Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics

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ISSN / EISSN : 2079-6021 / 2619-029X
Total articles ≅ 355
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, Iosif A. Sternin
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-228-239

Abstract:
This article deals with the problem of the semantics of proper names. It is stated that onyms, in addition to lexicographic meanings recorded in toponymic dictionaries, also have psycholinguistic meanings. Lexicographic meanings are traditionally described in dictionaries in accordance with the principle of reductionism, which involves minimizing the features included in the meaning with a limited volume of the dictionary entry. Numerous experiments have allowed us to discover a new kind of meaning, which we call psycholinguistic. Psycholinguistic meaning is a meaning that is actually represented in the linguistic consciousness of native speakers of a particular language. The psycholinguistic meaning is identified and described in accordance with the algorithm developed by us in 5 stages: 1) conducting psycholinguistic experiments 2) constructing associative fields of word-stimuli, which are a set of associative responses to verbal stimuli, ordered in descending order of frequency, obtained during psycholinguistic experiments 3) semantic interpretation of associative fields and identification of semantic components 4) sememic attribution of semes and the formulation of the final psycholinguistic meaning 5) contrastive analysis, it includes a comparison of regional variants of psycholinguistic meanings. In this article, this algorithm is described by analyzing the semantics of the toponym “Voronezh”. The psycholinguistic meaning of the toponym “Voronezh” was revealed as a result of semantic interpretation of the data obtained during psycholinguistic experiments in Voronezh and Grozny. The brightness indices of semantic components and sememes, according to which their field affiliation is determined, are calculated. False semes were detected. A comparative analysis of regional (Voronezh and Grozny) variants of meanings with each other, as well as with the lexicographic meaning of the toponym “Voronezh”, recorded in the dictionary of E. M. Pospelov, is carried out.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-151-161

Abstract:
The active development of cooperation between the friendly peoples of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China requires intensified training of specialists capable of ensuring intercultural communication between citizens of China, Russia and other Commonweath of Independent States members. In accordance with modern linguodidactics, the development of a foreign language should be linked with culture studies, which ensure the development of the linguistic and cultural competences. It is essential that Russian students fully understand cultural meanings of China’s state symbols. The paper proves the need to acquaint Russian students studying Chinese language and culture with the state symbols of the People’s Republic of China (flag, coat of arms and anthem) at the initial stage of training. It is important that Russian students fully understand the cultural meanings of the state symbols of modern China, the country that is proud of its history and looks boldly into the future. Didactic materials that can be used in the classroom on the topic “State Emblem of the People’s Republic of China”, as well as additional materials for educational or extracurricular activities are presented in the study. Comparable components of Chinese and Russian (Soviet) state symbols, their national and historical features are highlighted in the paper as confirmation of the prospects of using the comparative principle in the classroom with Russian students.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-212-227

Abstract:
Paradox is one of the most mysterious and interesting phenomena, which is found in all languages and is studied in logical-philosophical, general linguistic, stylistic, rhetorical and aesthetic aspects. The reflection of nonsense on the real, logical relations of things inevitably leads to the linguistic norms violation. When the inconsistency of the linguistic norm brakes the conventional sense making schemes, resulting in an unusual and unexpected interpretation, paradox arises. Linguistic processes under the influence of the paradox in a fiction text acquire a special logic and meaning. The aim of the article is to identify and investigate the linguistic mechanism by which paradoxes are created and realized in the text of a fiction work; to consider the paradox as a means of meanings formation in the fiction text. The study was conducted at different linguistic levels: syntactic, lexico-grammatical, semantic, graphic, stylistic. The article focuses on the actualization of the contradiction in the fiction work, carried out at all linguistic levels in the form of compositional-syntactic or stylistic-morphological opposition. Linguistic means in together with the identified types of paradoxes create a unique storyline of the work under study. The paradox is considered as an artistic device to reveal the nature of the characters, situations, to achieve against the background of the contradiction in the fiction work a comic effect, implementing the subtle irony of the author. A special method of creating ambiguity is word play, leading to the game with the meaning, which can be both true and false. Playing with meaning generates imagery. This is proved by the presence of a variety of stylistic figures in the text of the fiction work, bright unusual metaphors, phraseological units. It was revealed that the moment of paradox realization in the fiction text coincides with the appearance of metaphors. Metaphorical thinking combines the absurd and logical, associating cognitive structures of past experience and new information, creating additional meanings. It is proved that paradox, like metaphor, possesses a unique potential for sense-making, and is a powerful stimulus for cognitive and creative activity.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-115-127

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the concept of “Antichrist” in the language picture of the world by D. S. Merezhkovsky. The relevance of the study is due to the significant role of the writer in the literature of the late 19th-early 20th century and the dominance of religious and philosophical ideas in his work. The work is aimed at identifying the specifics of the implementation of the concept of “Antichrist” as one of the key concepts for D.S. Merezhkovsky, analyzing its structure and main representations. The material for the study was the text of the novel “Peter and Alexey”, which was studied using the methods of component, frame and distributional analysis. The paper considers three layers of the concept: the outer layer, which corresponds to the biblical text and represents an literary reconstruction of the eschatological popular consciousness of the 23th and 18th centuries, the middle layer, which contains the idea of Peter as the Antichrist, and the deep layer, formed by the idea of the Antichrist as an entity inextricably linked with Christ in the struggle and unity at the same time. As a result of comparison with one of the first texts that allows us to reconstruct this concept, the Revelation of St. John the Baptist. The differentiating features that make up the peculiarity of the implementation of the concept of “Antichrist” in the text under study are highlighted. It is determined that the outer layer of the concept has a frame structure, and the slots included in it are identified. The semes included in the middle layer of the concept, which has a field structure, are analyzed, the organizing dominant and distributional connections between individual semes are established, which allow combining them into hypersemes. The togetherness of the signification in the third, deep layer of the concept of “Antichrist’s beginning” and “Christ’s beginning” is revealed, which is especially clearly manifested in the fragments that have a mystical character. Based on the analysis of the concept of “Antichrist”, which is widely and variously represented in the text of the novel” Peter and Alexey”, the author concludes that it affects the text and the system of images.
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-137-150

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the consideration of cognitive principles that justify the concept of introducing knowledge about ethnic variants of the German language into the educational process. The presented problem is relevant in connection with the need of modern society in personnel possessing cross-cultural communication skills, including the use of relevant language structures reflecting language variability. The dynamics of national language contacts encourages the development of methodological foundations for teaching linguistic and cultural differences at the lexical level. The stated topic involves consideration of the mental processes that determine the assimilation of language knowledge and their use in communication. The aim of the work is to formulate the cognitive principles of pluricentric knowledge assimilation in the framework of the intercultural competence formation. In the linguistic part of the work, the methods of comparative and conceptual analysis are used in the study of factual material. The didactic component of the study is based on the awareness of the learning process from the standpoint of cognitive processes responsible for the processing and assimilation of various types of information. The use of logical methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of observation implemented in the course of experimental work, made it possible to create a pluricentrically-oriented concept of teaching German. The pluricentricity of the German language is realized in the existence of the Austrian and Swiss national variants. As a result of the study, the cognitive principles of introducing knowledge about German language variants into the educational process were formulated: consideration of the importance of the transition from the sensory stage of cognition to the rational one and the need for the formation of individual cognitive models and strategies that optimize the assimilation of territorial differences. The set of exercises and tasks developed in the course of the experimental work includes language, adaptive and real speech exercises and tasks aimed at the formation of cross-cultural competence within the framework of the development of lexical skills.
Larisa G. Khoreva
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-262-271

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of metaphor as a basic constant of Spanish fictional discourse. The article deals with the peculiarities of the functioning of the Spanish fictional discourse, due to the specifics of historical development and the peculiarities of geographical location. The relevance of the study is due to the importance of considering the national and cultural specifics. Special attention is paid to the formation of the national picture of the world. The overview of the concepts of “picture of the world”, “ fictional discourse”, “metaphor” is given. The subject of the study is the texts of modern Spanish-language authors as J.J. Millas, Antonio Pometa, Pepa Merlo, Sara Mesa, Javier Mesa, Berta Marce. The above-mentioned authors actively use metaphor in their works, emphasizing a number of moments from the life of their characters, the peculiarities of their worldview, revealing a new implicit meaning inherent in the texts. The author of the article shows that metaphors become a basic constant of the Spanish fictional discourse, because of Spanish culture, being by its nature a culture of the hidden type, strives at all times of its existence to create works with a hidden meaning that require decoding and interpretation on the part of the reader. The Spanish authors create riddle texts with different readings and answers to the questions posed. The active use of metaphors determines the careful selection of vocabulary, showing the peculiarities of the national and cultural consciousness of the Spanish nation, which is prone to increased expressiveness of fictional discourse. The metaphor becomes not just a trope in the literary text, but the model that connects together different levels of the text space, being a semantic reflection of the model and picture of the world of Spanish authors.
Olga A. Dmitrieva, Dmitry Yu. Gulinov
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-39-48

Abstract:
The article examines the systemic features of the subgenre of “chain letters” – “Advance-fee scam”, which meets the criteria of anonymity, surprise and manipulativeness. The nomination “Advance-fee scam” was fixed for this type of letter thanks to their authors, financial scammers offering the recipients of letters fraudulent financial transactions with the aim of subsequently extorting money. The work revealed that the senders of the advance-fee scam are identified based on the similarity of general features, characteristics and behavior patterns, as a result of which they can be attributed to typified individuals. In the course of the research, the conceptual, figurative and value characteristics of the “financial scammer” type are highlighted. At the conceptual level, the lexeme “scammer” has a rich synonymic range, characterized by expressiveness and negative connotations. The figurative characteristic is determined by the type of male or female at the age of 30 years old. To determine the value attributes of the typed identity of the fraudster, a survey was carried out, which made it possible to identify the attitude of the carriers of today’s linguistic culture to the linguistic personality of the financial scammer studied in the article. In addition, the article notes that the main strategy of fraudsters determines their communicative behavior, in which a series of different verbal means are used to achieve the goal - to obtain material benefits through deception. The material of the study was a collection of authentic chain letters in Russian, English and French, received by the authors in the period from May 2020.
, Sophia Ch. Lipiridi
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-49-59

Abstract:
The article studies the linguocultural aspect of the emergence of the coronavirus pandemic neologisms. The similarities and differences between the English and Russian vocabulary of the coronavirus pandemic, generated by the specifics of the cultural code of intercultural communication participants, are analyzed. The relevance of the study is ensured by the continuous expansion of the coronavirus pandemic vocabulary, the permanent interest of linguists in the most popular part of the neological discourse of the English and Russian languages, the need for a scientific interpretation of collective experience reflected in the coronavirus pandemic vocabulary. The objective of the article is a linguistic and cultural analysis of the English and Russian coronavirus pandemic vocabulary to identify the peculiarities of the mindset of these neologisms’ creators in the definitions and contextual field of the given examples. The material of the study is the lexical units used in the speech of the inhabitants of the English-speaking (Great Britain, Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia, India, South Africa) and the Russian-speaking areas recorded on the Internet. The fundamental research method is linguoculturological analysis supplemented by stylistic, semantic-axiological, comparative and componential analyzes. The role of the borrowing factor in compiling the corpus of the coronavirus pandemic vocabulary is also investigated. The regional specifics of lexical units that reflect the consequences of the spread of the disease is revealed. In particular, the article considers the specificity of the reflection of the emergence of new values on the stylistic layer of these neologisms in both Russian and English speeches.
Vanda S. Arutyunian
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-71-86

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of identifying new cultural meanings that have enriched the linguistic world-image under the influence of the 2020 pandemic. In the process of evolutional development of any society, new cultural meanings arise, which are permanently fixed in the language and carry a special cultural-historical and phsycoemotional load. The purpose of this study is to analyze the most frequently identified cultural-semantic components of the linguistic world-image during the 2020 pandemic. As a research material, the author considers economic discourse as a platform that allows to trace the main vectors of media discourse development in the period of difficult economic situation, due to the fact that the economic sector of life was most exposed to the negative impact of the pandemic and acts as a kind of litmus of the psychoemotional mood of society. As the main research method, the method of critical discourse analysis, developed by, N. Fairclough is used which allows to define the communicative functions of the language as a verbal sign system, and also qualitatively demonstrates the main trends that affect the formation of new cultural meanings in the language. The analysis of examples from English-language printed publications, as well as electronic resources displaying the activities of global economic organizations, allowed to identify the main vectors of the information space around which the media focuses, containing such terminological concepts as “coronavirus pandemic”, “Covid-19”, “economic crisis”, “recession”, “national lockdown”, “poverty rising”, “vaccination”. Based on the obtained data, conclusions are drawn about the fixation of new cultural meanings in the linguistic world-image, which carry a negative connotation and can be for the purpose nominated as “critical stress”, “virus-culprit”, “virus-destroyer”, “disease-crisis”, at the same time, the duality of the nature of the listed cultural and semantic elements is noted. Along with this, the fixation of the cultural meaning “vaccine-saviour” which has a positive connotation, is revealed in linguistic world-image.
Sun Yunuo
Current Issues in Philology and Pedagogical Linguistics; https://doi.org/10.29025/2079-6021-2021-2-60-70

Abstract:
The paper studies the historical and cultural associative meanings of the lexeme BIRCH in the Russian culture and the lexeme BAMBOO in Chinese by analyzing the results of the perception process of these objects, their concepts and images by native speakers of the Russian and Chinese languages. The relevance of the research is due to the growing attention of modern linguistics to comparative cultural studies, including the number of comparative works on the Russian and Chinese languages, the importance of describing linguistic and cultural differences for the development of international economic and cultural relations between China and Russia. The research material involves phraseological units, proverbs, myths, poems and literary works, as well as historical materials, customs and traditions of the two nations. This paper uses research methods such as descriptive, contextual, comparative, the method of component analysis and cognitive modeling. As a result, it was determined that birch occupies a significant place in the Russian culture with the meanings of “motherland”, “mother”, “woman”, “bride”, “girl”. Bamboo in Chinese has only positive connotations, including “unshakable quality”, “spiritual purity”, “humble character”, “high aspirations.” It is concluded that birch as a symbol of Russia is a lacunar concept in the Chinese culture, while bamboo as the personification of a “perfect gentleman” in Chinese has no cultural connotation in Russian. Despite mismatched meanings in two languages, birch and bamboo must be recognized as equivalents in terms of cultural significance and the high frequency of symbolic use in poetry and other precedent texts.
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