IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2244-1573 / 2244-1581
Total articles ≅ 173

Latest articles in this journal

, Aurelia Gajutos, Mila Gracia Villanueva, Dionesio Estopa, Nieta Amit, Myrna Ogoc, Joseph Masangkay
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1126

The leatherback sea turtle (Dermocheleys coriacea) is considered an endangered species here in the Philippines and around the world. In Northern Samar, a leatherback sea turtle reportedly found by local fisher folks along the rocky mangrove and coral reef areas was placed in a rescue confinement for treatment and observation. Upon retrieval, the left fore flipper was already missing and the lacerated, amputated area was then bleeding. Treatment to arrest hemorrhage was performed and antimicrobials were administered. Two days thereafter, the animal succumbed to death. Because the animal was recovered a day following a typhoon that hit the province, it was inferred that the injury might be attributed to calamity-induced trauma as the animal was recovered as it was trapped along the rock-strewn mangrove areas. Following death, necropsy examination presented findings of severe congestive pneumonia, hemorrhages along the intestinal serosa, severe hepatic congestion, pericarditis and pronounced disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The prominent histopathological finding of sub-acute severe hemorrhagic pneumonia with infiltrates of mononuclear cells, red blood cells, hemosiderins and proteinaceous debris were discerned along the lung parenchyma. The hepatocytes are swollen, distended and some presented congestion and necrosis. The intestinal sub-mucosae are infiltrated with mononuclear cells. Smears from blood and liver showed variable Gram-negative organisms. It was impressed that the animal may have been suffering from an underlying subclinical septicemic infection even prior to traumatic injury. These findings underscore the need to further study the microbial profile of this endangered species and provide means to mitigate occurrence of septicemia cases that could further exacerbate its dwindling populace. This index case of septicemia affecting a leatherback sea turtle has been reported for the first time in the country.
Banjie Godilano-Sarmiento, Nestor T. Baguinon, Cristino L. Tiburan Jr., Nathaniel C. Bantayan
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1109

Invasive species represent the second most remarkable cause of extinction worldwide after habitat destruction (IUCN, 2011). Skyflower (Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.) that is slowly invading Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve (MMFR) was subjected to varying light intensities. Morpho-ecological characters were evaluated using Analysis of Variance for Randomized Complete Block Design. Bonferonni’s method at 5% level of significance was used for mean comparison. Plant height, number of leaves and nodes were higher in 0% (open condition) and 50% (partial shade) compared to those grown in 70% (complete shade). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in stem thickness, biomass, and chlorophyll content in all treatments. Leaf area was smallest in plants grown in the open condition. There was significant difference between the two locations (greenhouse and field) for the number of nodes, number of leaves, and stem thickness (P
Carmelita O. Garcia-Hansel,
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1116

Lake Lanao and its watershed are paramount resources not only to the island of Mindanao where they are located, but to the country in broader terms. The sustainability of their biodiversity and hydrological services requires a rational and appropriate management program. This paper reviews the historical various management efforts directed towards the Lake and its watershed up to the present. Since 1953 various Presidential Decrees have provided the management framework on the use of the resource under the leadership of the National Power Corporation. In 1992 following Presidential Proclamation 871 establishing the Lake Lanao Watershed Reserve, Memorandum Order No. 421 created a Lake Lanao Watershed Protection and Development Council (LLWPDC) to be headed by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Various management plans had been formulated and some projects initiated such as the LLWPDC’s Integrated Development Plan, the Food and Agriculture Organization Environmental Management Plan, a USAID-EcoGov pilot project on Forest Land Use Planning, and an Asian Development Bank Integrated Natural Resources and Environment Project. However, these have either not been implemented nor completed due to budgetary constraints and/or political circumstances. In January 2011, an interim Protected Area Management Board was organized inasmuch as under the NIPAS Act of 1992, proclaimed watershed reserves are an initial component of NIPAS. However, it requires a Protected Area Suitability Assessment before it can be legislated as a Protected Area; such assessment was completed in February 2012. Most recently, Senator Loren Legarda authored a bill entitled The Lake Lanao Development Authority akin to the Laguna Lake Development Authority, still waiting for congressional action. At present, there are various management issues and concerns, a major one being hydropower generation vis-à-vis the traditional domestic use of the Maranaos, the “people of the lake,” whose unique socio-cultural traits demand attention. Moreover, a number of environmental degradation issues (e.g. lake water greening, E. coli contamination, deforestation, siltation, invasive species, flooding) have been raised. These critical issues and concerns signal the immediate implementation of a participatory management approach involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels.
Nicola Louise T. Timbas, Rodrigo B. Badayos, Pearl B. Sanchez, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1111

A study was conducted to determine the variability of soil properties along selected transects in Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Laguna, Philippines. Samples were taken from seven pedons at the northeastern slope, and six pedons at the southern slope. Morphological properties of soils were investigated in situ. Samples were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Four landscape positions were identified at the northeastern slope: interfluve, seepage slope, transportational midsope, and colluvial footslope. At the southern slope, three landscape positions were established: interfluve, transportational midslope and colluvial footslope. Soils at the interfluve in both transects had deep soil profiles with low bulk densities and high organic matter. Soils at the seepage slope have argillic horizons, higher soil pH, exchangeable bases, and base saturation. Lithologic discontinuities were observed at the transportational midslope. Soils at the colluvial footslope of the southern slope have higher soil pH, OM content, exchangeable bases, CEC, and base saturation compared to soils at the northeastern slope. Soils at the northeastern slope were classified as Andisols, Inceptisols, Entisols, Ultisols, and Alfisols. On the other hand, soils at the southern slope were classified as Andisols, Alfisols, and Inceptisols.
, Carmelita O. Garcia-Hansel
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1110

The sparse body of information on the ecology and biodiversity of one of the world’sancient lakes, Lake Lanao, was reviewed to arrive at objective insights that may be useful for an ecosystem-based management of the Lake Lanao Watershed. The terrestrial portion of the watershed is relatively rich in flora and fauna that mostly inhabit the remaining intact forests which provides 60% cover, but a thorough species inventory is wanting. Nearly 90% of the alienable and disposable lands including most of the lake shoreline and the adjacent lowland forest areas have now yielded to agriculture (87%), but only 0.4% to urban and rural settlements. Major rivers and numerous intermittent tributaries that sustain lake water are unstudied. Within a span of 30 years since a rich indigenous community of fish species was first described, the lake’s fisheries ecosystem has undergone a regime shift featuring the dominance of invasive fish species and the catastrophic disappearance of 16 endemic cyprinid species. Analysis of nutrient levels when the lake was at its relatively pristine state indicated a high sensitivity to levels of dissolved nitrogen with a pelagic ecosystem that is bottom-up or resource controlled. Most recent water quality analyses indicate a eutrophic, coliform-contaminated, and invasive species-colonized state with anthropogenic input as the possible main driver. Hence, apart from biodiversity conservation in the lake watershed, the flux of nutrients and pollutants should be a top priority of an ecosystem-based management that needs to employ innovative socio-environmental approaches involving participatory, multisectoral, multidisciplinary, integrated and co-management efforts. The looming climate change, which may undoubtedly lead to further loss of biodiversity services, needs to be incorporated in the watershed modelling and management framework.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1113

Q fever is an emerging worldwide zoonotic disease caused by a bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Detection of Q fever antibodies among humans and animals was conducted using sera from human donors and sera from three different species of animals obtained from Catarman, Northern Samar, Los Baños, Laguna, and General Santos City, South Cotabato, Philippines. The Complement Fixation Test (CFT) was used to detect antibodies in sera samples. The result of the study showed that Q fever antibodies in humans were found to be 37% (22/60) while the sampled animals have 43 % (77/180). Among the animals, the highest occurrence of antibodies was observed in goats with 70% (42/60), followed by 40% among cattle (24/60) and the least 18% were from carabaos (11/60). According to sampling sites, 20% (12/60) of antibody-positive humans were from Los Baños, Laguna, some 17% (10/60) came from General Santos City and none from Catarman, Northern Samar. Among the goats examined, a higher percentage of Q fever antibodies were obtained from those in Los Baños with 30% (18/60) occurrence, and from General Santos City with 25% (15/60) occurrence. Likewise, an equal occurrence rates of Q fever antibodies among cattle came from Los Baños, Laguna and General Santos City each with 20% (12/60) seropositivity, respectively. Among the carabaos, 18% (11/60) was in General Santos City and 8% (5/60) in Catarman. Based on these findings, it could be inferred that Q fever infection exists among humans, goats, cattle, and carabaos in the Philippines.
Hector B. Cadena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1112

This study describes the agricultural production practices of the farmers in the Malagos Watershed, Davao City, Philippines. This was done given the new trends in Ecoagriculture and Permaculture principles. The different Agricultural practices were described and assessed in terms of sustainability. Sustainable Agriculture is the production of food and other farm products in ways that protect the environment, public health and animal welfare. Practices need to be modified if they are causing damage to these factors instead. As to crops planted, which included cereals, vegetables and fruits, sustainability was rated fair. Tools and equipment used together with the method of cultivation were rated highly sustainable. Fertilizers used and method of fertilizer application which was mostly (40%) commercial fertilizers applied through basal and broadcast method, were rated sustainable. The method of irrigation, which was mostly rainfed, was assessed as highly sustainable. The method of pests and disease control was the only practice rated poor since commercial chemical spray were commonly used and one potentially harmful to people and the environment. Harvesting method, which was mostly by handpicking, was rated highly sustainable. Their methods of storage, product disposal and waste disposal were all classified as fairly sustainable. Concerning livestock production, almost all of their practices, including, type of animal raised, method of animal housing, feeds used, method of watering, method of product disposal and method of waste disposal, all rated fairly sustainable. Only the method of feeding, which mostly used dry feeds instead of free grazing, was graded sustainable. Crop production and livestock production in the Malagos Watershed averaged quite acceptable. It is, therefore, recommended that these practices be improved, maintained and monitored so that the agricultural practices in the Malagos Watershed would remain viable in the future. This study is the first attempt at assessing the sustainability of Agricultural practices of Indigenous peoples habituating the Malagos Watershed.
Sheilane S. Mendez, , Dunedene J. Dalagan, Hearty Sol R. Mañego, Grayfield T. Bajao, Venus C. Llaguno
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1114

Disasters are inevitable. The island resorts in Malapascua Island, Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines are vulnerable to natural risks such as typhoons and earthquake. In increasing disaster resilience, a model should be based on risk assessment results and be integrated with the strategic planning of the government and communities. It should consider risks and risk treatments across the social, built, economic and natural environments (Councils for Australian Governments, 2009). The study aimed to propose a disaster resiliency model for Malapascua Island, Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines. The output of this study is a guide for the local community in case of natural disasters. The descriptive survey method was utilized using a two survey questionnaires. The data regarding disaster preparedness in hotel resorts are gathered from the 80 respondents consists of the staff and managers of resorts in Malapascua Island, emergency rescue personnel, as well as the village officials of village Logon and municipal officials of Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines. Simple percentage and rank were used in the treatment of the data. Results showed that island is vulnerable to risk and that devised plans for emergency disasters, hazard mitigation, and contingency are needed. The researchers recommended the use of the model. However, further research on its effectiveness should be conducted to confirm the preliminary findings.
Ma. Leah E. Cadena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1117

The study aimed at assessing the livelihood needs of the residents in the Malagos Watershed. The residents in the area are mostly Indigenous Peoples (IPs).The study used descriptive-correlation design to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, livelihood needs and assistance, monthly household income, problems encountered by the respondents and the suggested solutions to the problems identified. The study collected primary data from the residents in the watershed with the use of an interview schedule. Random sampling was used to determine the samples from the different associations along the watershed. The study found out that most of the residents in the Malagos Watershed area are aged 36-60 years old, female, married, High School level in education, Diangan in tribe, Catholic, with 4-6 household size, housewives, and with monthly household income of P5,001-P10,000.Assessment of their livelihood needs had livestock and poultry raising as their priority. Work, financial and educational assistance are most needed. There is a significant difference in monthly household income of respondents when they are grouped according to socio-demographic characteristics regarding age, civil status, tribe and religion. Most of the problems the residents identified were the lack of livelihood, finances, education, poor health, potable water, electricity, assistance in agricultural production. To these, they suggested government support especially in infrastructure, health, education and financial help from government and/or nongovernment organizations.
Beltran C. Borres, Emmalinda A. Garillos
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1118

This descriptive-correlational study is used to determine the relationship between the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms and the current status of the factors which are rice farming, catfish farming, government programs in rice production, and environmental conditions. There were 33 respondents considered in this study who were the catfish growers. Data gathered were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages, mean, and Pearson product correlation or Pearson r. The study found out that the level of perception of respondents was high on the current status of catfish farming and environmental conditions. For government programs on rice production, respondents had a moderately high level of perception. There is also a high level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms. The test of difference showed that there is a highly significant difference in the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms when grouped according to rice farm area. There is no significant difference in the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms when grouped according to demographic profile such as age, sex, educational attainment, seminars or training attended and high length of experience. The test of relationship showed that there is a significant relationship between the level of conversion of rice farming and the current status of catfish farming. Instead of fishing in the rivers, farmers may convert the lower portion of their rice fields into fish ponds. However, the test of relationship showed that there is no significant relationship between the level of conversion and the current status of rice farming, government programs on rice production, and environmental conditions.
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