Indian Journal of Palliative Care

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0973-1075 / 1998-3735
Published by: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 935
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, Seema Rajesh Rao, Nandini Vallath, Vishwanath Siddini, Tukaram Jamale, Divya Bajpai, Nitish Nitin Sancheti
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_69_21

Abstract:
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience high symptom burden, both physical and psychological, that is underrecognized and undertreated. The high symptom burden significantly impacts the quality of life for patients and their families. This review enumerates the various physical and psychological symptoms that patients with CKD often experience and guides in the management of these symptoms. This review follows the recommended international guidelines and has been tailored to suit the Indian context.
, Indu Ramachandra Rao, Yj Anupama, Krishan Lal Gupta, Krithika S. Rao
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_61_21

Abstract:
The decision regarding dialysis initiation is complex. Awareness that renal replacement therapy should not be regarded as default therapy for every patient with advanced renal failure is necessary. Decision to initiate dialysis and modality should be individualized in a shared decision-making process involving the treating nephrologist and the patient. Patients should receive predialysis education early in the course of chronic kidney disease so as to help prepare them well in advance for this eventuality. Withholding dialysis may be a reasonable option in a certain subset of patients, especially elderly patient with multiple co-morbid illnesses. Comprehensive conservation care should be offered in all patients where the decision to not dialyze is taken.
, Naveen Salins, Bharathi, Georgi Abraham
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_64_21

Abstract:
There is a rise in burden of end-stage renal disease globally and in India. The symptom burden, prognosis, and mortality in chronic kidney disease closely mimics that of cancer. However, the palliative and end of life care needs of these patients are seldom addressed. A consensus opinion statement was developed outlining the provision of end of life care in end-stage kidney disease. Recognition of medical futility, consensus on medical futility, and cessation of potentially inappropriate therapies and medications are the initial steps in providing end of life care. Conducting a family meeting, communicating prognosis, discussing various treatment modalities, negotiating goals of care, shared decision-making, and discussion and documentation of life sustaining treatment are essential aspects of end of life care provision. The provision of end of life care entails assessment and the management of end-stage kidney disease symptoms and the care extends beyond the death of the patient to their families in the bereavement period.
, Jayita Deodhar, Ashok L. Kirpalani, Ajith M Nayak
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_71_21

Abstract:
Advance care planning (ACP) is a process by which clinicians together with patients and families reflect on and outline care goals to inform current and future care. ACP or shared decision-making is not only about key medical decisions, such as decision about continuing dialysis, or agreement for “not for resuscitation” order when in hospital. The importance of its role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is less known and not being well practiced in our country. When done well, it involves enhancement of final days, weeks, and months with positive decisions about family relationships, resolution of conflict, and living well until end of life, improved quality of life, decreased anxiety and depression among family members, reduced hospitalizations, increased uptake of hospice and palliative care services, and care that concurs with patient preferences. It lays out a set of relationships, values, and processes for approaching end-of-life decisions for the patient. It also includes attention to ethical, psychosocial, and spiritual issues relating to starting, continuing, withholding, and stopping dialysis. This workshop was done to sensitize ACP as a standard of care intervention in the management of CKD in our country.
Amrallah A Mohammed, Omar Al-Zahrani, Fifi Mostafa Elsayed, Ayman Elshentenawy
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27, pp 43-46; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_97_20

Abstract:
Background: For physicians and patients, survival estimation is vital for the treatment plan, especially with frequent use of new therapeutic agents in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The Chuang's Prognostic Scale (CPS) is a validated prognostic score that may be useful in the avoidance of unnecessary palliative systemic treatment. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the CPS in survival prediction in patients with MBC after at least two lines of palliative systemic chemotherapy protocols (PSCPs). Methods: CPS was prospectively measured in 221 patients with MBC. The total score ranged from 0 to 8.5; the lower score refers to a good prognosis. The survival assessment was made by the Kaplan–Meier curve and the survival difference among the groups was estimated by log-rank test. Results: Using the cutoff value of CPS 5.7, the patients were classified into two groups: Group A had score ≤5.7 (174 patients, 78.7%) and Group B had CPS score >5.7 (47 patients, 21.3%). About 86.2% of the patients in Group A survived >3 months (median survival was 165 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 77–261) compared with 21.3% of patients survived in Group B (median survival was 81 days, 95% CI: 55–123) (P = 0.00). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 97.6% (95% CI: 87.4–99.9), 98.3% (95% CI: 95.2–99.7), 93.2% (95% CI: 81.6–97.7), and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.2–99.9), respectively, for the 3-month mortality prediction. Conclusion: CPS could be helpful in estimating the survival outcome in patients with MBC who received at least two PSCPs.
, Aanchal Satija, Shiv Pratap Singh Rana, Sushma Bhatnagar
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27, pp 104-108; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_277_20

Abstract:
Introduction: Neuropathic cancer pain is a common consequence of cancer itself and anti-cancer treatments. It is a complex phenomenon, often underdiagnosed by physicians or underreported by patients. Its diagnosis and management are usually more challenging than nociceptive pain. There is a dearth of epidemiological evidence for neuropathic pain in cancer patients in India. Screening questionnaires serve as a quick guide to identify potential cases of neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study was to identify the burden of cancer-related neuropathic pain using the Self-reported version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) pain scale. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, observational, multi-centric study conducted at three hospitals in North India. From January 2017 to October 2017, patients attending pain clinic were screened for participation in the study. Adults aged ≥18 years and experiencing the pain of oncologic origin were eligible to participate in the study if they provided informed consent. S-LANSS questionnaire was used to screen patients with neuropathic pain. Results: From a total of 261 patients, who were enrolled in the study, 56.7% were male and their mean age was 50.87 (18–80) years. Fifty-four percent patients had pain with predominantly neuropathic component (S-LANSS score ≥10). Conclusion: High burden of neuropathic cancer pain has been observed in outpatient palliative care settings. Early diagnosis of neuropathic pain through screening questionnaires can serve as a quick guide for physicians in resource-constrained settings. This will allow identification of the neuropathic component of pain in patients suffering with mixed pain.
, Nuzul Sri Hertanti, Anggi Lukman Wicaksana, Christantie Effendy
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_76_20

Abstract:
Aim: The study is aimed to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the palliative care quiz for nurses in an Indonesian context to evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: A two-phase design was used in this study, including cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing. The PCQN-I was tested on a convenience sample of health-care providers recruited from 20 primary health-care (PHC) centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from July to October 2017. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation ultimately resulted in a total of 20 items from the PCQN-I. An expert committee revised the words in Item 4 from “adjuvant therapies” to “adjuvant therapies/additional therapies,” in Item 5 from “bowel regimen” to “gastrointestinal therapies,” and Item 16 from “Demerol” to “Pethidine” based on the Indonesian context. The experts retained Item 5 “It is crucial for family members to remain at the bedside until death occurs,” although none of the participants (n = 40) involved in the pilot testing could answer it correctly, and Item 19 “The loss of a distant or contentious relationship is easier to resolve than the loss of one that is close or intimate” although few participants responded correctly. A total of 150 health-care providers consisting of 100 nurses and 50 physicians were involved in the psychometric testing. The scale-level content validity index/Ave of the PCQN-I was 97 and 93 in terms of its relevancy and clarity, respectively. The reliability was calculated as the Kuder–Richardson formula 20 score was 0.71. Conclusions: The PCQN-I is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing palliative care knowledge among PHC providers. Further research is warranted to examine its reliability in different clinical settings.
, Ram Singh, Sujata Satapathy, Sushma Bhatnagar
Published: 1 January 2021
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27, pp 95-98; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_187_20

Abstract:
Background: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) causes a significant worsening of quality of life (QOL). The patient assessment of constipation QOL questionnaire (PAC-QOL) is a validated scale in English language to assess the QOL in patients with chronic constipation and guide the management by measuring response to a targeted therapy. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of PAC-QOL questionnaire after translation in Hindi language for Indian cancer patients with OIC. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational cross-sectional study. Three hundred and thirteen adult cancer patients receiving opioid treatment for pain and experiencing self-reported symptoms of constipation were evaluated. The severity of constipation was assessed at baseline and at an interval of at least 2 weeks by the physician using constipation scoring system (CSS) and self-reported Hindi version of PAC-QOL questionnaire. Results: The data obtained from 313 patients were taken for analysis. The internal consistency of the tool was established with the favorable value of Cronbach's alfa coefficient (i.e., >0.70) obtained for all four subgroups and overall score. The intraclass correlation coefficient value of >0.70 also established good correlation between overall and subgroups scores of Hindi version of PAC-QOL, obtained at 1st and 2nd visit. It was observed from the result that a significant correlation existed between the overall and subgroups scores of Hindi version of PAC-QOL and CSS, thus establishing concurrent validity. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study results that Hindi version of PAC-QOL is both reliable and valid to assess the QOL in patients with OIC.
E P Abdul Azeez, G Anbuselvi
Indian Journal of Palliative Care, Volume 27, pp 18-22; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpc.ijpc_45_20

Abstract:
Background: The palliative care operation in Kerala, unlike other parts of India, is widespread. Kerala's community-based approach to palliative care is often recognized in the current literature as a sustainable model. However, the sustainability of palliative care operations is not empirically studied, and the domains of sustainability are not clearly explained in the current literature. Aims: The present study attempted to explore the following research questions. First, are the community-based palliative care operations in Kerala really sustainable? Second, what are the dimensions of sustainability? Methods: To answer these research questions, an empirical field-based investigation was carried out using the case study method. The study was conducted among ten selected palliative care units in the Malappuram and Palakkad districts of Kerala. The records of service delivery, reports, and other available documents were accessed. Interviews were conducted with the key functionaries and other staff of the individual palliative care units. Results: The result of the study indicates that palliative care is delivering uninterrupted and comprehensive care to the needy in the region. Three dimensions were evident as the sustainability of palliative care operation. Conclusion: The replication of this model requires an understanding of these dimensions.
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