates that androgynous men is not transgender because they did not want to become “like women”, as transgender do. Besides, androgynous men classify themselves higher than transgender, from both appearance and social class. Although androgynous men may express their androgynousness through behavior, interests and talents, fashion is the most significant aspect that indicates a person's androgynousity. Androgynous men express androgyny more through fashion than others because through fashion their existence is easily recognized, as it is combining between masculine and feminine characters. Androgynous fashion is divided into two, less masculine-more feminine and less feminine-more masculine. Whether an androgynous man is more feminine or more masculine, depending on their performance and perception towards what is being performed. The motives of androgynous men are divided into two, the first is “because-to-motive” and “in-order to motive”. While the former includes influencing by peer group, having sense of comfort, feeling self satisfaction, and being professional; the latter consists of expecting to be socially accepted and to be accepted as normal people.
Emik, Volume 3, pp 121-136; https://doi.org/10.46918/emik.v3i2.656
Claims of rights to land formerly shifting cultivation areas in the past, as referred to by the terms orawu, anahoma, laliwata and osambu are now increasingly ineffective - one of which is because the former shifting cultivation area has been abandoned for a long time where the trees have grown as usual, until hardly leaving the slightest sign of former swidden cultivation areas. As a result, lands in the former shifting cultivation areas in the past are now being taken over and controlled by other parties. This research, which lasted for six months, was conducted in Routa District, Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province, considering that in this area a new phenomenon has developed in which land formerly cultivated areas in the past was re-opened by their descendants of current shifting cultivators in order to strengthen land rights claims. There are …. informants participated in this study, including shifting cultivators and descendants of shifting cultivators, government officials, and local law enforcers. Data collection techniques were carried out through interviews and observations. The study shows that the current strategy of the descendants of shifting cultivators in Routa is to re-open their parents' former shifting cultivation areas - this strategy is increasingly emphasized through planting growing crops, creating boundaries and legalizing land rights with both SKT and SHM. These strategies have proven to be quite successful in overcoming the encroachment of former shifting cultivation areas as well as providing new economic bases for shifting cultivators in the form of land and gardens.