American Journal of Plant Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2158-2742 / 2158-2750
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Former Publisher: Hans Publishers (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 2,470
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Latest articles in this journal

Rabiga X. Yesemuratova
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1-6; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.121001

The article studied rare and endemic plants scattered on the relic mountain of Sultan-Uvays. During the studies, the floristic list of the territory was also formed. Floristical studies revealed 497 species of vascular plants, belonging to 230 genera and 49 families. Investigated flora can be characterized by 1 endemic and 10 subendemic species should be included in the List of rare and endangered plants of Karakalpakistan as well as in the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan. It was found out that the populations of the studied species are in normal condition. Information obtained on the distribution of rare and endemic species is used in the preparation of plans for protection measures and monitoring studies, as well as in the preparation of the next editions of the flora of Uzbekistan and the red book of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Daniel Schlesinger, Faris Salama, Rachel Davidovich Rikanati, Rotem Sertchook, Ofir Tal, Mosaab Yahyaa, Adi Faigenboim, Mwafaq Ibdah, Moshe Inbar, Efraim Lewinsohn
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 53-70; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.121005

Hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine are tropane alkaloids present in some Solanaceae species and used in modern medicine. L-Hyoscyamine is hydroxylated to 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine (anisodamine) and then epoxidated to scopolamine by the dual action of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H), a 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase. A natural mutation in the Gly-220 residue to Cys was previously shown to be associated with the loss of function of H6H in Mandragora officinarum, preventing the accumulation of anisodamine and scopolamine in these plants. We show here that a deliberate Gly220Cys mutation in the Datura innoxia DiH6H protein caused a loss of both its enzymatic abilities and rendered it unable to hydroxylate L-hyoscyamine into anisodamine and to epoxidate anisodamine into scopolamine. By using protein modeling based on an available crystal structure of H6H from Datura metel, we show how the Cys220 residue causes a steric interference in the active site cavity impairing the interaction of both substrates, hyoscyamine and anisodamine with the active site of the protein. We also address the enantiomeric preference of DiH6H based on molecular modeling.
Huruy Frezghi, Nitsihti Abay, Tadesse Yohannes
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 221-233; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.122013

Dry mulch, as soil moisture conservation techniques, is seldom practiced for growth and survival of transplanted tree seedlings in dry period in Eritrea. Field experiment was conducted at Halhale, Eritrea with Dry Hyparrhenia rufa, as a mulch, on a flat basin for growth and survival of seedlings of Grevillea robusta and Acacia polyacantha subspecies Campylacantha by involving four management practices: 1) mulching and watering basins (MW); 2) no-mulching but watering basins (NMW); 3) mulching but no-watering basins (MNW); 4) no-mulching and no-watering basins (NMNW). The experimental design was CRD with three replications. MW and NMW were watered 180 litters (20 litters/month) but MNW and NMNW were not watered at all. Parameters such as soil moisture content of the basin, early growth performance of seedling and survival rate of the seedlings were studied. The result indicated that there were statistically significant differences (p 0.05) among the treatment for soil moisture content and early growth performance of the seedlings. The average volumetric water content (VWC%) on 0 - 20 cm soil depth at the end of dry period of MW, NMW, MNW, and NMNW were 10.08%, 7.7%, 6.3% and 3.9% respectively. Mean height increment of seedlings of G. robusta of MW (100 cm), NMW (83.3 cm), MNW (31.5 cm) and NMNW (9 cm) were recorded, while the mean height increments of seedlings of A. polyacantha subsp. Campylacantha of MW (48 cm), NMW (25 cm), MNW (4.5 cm) and NMNW (3 cm) were recorded. The mean survival rate of G. robusta was 91.8% of which the highest (100%) survival rate was recorded under MW, NMW and MNW, but the lowest (66.7%) was recorded by NMNW. All seedlings of A. polyacanth subsp. Campylacantha were survived, irrespective of the treatments. The study concluded that soil moisture content, early growth performance of seedlings, and survival rate of transplanted tree seedling was improved by application of mulch.
Muhammad Ikram, Niaz Ali, Gul Jan, Farzana Gul Jan, Muhammad Romman, Muhammad Ishaq, Yasir Islam, Naeem Khan
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 275-284; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.123017

Present study aims to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and different fractions of the Epilobium roseum (Schreb). The extract and fractions were used against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). The methanolic extract and their sub fraction n-hexane showed a prominent inhibition zone against all bacterial strains but inactive against fungal strains. The various extracts of Epilobium roseum (Schreb) from various parts were tested for their antioxidant activity by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The IC50 of the stem and root of methanolic extract and their sub fraction n-hexane showed best activity ranged between 22.73 ± 6.92, 21.49 ± 6.26 and 14.94 ± 3.54, 13.92 ± 1.04 μg/ml compared to another fraction. The results support that Epilobium roseum can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. The results support the present study that Epilobium roseum (Schreb) has a potential source of natural antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant potentials.
Clyde D. Boyette, Robert E. Hoagland, Lawrence R. Higgenbotham, H. Lynn Walker, James A. Young, Kenneth C. Stetina
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 444-454; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.123029

A teleomorph of the fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina (Berkeley et Curtis) von Arx, (Br) was evaluated as a bioherbicide for control of giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell) under greenhouse conditions and in small-scale field trials. We found that fungal mycelium was highly infective and could be rapidly produced (48+ h) in soy flour-cornmeal liquid media contained in shake flasks or fermenters. A dew period was not required to achieve infection and mortality of inoculated plants. A surfactant (Silwet L-77, a polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyl-trisiloxane) incorporated in the fungal formulation was required for Br to infect and kill plants. Infection and mortality occurred rapidly (within 48 h after treatment), and re-growth of treated plants did not occur. In replicated field trials, Br controlled giant salvinia ~95%. Br also infected other plants, such as common salvinia (S. minima Baker), and Azolla filiculoides Lam., as determined in ongoing host range research. However, no symptomatology was observed on several economically important crop species, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and several woody species such as bald cypress (Taxodium distichum L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) occurring in areas where giant salvina occurs that would be subject to contact with releases of Br. These results suggest that this teleomorph of Botryosphaeria rhodina has potential as a bioherbicide for controlling this onerous aquatic weed.
Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Laxmipreeya Behera, Jannila Praveena, Shraddha Sawant, Ankita Mishra, Siddhartha Shankar Sharma, Lipi Ghosh, Ambika Prasad Mishra, Asit Ranjan Sahoo, Pranay Pradhan, et al.
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 455-475; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.123030

From the evolution of the mankind, Turmeric has been used in conventional medication. India is in lead for producing, marketing and exporting the Turmeric and its value added products. Curcuma longa (Turmeric) is an Indian rhizomatous medicinal herb from the Zingiberaceae family that is common and widely available across the globe. The components of Turmeric are curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin and these are collectively known as curcuminoids. Curcumin, the active ingredient of Turmeric is generally investigated by the scientific community for its wide range of antioxidant activity, anti-Inflammatory properties and anti-cancer activity, anti-metabolic syndrome activities, neuroprotective activity, antimicrobial effects, anti-arthritis effects, anti-viral effects, anti-asthma and anti-diabetic effects, anti-obesity, cardio and liver toxicity protection activity, anti-depression and anxiety activities. Turmeric has been widely used as a typical household treatment for cough, sore throat, respiratory ailments and could be an effective immunity booster against SARS-CoV-2 therapy during the ongoing pandemic situation. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, turmeric and its constituents have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases. So in this review, we describe the various metabolic roles of curcumin and activities for the benefit of human health.
Mukhtar Hossain, Abul Kalam Azad, Shamiul Alam, Touria El-Jaoual Eaton
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 586-602; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.124039

The investigation was carried out in focusing the genetic variability for different traits of wheat influenced by heat tolerance mechanism to find out relationships among phenological, physiological and yield contributing traits. Spring wheat cultivar of 25 genotypes were selected and cultivated under late sowing condition at the Regional Wheat Research Institute, Shympur, Rajshahi, Bangladesh from December, 2016 to April, 2017. Significant variability among the genotypes exposed for different traits related to heat tolerance. Results showed that the genotypes G24, G10, G01, G13, G16, G25 and G14 ranked as better category considering maximum number of traits in mean performance indicating their tolerance to heat stress under late sowing condition. Phenotypic variances (σg2) of all traits were greater than those of genotypic variances (σg2). The same trends were also found in their co-efficient of variances. The phenotypic co-efficient of variances (PCV) of all traits were greater compare to those of genotypic co-efficient of variances (GCV) and their values were closer to each other. The heading days (HD), canopy temperature at vegetative stage (CTvg), canopy temperature at grain filling stage (CTgf), biomass, plant height (PH), spike/m2 (SPM), spikelet/spike (SPS), grain/ spike (GPS), thousand grain weight (TGW) and yield exhibited higher heritability (hb2) estimated under irrigated late sowing (ILS) condition. Under the same ILS condition SPAD, SPM, SPS, GPS, TGW and yield showed moderate to high genetic advance (GA) obtained through computing their mean percentage (%) and the rest traits HD, maturity days (MD), CTvg, CTgf, biomass, PH and harvest index (HI) exposed smaller genetic advance (% mean). The co-efficient of variation (CV%) of all attributes in all genotypes were significantly lower (1.36 - 6.96). Both heritability and genetic advance were found lower for MD, SPAD and HI indicated their non additive genetic effects for which these traits might not be recommended for selection. However, spike/m2, spikelet/spike, grain/spike, thousand grain weight and yield belonged to higher heritability and high to moderate genetic advance in mean percentage (%) along with wide genetic variation and lower environmental influence in heat stress situation indicated the most likely heritability due to the effects of additive genes that might be suggested as effective process of selection for these traits in heat stress condition.
Mohammad Sayedul Islam, Ibne Saad Sikder Titas
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 518-535; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.124034

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main staple cereal crops for half of the world’s population which is predicted to exceed 9 billion by the 2050. Rice production needs to be doubled to meet the future demand of rice eating countries. To ensure the food security of growing population, sustainable rice production is needed. To achieve the expected yield, better understanding of the rice root systems will be required. A panel of rice cultivars, collected from Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) were assessed through two established screening methods. Deep and shallow rooted cultivars were identified through hydroponic screening and soil filled rhizotron method. In hydroponic screening method, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed 99.13% variation explained by the genotype (P deep rooted cultivars, which would be very promising cultivars for rice breeding programmes in drought prone regions.
Lurline Marsh, Fawzy Hashem, Brett Smith
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 315-328; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.123020

Global warming and consumer demand for medicinal plants present an opportunity to introduce ginger growth to the US Delmarva Peninsula. High tunnel and field studies were conducted to assess the development of organic ginger (Zingiber officinalis, Rosc) seedling transplants in mycorrhiza-amended soil. Transplant types were tissue culture derived with less than three tillers (TCS1), three or more tillers (TCS2), and nontissue culture derived (NTCS1). Transplants were grown with or without mycorrhiza (2.8 g per plant) in a split plot design with soil amendments as main plot and transplant type as subplot. Data were collected for air temperatures, plant height, tiller number, leaf chlorophyll index (LCI), rhizome fresh weight, plant biomass, rhizome nutrients, and levels of As and Pb. TCS2 transplants produced significantly higher, or trended to higher rhizome yield than transplants with less than three tillers, except for year two field study. The maximum rhizome fresh weight per plant was 648.3 g for TCS2 in high tunnel in year one. Generally, TCS2 had most tillers throughout the growing season ranging from 6.9 to 25.7 tillers per plant over three studies. Mycorrhiza had no effect on ginger height, tiller number, LCI or rhizome yield. Sustained high temperatures above 37°C, plus high light in the field caused dieback and stunted shoot growth in year two. There were no consistent effects of mycorrhiza or transplant type on rhizome nutrient content. Content of total Pb, As and other elements were at safe threshold levels for rhizome consumption. These results suggest that gingers grown from TCS2 transplants with at least three tillers yielded more rhizome than those grown from S1 transplants with fewer tillers. Introduction of ginger to a short season region such as the Delmarva may require consideration of environmental condition such as high temperature and light to which seedling transplants may be exposed in summer.
Jing Zhang, Shijie Xiang, Hongshen Wan
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 347-365; doi:10.4236/ajps.2021.123022

Many organisms have dormant stages with an extension of their life span to increase longevity, and deeper dormancy is usually related to greater longevity. In cereal crops, seed dormancy is significantly associated with pre-harvest sprouting tolerance during seed development, as seed longevity is a valuable trait for seed banks and providing reliable crop seeds to farmers. In this study, we evaluated both seed dormancy and longevity in bread wheat based on germination and artificial aging tests. According to phenotypic clustering analysis, relative germination rate/potential and relative seedling vigor index were more effective to indicate seed longevity than relative electrical conductivity in wheat, while all the four investigated phenotypes of relative germination potential, relative germination rate, germination index and degree of seed dormancy fit well as a reflex of wheat seed dormancy. In the correlation analysis, the germination level of newly harvested grain negatively reflected its degree of seed dormancy, while the germination ability of grain after artificial aging reflected its seed longevity. However, in contrast to the current opinion in plant, seed dormancy was significantly negatively correlated to seed longevity in our study, and it was not an accidental phenomenon, for that the majority of accessions with high degree of seed dormancy had short seed longevity. To our knowledge, this is the first to report the negative association between seed dormancy and longevity in cereal crops. It would lead to further concerns about how to breed wheat with both prolonged seed longevity and deep dormancy to avoid pre-harvest sprouting.
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