ISSN / EISSN : 0005-7959 / 1568-539X
Published by: Brill Academic Publishers (10.1163)
Total articles ≅ 4,116
Latest articles in this journal
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10121
There may be a trade-off between the duration of parental care and future reproductive success. Traditionally, studies about the cost of parental care have included the removal of the parent. However, producing a secondary clutch after the failure of the first one is a compensatory behaviour that occurs in cases of brood failure. In this study, attempts were made to detect the cost of maternal care in the earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) by either extending the period of care or increasing the brood size to prevent compensation through the brood’s success. The results indicated that manipulation did not change the inter-clutch interval, although my previous study revealed shortening of these intervals after the removal of the clutch in this species. In this study, decreased clutch size manipulation increased the size of the following clutch.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-30; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10126
We investigated behavioural patterns of school subjects from Colombia and Tenerife (Spain) of 10–12, 13–14 and 15–17 years old (150 per age group), during a crossed puzzle game. We video-recorded all sessions, elaborated an ethogram and classified behavioural patterns within functional categories (Empathy, Help Organizing, Agonistic, Cooperation, Selfishness and Tension-Distension); their frequencies were analyzed by Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). Results showed significant differences between countries in Help Organizing, Cooperation, Agonistic and Tension-Distension; the same categories except Cooperation differed between age ranges, but no category significantly differed between sexes. GLMM of factor scores from a principal component analysis applied to behavioural categories showed subjects from Colombian schools had significantly lower PC1 factor scores (Empathy, Selfishness and Tension-Distension) than those from Tenerife; the contrary occurred for PC2 (Help Organizing and Cooperation) and no significant difference was found for PC3 (Agonistic and Selfishness). We discuss several potential causes of the differences found.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-51; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10132
Describing certain animal behaviours as ‘depression-like’ or ‘depressive’ has become common across several fields of research. These typically involve unusually low activity or unresponsiveness and/or reduced interest in pleasure (anhedonia). While the term ‘depression-like’ carefully avoids directly claiming that animals are depressed, this narrative review asks whether stronger conclusions can be legitimate, with animals developing the clinical disorder as seen in humans (cf., DSM-V/ICD-10). Here, we examine evidence from animal models of depression (especially chronically stressed rats) and animals experiencing poor welfare in conventional captive conditions (e.g., laboratory mice and production pigs in barren environments). We find troubling evidence that animals are indeed capable of experiencing clinical depression, but demonstrate that a true diagnosis has yet to be confirmed in any case. We thus highlight the importance of investigating the co-occurrence of depressive criteria and discuss the potential welfare and ethical implications of animal depression.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10127
Puma (Puma concolor) communication with conspecifics is via indirect scent marking behaviours that are important for individuals to advertise their territory and reproductive status, but little is known about how the behaviours develop with age. To examine the development of scent marking behaviours, we monitored the behaviours of adult pumas and dependent kittens. Based on video recordings, we found that the frequency of puma communication behaviours significantly changed over time. Kittens exhibited olfactory investigation more frequently as they aged, but kittens generally did not exhibit scent marking behaviours. Kittens travel with their mothers until they disperse, so there is no need to establish territories or advertise availability to mate, but kittens are at risk of injury or mortality from other pumas. It is possible that there is no functional need for dependent kittens to scent mark until they mature, but there is a need for frequent use of investigative behaviours.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10133
Anuran communication involves different channels of signal transmission, including acoustic, chemical, seismic, tactile, and visual stimuli. If emitted in combination, the components of the different channels form the multimodal communication, which can be important to reinforce, complement, or transfer fundamental information. This is especially key for species that dwell in noisy environments, such as Hylodes phyllodes. This rheophilic frog species has a complex behavioural repertoire, including acoustic and visual signals. In this study, we quantified and characterized the multimodal communication of this species. We identified and characterized advertisement, territorial, and encounter calls. Additionally, we compared the advertisement calls from the same males when emitted with one or both vocal sacs expanded and found that they differed in temporal and spectral parameters. Hylodes phyllodes performed 16 visual displays, which varied among individuals and populations. We elucidate that visual signalling is easily quantifiable and could be used to compare individuals, populations, and species, as typically done with anuran acoustic signals.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10119
Parental care has evolved numerous times in many taxonomic groups of animals. Matriphagy, as an extreme example of parental care, is present in many social species, subsocial species, and even in solitary spiders. Here, we describe matriphagy in five species of Anelosimus of different levels of sociality: social (A. dubiosus), intermediate social (A. jabaquara), subsocial (A. vierae, A. baeza), and solitary (A. nigrescens). Each group contained a female and its brood, maintained under standardized laboratory conditions. All species showed matriphagy, regardless of their social level. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether matriphagy is a necessary precondition for the evolution of sociality in spiders, or if it is phylogenetically conserved in some families.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10134
We explored the breeding behaviour of a threatened amphibian, the natterjack toad, at its northern range limit in Estonia, to determine the extent to which reproduction is affected by harsh and unstable climatic conditions. Using photo identification of specimens, we found that in optimal weather conditions males formed three breeding cohorts, while in adverse conditions only a single cohort occurred and under extreme conditions reproduction was skipped entirely. During the extended breeding season, larger males participated in reproduction throughout the breeding period, while smaller males appeared in later cohorts. Breeding success was related to the calling effort of a male, where larger males had greater mating success than smaller ones. We found that the natterjack toad males exhibit significant plasticity in reproductive behaviour at the northern range limit, which, given the energetic cost of reproduction and the increased risk of predation, allows them to increase their fitness at high latitudes.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-00003725
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10123
Fear and anxiety disorders are prevalent in dogs. These disorders are not adequately resolved by current interventions, which urges exploration of additional interventions. In humans, fear and anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are effectively treated by Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR is a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention involving bilateral sensory stimulation while memorizing the traumatic event, resulting in decreased emotionality of the memory. We argue EMDR might be applied as an intervention for fear and anxiety disorders in dogs, adding to the currently available interventions for the field of Clinical Ethology. Particularly nonverbal EMDR protocols used in preverbal children can be applied and the setup can be adapted for dogs. Future research should focus on the development of nonverbal EMDR protocols including proper controls, and on clinical effectiveness of such EMDR protocols for dogs. Apart from behavioural measures, psychophysiological variables should be incorporated as well.
Behaviour, Volume -1, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-bja10130
Behavioural laterality was widely discovered in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, reports of behavioural laterality in scent-marking are scarce and focused on limb preference during scent-marking. In this study, we observed another scent-marking behaviour, anogenital rubbing, which involved whole-body movement, in zoo-housed Chinese red pandas. We recorded the moving direction of the buttocks when initiating anogenital rubbing. Our results showed that three of our subjects were explicitly left-biased when initiating anogenital rubbing and the other one showed more left initiation although there was no statistical significance. Besides, the laterality was consistent across the whole observational period. This is the first report of laterality in anogenital rubbing, perhaps indicating hemispheric specialization for chemical communication in the Chinese red panda.