ISSN / EISSN : 2325-7776 / 2325-7792
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 74
Latest articles in this journal
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 29-84; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.91003
It is believed that eukaryotes arise from prokaryotes, which means that organelles can form de novo in prokaryotes. Such events, however, had not been observed previously. Here, we report the biogenesis of orga-nelles in the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium TDX16 (prokaryote) that was released from its senescent/necrotic host cell of green alga Haema-tococcus pluvialis (eukaryote). Microscopic observations showed that organelle biogenesis in TDX16 initiated with cytoplasm compartmental-ization, followed by de-compartmentalization, DNA allocation, and re-compartmentalization, as such two composite organelles-the primi-tive chloroplast and primitive nucleus sequestering minor and major fractions of cellular DNA respectively were formed. Thereafter, the eu-karyotic cytoplasmic matrix was built up from the matrix extruded from the primitive nucleus; mitochondria were assembled in and segregated from the primitive chloroplast, whereby the primitive nucleus and primi-tive chloroplast matured into the nucleus and chloroplast respectively. While mitochondria subsequently turned into double-membraned vacu-oles after matrix degradation. Results of pigment analyses, 16S rRNA and genome sequencing revealed that TDX16 is a phycocyanin-containing cyanobacterium resembling Chroococcidiopsis thermalis, which had ac-quired 9,017,401 bp DNAs with 10,301 genes from its host. Accordingly, we conclude that organelle biogenesis in TDX16 is achieved by hybridiz-ing the acquired eukaryotic DNAs with its own one and expressing the hybrid genome. The formation of organelles in cyanobacterium TDX16 is the first case of organelle biogenesis in prokaryotes observed so far, which sheds an unprecedented light on eukaryotes and their connections with prokaryotes, and thus has broad implications on biology.
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 85-99; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.92004
Cytoskeleton exists in all eukaryotes and is involved in many significant cytobiological processes, especially the movements and developmental changes of plant cells. The cytoskeleton consists of microtubule (MT), microfilament (MF), and intermediate filament (IF). MT and MF are vital components of plant cytoskeleton. Crosslinking factor acts as a bridge between MF and MT. They play an important role in cellular life process and have always been a hot topic and key point in plant cytobiology, and the IF is a difficult point in this field. In this paper, the latest research on the cytoskeleton of plants is introduced, which focuses on the structure and dynamics of MT, MF, and IF, and summarizes the crosslinking factors between MT and MF. Also, the paper prospects the future research direction of plant cytoskeleton and the possible research hotspot, which provides a certain reference for people to continue to explore the function of plant cytoskeleton in the future.
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 109-121; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.92006
Heavy infection of the virus leads to overproduction of cytokines. The overproduction of cytokine (cytokines storms) is responsible for the critical cases and deaths of COVID-19. The nuclear factor kappa-B stimulates the expression of the genes, which is responsible for cytokines storm and RNA transcription. The COVID-19 virus can be controlled by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B. Nuclear factor kappa-B is controlled by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and inhibitor kappa-B kinase enzyme.
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 14-28; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.91002
While micronuclei (MN) store extranuclear DNA and cause genome instability, the effects of nuclear envelope (NE) assembly defects associated with MN on genome instability remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the NE protein distribution in MN using HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Under the standard condition and two pharmacological culture conditions, we found that three types of NE protein assemblies were associated with MN: 1) intact NE assembly, in which both core and non-core NE proteins were evenly present; 2) type I assembly, in which only core NE proteins were detectable; and 3) type II assembly in which a region deficient for both core and non-core NE proteins existed and a pattern recognition receptor, cyclic guanosine monophos-phate-adenosine monophosphate synthase, was frequently detected. Our findings provide experimental settings and a method of grouping MN-associated NE defects, which may be helpful for researchers who are interested in regulation of genome and nuclear organization relevant to cancer development.
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 100-108; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.92005
The expression of cancer is similar to processes that in unicellular organisms grant convenient properties, such as immortality. The presence of oncogenes and proteins in viruses, protozoa and invertebrates is recognized. The study of these characters, at each biological level, represents the way to establish phylogenetic relationships. In unicellular and colonial organisms these characters provide the courage to face a threat. In humans they are inactive and return to express themselves only if there is potential chronic damage. Then they modulate other genes that will respond to the cellular aggressor, leading to unicellular immortality (cancer). It is relevant to evaluate the final or teleological origin of the cancer, which is not currently known. This review provides a theory that would explain why a normal cell becomes neoplastic. Molecular Phylogeny is the final teleological mechanism, whereby transformed cells recapitulate the expression of genes and their products, through molecular maneuvers that assist in responding to adverse factors, referred to as epidemiological levels as risk factors. Self-replication remains the first objective of life on earth. The teleological cause of cancer encompasses this phylogenetic mechanism of damage response. Therefore, I conclude that the final origin of cancer may be a biological adaptation mechanism, called molecular phylogeny. If this theory is verified, it could fill the gap that currently persists on the teleological origin of cancer.
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 1-13; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.91001
Cell fleeing from death phenomenon occurs as either complete or incomplete; the phenomenon is incomplete fleeing from death when cell blocks intrinsic death program only. But, it becomes complete fleeing from death if the cell successfully blocks the pathway of intrinsic and extrinsic programs of cell death. This phenomenon is induced by the formation of hydrogen peroxide which activates nuclear factor kappa B. The nuclear factor-kappa B stimulates the expression of several genes, to produces 6 factors (BcL-2, Muc-1, MMPs, DcR3, Muc-4, muc-16, and TNF-α). Such factors act as blockers of the pathway of intrinsic and extrinsic programs of cell death. These blockers convert normal cell to a cancer cell. If these blockers are removed, the death programs of cancer cells will run again and cancer will disappear.
CellBio, Volume 9, pp 123-141; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2020.93007
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are tissue-specific cells giving rise to all mature blood cell types regulated by a diverse group of hematopoietic cytokines and growth factors that influences the survival & proliferation of early progenitors and differentiation mechanisms by modulating the functional activities of HSCs. In this study, the functional yet distinctive role of three novel combinations of gene pairs RRAGC & PSMC2; CKAP4 & MANF; and CTR9 & CNTNAP2 have been newly identified. These novel combinations of genes were confirmed and expressed in K562 human leukemic cell line in the presence of cytokine combination (IL-3, FLT-3 and SCF) using RT-PCR and siRNA-mediated gene knock down strategy. This study signifies the synergistic role of gene pairs in different molecular activities like ubiquitination or proteasomal degradation, calcium mobilization, dopamine signaling.
CellBio, Volume 8, pp 53-65; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2019.84004
Cypermethrin (Cym) is a synthetic class II pyrethroid that is widely used and has a big risk to health. Cypermethrin produces oxidative stress and enhances inflammatory damage of liver. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effects of NSe against Cym-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, twenty four male rats were divided into three groups. Group (I) was gavaged with Cym (control group), group (II) gavaged daily with Cym (1 mg/kg body weight), and group (III) gavaged with Cym + NSe (2.5 mg kg body weight/day, three times a week) for 21 days. Cypermethrin increased serum liver enzymes, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Administration of NSe significantly reduced the increased serum liver enzymes and inflammatory parameters and restored the antioxidant capacity in liver. Our results suggest that Nse exhibits promising hepato-protective effects against Cym-induced oxidative damage and inflammation.
CellBio, Volume 8, pp 41-51; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2019.83003
The ultrastructure of apical meristem cells was studied in Triticum aestivum L. cv. “Trizo” seedlings grown on soil without or enriched with selenium and survived 14 days’ stress caused by lead pollution in the soil. The soil treatments: control—the original soil; (Pb1)—50 mg·kg−1; (Pb2)—100 mg·kg−1; (Pb1 + Se1) —0.4 mg·kg−1 Se added to Pb1 treated soil; (Pb1 + Se2)—0.8 mg·kg−1 Se added to Pb1 treated soil; (Pb2 + Se1)—0.4 mg·kg−1 Se added to Pb2 treated soil; (Pb2 + Se2)—0.8 mg·kg−1 Se added to Pb2 treated soil were used. Light and other conditions were optimal for plant growth. A distinctive feature of the cells of the apical meristem of control plants was the absence of nuclear membranes. Proplastids were membrane vesicles 1 - 2 microns in diameter, filled with contents of varying degrees of density, from membrane vesicles containing only plastid DNA up to a fully formed structure of proplastids. In (Pb1)-plants, the amount of cytoplasmic ribosomes and proplastids in the meristematic cells was less than in the control. The structure of the forming proplastids was almost the same as that of the control plants. Signs of degradation of meristematic proplastids, such as a decrease of their diameter, observed in (Pb2)-plants. The introduction of selenium into lead contaminated soil increased the accumulation of Pb in plants, especially in the roots and apical meristem. In (Pb1 + Se1)-, (Pb1 + Se2)-, (Pb2 + Se1)-, and (Pb2 + Se2)-plants, the number of cytoplasmic ribosomes in meristematic cells increased, which indirectly indicates an increase in protein synthesis. Based on our concept about the formation (assembly) of proplastids in the cells of the apical meristem, we believe that toxic agents, such as lead, which inhibit the development of proplastids into chloroplasts in mesophyll cells, act on apical meristem cells at the stage when plastid DNA is replicated in the cytoplasm and is not yet surrounded by a plastid membrane.
CellBio, Volume 8, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/cellbio.2019.81001