American Journal of Plant Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2158-2742 / 2158-2750
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 2,531
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Abdou Goudiaby, Ismaïla Coly, Aliou Badji, Mamadou Kane, Daouda Ngom
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1515-1527; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.1210107

Abstract:
In Lower Casamance, Pterocarpus erinaceus occupies a very important place in agroforestry parks. It is often grown in association with the most important cash crop of the area, groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). Thus, the objective of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between trees and groundnut cultivation in agroforestry parks in Lower Casamance. To this end, in each of the two districts (Tenghory and Kataba 1) three Pterocarpus erinaceus trees were selected in three separate communes. For each P. erinaceus tree selected and following each of the four cardinal directions, three situations were defined: at R/2, at 1.5 R and at 2 R from the trunk, with R the radius of the crown. Thus, 12 yield squares were installed around each selected tree, for a total of 72 yield squares installed in the two districts. The parameters measured were the height of the peanut plants, the number of pods produced per plant, and the yield in flakes and pods. The results show that geographical orientation significantly influenced plant height (p = 0.004) but not the number of pods/plant (p = 0.6). As for the distance to the trunk of Pterocarpus erinaceus, it induced a significant variation in the number of pods/plant (p = 0.009) but did not induce a significant effect on the other parameters. Yields varied between 1.56 Tons M S /ha and 2.02 Tons M S /ha for the hay, and between 1.03 Tons M S /ha and 1.45 Tons M S/ha for the pods. The results of this study constitute a useful source of information for a better management of the productivity of the agroforestry parks of the department of Bignona.
Tonglin Wang, Anqi Xie, Dongliang Zhang, Zemiao Liu, Xue Li, Yang Li, Xia Sun
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 146-162; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.121009

Abstract:
Paeonia lactiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa is a variety of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and is currently the peony herb’s principal cultivar group. Here, we study the differences in aromatic components and flowers of different varieties between two groups of cultivars, providing a reference for applying natural fragrance substances of peonies, breeding fragrant flower types, and developing and using improved varieties. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), peak area normalization for each component relative to content, component library (NIST14/NIST14S) retrieval, and a literature review were used to analyze the volatile compounds in flowers of eight peony varieties, such as “Gaoganhong”, and ten comospore peony varieties, such as “Jinshanhong”. Results showed that the main volatile compound constituents in flowers of the two groups were terpenes and alcohols. Additionally, the content of eucalyptol, caryophyllene, α-Pinene, citronellol, and 3-Hexen-1-ol, acetate, (Z) was high. Peony cultivars contained linalool, (1R)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, while comospore peony varieties contained 1,3,6-octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl-, (Z)-, phenylethyl alcohol, and geraniol. In this study, the differences between the volatile components of flowers of different peony varieties were clarified, laying a foundation for further molecular biology research into the floral fragrance of peonies and the cultivation of new varieties of aromatic peonies. At the same time, it also provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of peony flower by-products.
Samuel Aduse Poku, Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah, Htut Htet Aung, Ikuo Nakamura
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 18-36; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.121003

Abstract:
Plants are regularly exposed to myriads of stress factors that cause tremendous damage to their genetic make-up. To ensure genome stability and survival over several generations under harsher environmental conditions, plants have evolved a unique mechanism for dealing with DNA damage known as the DNA damage response pathway (DDR). It has been proposed that there may exist a relationship between the DNA damage response pathway and abiotic stress response in plants. To further investigate this relationship, we knocked down the soybean suppressor of gamma response 1 gene (GmSOG1), a master regulatory gene of the DDR, in soybean plants and subjected the generated transgenic plants to drought stress analysis. Gene expression analysis of the GmSOG1 gene in drought stressed soybean tissues revealed high levels of expression in buds and young leaves. The root lengths and root fresh weights of transgenic soybean plants grown on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with Gamborg B5 vitamins (MSB5 media) containing 200 mM mannitol for 10 days were significantly lesser than those of drought stressed wild-type plants. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced drought stress assay in vivo resulted in significant damage in transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. Also, the relative expressions of known drought responsive transcription factors such as GmDREB1 and GmLEA as well as antioxidation related genes like GmAPX and GmCAT were downregulated in transgenic soybean lines relative to wild-type plants. Moreover, wild-type soybean plants accumulated more chlorophyll and less malondialdehyde (MDA) than transgenic lines. A confirmatory experiment in GmSOG1 overexpressing Arabidopsis plants also showed significantly higher survival rates and anti-oxidation enzyme accumulation in drought stressed GmSOG1 overexpressing Arabidopsis lines compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the SOG1 gene may play active roles in plant abiotic stress defense.
Nur Amira Mohd Shamsuddin, Dayang Fredalina Basri, Noraziah M. Zin, Ahmad Raha Raus, Nur Faizah Abu Bakar
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 37-52; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.121004

Abstract:
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a global health concern that has caused severe health threats over the past decade. Leaves extract of C. odontophyllum has been proven previously as an anti MRSA agent. Proteomics provide a technique that used to analyze the differential of protein expression profile between untreated and treated MRSA with subinhibitory concentrations of acetone extract from C. odontophyllum leaves. This study aims to determine the optimum parameter for analysis of protein expression profile using two-dimension gels electrophoresis (2-DE) for MRSA protein after treatment with acetone extract from C. odontophyllum leaves. Comparison of the Protein Expression Profile (PEP) between the untreated and treated MRSA was analyzed using PDQuest software. The optimum condition for MRSA protein treated with acetone extract from C. odontophyllum leaves to produce the best resolution with greater spot distribution was as follows: 100 μg volume of MRSA protein that loaded after passive rehydration then was run until reaching 25 kVrhs during IEF using 17 cm IPG strip within ranges of pH 4 - 7. Analysis of protein expression from the 2-DE gel map shows that 9 protein spots up-regulated and 41 protein spots were down-regulated with more than 2-fold differences (p C. odontophyllum leave may provide an insight into the antimicrobial mechanism, which could lead to the identification of target protein for future novel therapeutic development against MRSA infections.
Beda Innocent Adji, Doffou Sélastique Akaffou, Kouadio Henri Kouassi, Yao Patrice Houphouet, Jerôme Duminil, Sylvie Sabatier
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 645-661; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.124044

Abstract:
Interpretation of primary growth markers (modules) is neglected in sustainable resource management processes, yet it opens up prospects for long time series on tree crown development, necessary for their characterization in the current context of climate change. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation of crown shoots in Parkia biglobosa in the face of a changing environment. Axis growth modules of 420 individuals of different ages were retrospectively analyzed in the presence or absence of shading during the wet and dry seasons in seven localities in Cote d’Ivoire. The results showed that the developmental environment of individuals did not influence the growth modules dimensions (P > 0.05). However, module size remained significantly different between locations (P Parkia biglobosa is a monochasial sympod (Pseudo-monopod) with a relay axis that follows the Paul Champagnat architectural model in the young stage, and transits to the Wilhelm Troll model later in the adult and old stage. This information contributes to the understanding of the functioning of crown and the adaptation of this species to a varying environment. It could guide choice of suitable environment and ideal genotype for the implementation of a reforestation or agroforestry programme based on Parkia biglobosa.
Naouar Ben Ali, Lamarti Ahmad
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 603-613; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.124040

Abstract:
The present study aims to explore the regeneration potential of Moroccan cork oak through the secondary somatic embryogenesis process. Particularly, we focus on the analysis of amino acids influence on the quantity and quality of the regenerated secondary embryos. The amino acids tested are: Glutamine, asparagine, arginine, tryptophane, methionine, casein hydrolysate and urea. Each amino acid is added in the Margara (N30K) medium at different concentrations ranged between 10 and 500 mg/l. The results are collected after 2 months of culture. First analysis shows that the glutamine and the casein hydrolysate gives a maximum number of somatic embryos, clusters and pre-embryos newly formed on the clusters. By comparison to the control medium, the increase of the secondary embryos number directly formed exceed 36% in the case of casein hydrolysate and 35% of in the case of glutamine both at the concentration of 30 mg/l. However, the test of the combination of these amino acids did not have any significant results. In terms of quality, the influence of amino acids on the morphology of secondary embryos was analyzed.
Sridharan Jegadeesan, Etan Pressman, Avital Beery, Vikram Singh, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Sara Shabtai, Nurit Firon
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 487-497; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.124032

Abstract:
Above-optimal temperatures reduce yield in many crops, including tomato, largely because of the heat-sensitivity of their reproduction process. A full understanding of heat-stress (HS) response and thermotolerance of tomato reproduction is still lacking. Recently, using external application of the plant hormone ethylene, it was demonstrated that ethylene plays a role in heat-tolerance of tomato pollen (the male reproductive cells). In order to expand our understanding on involvement of ethylene in tomato pollen thermotolerance, we analyzed the response of wild type and ethylene-related tomato mutant plants to HS, at physiological and molecular levels. We report that mild chronic HS conditions highly reduce the number of viable and germinating pollen grains as well as the production of seeded fruits in wild type tomato plants, while no significant reduction was detected/observed in pollen quality, number of seeded fruits and seeds per fruit in plants of the ethylene over-producer mutant epinastic. Our findings suggest that ethylene is involved in thermotolerance of tomato reproduction, pointing to an effect on pollen viability and germination potential, highlighting candidate genes involved in pollen response to HS (like SlHSP17, SlHSP101, SlMBF1) and suggesting directions for further studies.
Venant Donald Noumi, Richard Marcel Nguimbou, Marthe Valentine Tsague, Markusse Deli, Sandrine Rup-Jacques, Dicko Amadou, Selestin Sokeng, Nicolas Yanou Njintang
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 329-346; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.123021

Abstract:
Dried leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were finely grinded and fractionated by sieving into four granulometric classes (355 μm). The obtained powder fractions were used for essential oil (EO) extraction by hydrodistillation and their phytochemical profile and in vitro antioxidant activities were evaluated. The mother powder (unsieved powder) was used for comparison. Particle size exerted a significant influence (p in vitro antioxidant properties of the EOs. Comparatively, the mother powder had the highest contents of α-pinene (55.6%), camphene (3.4%) and limonene (3.7%), while 1,8-cineole (26.6% and 22.4%), exo-fenchol (5.6% and 3.5%), α-campholenol (4.2% and 3.4%), L-trans-pinocarveol (5.5% and 2.7%), L-borneol (12.6% and 6.8%) and α-terpineol (16.4% and 7.6%) are the main compounds of EOs from the E. camaldulensis leaves. Finer powders could be used as functional ingredients in food formulations for the management of chronic diseases.
V. I. Chikov, G. A. Akhtyamova, L. A. Khamidullina
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 624-634; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.124042

Abstract:
The kinetics of 14C incorporation into glycolate was studied after changing the export of photosynthetic products from the leaf. It has been shown that the ribulose-bisphosphate-oxygenase pathway of glycolate formation works in the stationary state of the plant. An excess of photosyntates or a decrease in the amount of light primary products, as well as nitrates in the leaves, immediately turns on the transketolase pathway of glycolate formation. In this case, part of the oxygen formed in the photochemical reactions of chloroplasts ceases to be released from the leaf. After oxygen receives an electron from ferredoxin in the electron transport chain of chloroplasts, it starts (through photorespiration) the formation of non-carbohydrate photosyntates and metabolic processes in the cytoplasm. It was concluded that the main function of photorespiration in the regulation of photosynthesis is maintaining a balance between light and dark processes of photosynthesis on change of living conditions.
Husniddin Кurbonovich Esanov, Feruz Qamariddinovich Shodmonov, Aziz Mukhtorovich Kobilov
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 266-273; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.122016

Abstract:
The article presents the results of research conducted in Dengizkul and around this area. It identifies plant species in and around the lake and analyzes species composition. As a result of the analysis, 70 species of tall plants belonging to 24 families were identified in the lake. The identified species are divided into aquatic and riparian plants. Of these, 18 species are found in lake water and 52 species in its vicinity. The low number of high plant species in the lake water is due to the salinity of the water. The protection of this area is based on the natural conservation of the surrounding plant population.
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