Nature Medicine

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ISSN / EISSN : 1078-8956 / 1546-170X
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 13,107
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, Andrea L. Benedet, Nicholas J. Ashton, Min Su Kang, , Mira Chamoun, Melissa Savard, Firoza Z. Lussier, Cécile Tissot, Thomas K. Karikari, et al.
Published: 15 October 2021
, Emma Pritchard, , , David W. Eyre, , , , John I. Bell, John N. Newton, et al.
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines against new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections requires continuous re-evaluation, given the increasingly dominant B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of these vaccines in a large, community-based survey of randomly selected households across the United Kingdom. We found that the effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 against infections (new polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive cases) with symptoms or high viral burden is reduced with the B.1.617.2 variant (absolute difference of 10–13% for BNT162b2 and 16% for ChAdOx1) compared to the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant. The effectiveness of two doses remains at least as great as protection afforded by prior natural infection. The dynamics of immunity after second doses differed significantly between BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1, with greater initial effectiveness against new PCR-positive cases but faster declines in protection against high viral burden and symptomatic infection with BNT162b2. There was no evidence that effectiveness varied by dosing interval, but protection was higher in vaccinated individuals after a prior infection and in younger adults. With B.1.617.2, infections occurring after two vaccinations had similar peak viral burden as those in unvaccinated individuals. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination still reduces new infections, but effectiveness and attenuation of peak viral burden are reduced with B.1.617.2.
Karen O’Leary
Published: 14 October 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Karen O’Leary
Published: 14 October 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Damaris Kinyoki, Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman, Natalia V. Bhattacharjee, Lauren E. Schaeffer, Alice Lazzar-Atwood, Dan Lu, Samuel B. Ewald, Katie M. Donkers, Ian D. Letourneau, Michael Collison, et al.
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Anemia is a globally widespread condition in women and is associated with reduced economic productivity and increased mortality worldwide. Here we map annual 2000–2018 geospatial estimates of anemia prevalence in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) across 82 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stratify anemia by severity and aggregate results to policy-relevant administrative and national levels. Additionally, we provide subnational disparity analyses to provide a comprehensive overview of anemia prevalence inequalities within these countries and predict progress toward the World Health Organization’s Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) to reduce anemia by half by 2030. Our results demonstrate widespread moderate improvements in overall anemia prevalence but identify only three LMICs with a high probability of achieving the WHO GNT by 2030 at a national scale, and no LMIC is expected to achieve the target in all their subnational administrative units. Our maps show where large within-country disparities occur, as well as areas likely to fall short of the WHO GNT, offering precision public health tools so that adequate resource allocation and subsequent interventions can be targeted to the most vulnerable populations.
T. Jake Liang
Published: 12 October 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Meenakshi J.
Published: 12 October 2021
Nature Medicine, Volume 27, pp 1656-1658; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01528-x

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Shaun Cordoba, Shimobi Onuoha, Simon Thomas, Daniela Soriano Pignataro, Rachael Hough, , Ajay Vora, Denise Bonney, Paul Veys, Kanchan Rao, et al.
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting CD19 or CD22 have shown remarkable activity in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The major cause of treatment failure is antigen downregulation or loss. Dual antigen targeting could potentially prevent this, but the clinical safety and efficacy of CAR T cells targeting both CD19 and CD22 remain unclear. We conducted a phase 1 trial in pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-ALL (n = 15) to test AUTO3, autologous transduced T cells expressing both anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 CARs (AMELIA trial, EUDRA CT 2016-004680-39). The primary endpoints were the incidence of grade 3–5 toxicity in the dose-limiting toxicity period and the frequency of dose-limiting toxicities. Secondary endpoints included the rate of morphological remission (complete response or complete response with incomplete bone marrow recovery) with minimal residual disease-negative response, as well as the frequency and severity of adverse events, expansion and persistence of AUTO3, duration of B cell aplasia, and overall and event-free survival. The study endpoints were met. AUTO3 showed a favorable safety profile, with no dose-limiting toxicities or cases of AUTO3-related severe cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity reported. At 1 month after treatment the remission rate (that is, complete response or complete response with incomplete bone marrow recovery) was 86% (13 of 15 patients). The 1 year overall and event-free survival rates were 60% and 32%, respectively. Relapses were probably due to limited long-term AUTO3 persistence. Strategies to improve CAR T cell persistence are needed to fully realize the potential of dual targeting CAR T cell therapy in B-ALL.
Patrick Bodilly Kane, Merlin Bittlinger,
Published: 12 October 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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