Open Journal of Immunology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-450X / 2162-4526
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 145
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

Ghada El-Saeed Mashaly, Samah Sabry El-Kazzaz, Mayada S. Zeid
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 10, pp 10-20; doi:10.4236/oji.2020.101002

Abstract:
Early diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pediatric patients is a prob-lem due to the absence of specific symptoms and difficulty in obtaining the proper urine sample. These difficulties increase the need for effective biomarker for UTI diagnosis in young patients. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is proved to be a marker for UTI diagnosis. YKL-40 is a glycosyl hydrolase which is produced locally at the sites of inflammation. The objective of our study is to assess the value of YKL-40 as a possible marker for UTI diagnosis in febrile children and to compare its value versus NGAL. Urine culture was used as a gold standard for UTI diagnosis. The study enrolled three groups; febrile children with positive urine culture, febrile children with negative urine culture, and controls without fever and with negative urine culture. Each group included 50 children from patients attended outpatients clinics department of Mansoura University Children Hospital. For each patient enrolled in the study, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, routine urine analysis and urine culture were assessed. Using ELISA test, urine values of NGAL (uNGAL) and YKL-40 (uYKL-40) were measured and normalized to urine creatinine (uNGAL/uCr) and (uYKL40/uCr) respectively. The values of uNGAL, uYKL-40, uNGAL/Cr and uYKL-40/Cr were significantly higher in febrile UTI group. The receiver operating curve (ROC) show the optimum cut off value for urine YKL-40 (171.5 pg) with 84% senstivity, 82% specificity and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.95. The optimum cutoff value of uYKL-40/Cr was (159.2 pg/mg) with 72% sensitivity, 71% specificity and 0.81 AUC. Higher sensitivity and specificity of uYKL-40 and uYKL40/Cr compared to uNGAL and uNGAL/Cr respectively were observed. In conclusion, the diagnostic value of uYKL-40 is superior to that of uNGAL. Urine YKL-40 could be a good marker for diagnosis of UTI in febrile pediatric patients.
Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima Luana, Siqueira Moura Letícia, Leticia Pinto Paz Jasna, Do Perpétuo Socorro Amador Silvestre Maria, Melo Sardinha Daniele, Diogo De Oliveira Moura Letícia, Valéria Batista Lima Karla, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, Letícia Siqueira Moura, Jasna Leticia Pinto Paz, et al.
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 10, pp 37-46; doi:10.4236/oji.2020.103004

Abstract:
Leprosy is an immunopathology caused by M. leprae; its evolution depends on immunological and genetic aspects of the host. The objective was verifying the relationship between SNPs 2029 and 2258 of the TLR-2 gene and leprosy. Blood samples from 127 individuals were analyzed: 45 patients, being 34 multibacillary (MB) and 11 paucibacillary (PB) and 82 contacts, in the municipalities of the State of Pará-Brazil. SNPs 2029 and 2258 of the TLR-2 gene were genotyped by sequencing on the ABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems), analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. Distribution of SNP 2029 genotypes: all MB individuals presented the C/C genotype and the mutant (C/T) genotype was observed in contacts and PB. Alleles: all MB individuals presented only C allele and the mutant allele (T) was observed in contacts and PB. SNP 2258 genotypes: 79 contacts had G/G genotype and only 3 had G/A genotype, the MB group had only G/G genotype and the PB group was predominant G/G, with only 1 G/A genotype. Alleles: all MB individuals had allele G and the mutant allele (A) was observed in contacts and PB. The association between the SNPs and the susceptibility or protection to leprosy was not observed.
John M. González, William J. Shelton, Manuel Díaz-Vallejo, Victoria E. Rodriguez-Castellanos, Juan Diego H. Zuluaga, Diego F. Chamorro, Daniel Arroyo-Ariza
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 10, pp 21-35; doi:10.4236/oji.2020.102003

Maria Do Perpétuo Socorro Amador Silvestre, Maxwell Furtado De Lima, Antônio G. P. Pereira, Aline Rodrigues Bernardo, Rafaela Lopes Diniz, Pedro Paulo Ferreira Ribeiro, Edimílson Domingos Da Silva, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 10, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/oji.2020.101001

Abstract:
Introduction: In the Americas, Brazil contributes 91.63% of the total cases and the state of Pará still has high endemia for leprosy. Objective: To analyze the performance of a rapid test for the diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of leprosy in endemic areas. Methods: The sample consisted of 70 MB multibacillary leprosy (MB) patients, 63 paucibacillary (PB) patients, and 80 intradomiciliary consanguineous contacts (ICSCO) of patients. A rapid test with a 15-minute reading was applied using two prototypes: prototype 1, double test with trisaccharide antigen (NT-P-BSA) at 1a. line (83.2 ng/test) and disaccharide antigen (ND-O-BSA) at 2a. (83.2 ng/test), both with a flow of 0.08 μL/mm with a 10 μC membrane, anti-IgM conjugate with a flow of 0.040 μL/mm and a Tris-Triton and prototype 2 runner buffer with MIX antigen (trisaccharide + disaccharide) in the same concentrations and conditions of prototype 1. Results: The comparison of the MIX test positivity rate and the disaccharide or trisaccharide doublet test across all samples was statistically significant, demonstrating that the MIX test had higher seropositivity rates compared to the ND-O-BSA or NT-P-BSA. It was demonstrated that the MIX test showed a good performance, with 25.39% of the PB patients negative for the disaccharide and trisaccharide duplet test, but positive for MIX. Conclusions: These data suggest the potential for further optimizing the performance by adding other synthetic antigens to the MIX antigens.
Laura M. Reyes, Miriam Lastre, Maribel Cuello, Osmir Cabrera, Yusnaby Borrego, Raúl Ramos Pupo, Steve Black, Oliver Pérez
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 10, pp 47-58; doi:10.4236/oji.2020.103005

Abstract:
Introduction: Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize mucosal surfaces. Of the 11 species that colonize humans, only two are pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Both are obligate human pathogens; the last is causal agent of gonorrhea disease. Although curable with timely antibiotic treatment, an annual incidence of more than 62 million cases is estimated by the World Health Organization and there are no successful vaccines available. In contrast, several prophylactic vaccine options for Neisseria meningitidis meningitis do exist. Of note, there is trace of cross parenteral response induced between N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, and Proteoliposome (PL, also named outer membrane vesicles, OMV) vaccine has shown high impact on this response. Objective: To determine effect of VAMENGOC-BC? and its derivates (AFPL1 and AFCo1) at mucosal and systemic level and possible cross response against Neisseria gonhorroeae in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Methods: We evaluated cross response against N. gonorrhoeae in mouse serum IgG and saliva IgA after mucosal immunization with VA-MENGOC-BC or its derivatives (AF, Adjuvant Finlay PL1 or AFCo (cochleate) 1). Results: Immunizations with AFPL1 or AFCo1 induce anti N. gonorrhoeae at saliva IgA and serum IgG responses similar to VA-MENGOC-BC? vaccine. Conclusions: Such data confirms a new possible window of prime-boost vaccination strategy against gonorrhea and extends our knowledge regarding the effect of PL vaccines on cross responses.
Zilkifil Abulhassan, Binta G. Kurfi, Sulaiman Sadi Ibrahim, Daha Umar Ishaq, Muhammad Mahe Mukthar
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 9, pp 29-35; doi:10.4236/oji.2019.93003

Abstract:
Resistance to currently available insecticides in the major malaria vectors like Anopheles coluzzii is seriously reducing the effectiveness of core vector control tools. Overexpression of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) has been implicated in insecticides resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. To identify the potential role of ABC transporters in pyrethroids resistance in this work, we use verapamil-a p-glycoprotein inhibitor in a synergist bioassay with pyrethroids on one An. coluzzii populations from northern Nigeria. Genomic DNA extraction and SINE 200 PCR established that the Anopheles s. l. from Auyo, Jigawa State was An. coluzzii. Pre-exposure to verapamil followed by Permethrin results in 0.12% knockdown after 1 hour exposure and 10.7% mortality after 24 hours, which was higher than that for permethrin alone, but not statistically significant. This bioassay result reveals that ABC transporters possibly do not contribute to the resistance.
Folly Mawulolo Gaba, Babacar Mbengue, Maimouna Diop, Doudou Diouf, Sidy Ka, Doudou Georges Massar Niang, Ramatoulaye Ndiaye, Ibrahima Mounkeila Seydou, Jean Pascal Demba Diop, Moustapha Mbow, et al.
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 9, pp 37-47; doi:10.4236/oji.2019.94004

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in female populations. It is a virally induced carcinoma resulting from sexually transmitted high risk Human Papillomavirus infections (e.g. HPV-16, HPV-18). Previous studies have shown associations between IL-17A levels in cancer micro-environments and metastasis of tumor cells. In Africa, chemotherapy (CT) is the standard first-line treatment for cervical cancer and the prognosis remains poor for metastatic and recurrent cases. The impact of CT as a treatment option is still unclear. We investigated the prognostic relevance of IL-17A profiles in Cervical cancer patients (CP) patients treated with cisplatin in combination with 5-fluouracil (5FU) for three cycles. Methods: The study included 57 CP and 59 women with no history of malignancy as healthy controls (HC). IL-17A plasma levels were evaluated by ELISA. For each CP, three blood samples were collected at three-week intervals before initiation of the chemotherapy protocol. Results: Before chemotherapy CP showed higher serum levels of IL-17A compared to HCs (p = 0.035). No relation was detected between age and IL-17A levels. We observed a significant increase in serum IL-17A during treatment of the CP group (p
Abulhassan Zilkifil, G. Kurfi Binta, Sadi Ibrahim Sulaiman, Umar Ishaq Daha, Mahe Mukthar Muhammad, Zilkifil Abulhassan, Binta G. Kurfi, Sulaiman Sadi Ibrahim, Daha Umar Ishaq, Muhammad Mahe Mukthar
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 9, pp 29-35; doi:10.4236/oji.2019.93001

Abstract:
Resistance to currently available insecticides in the major malaria vectors like Anopheles coluzzii is seriously reducing the effectiveness of core vector control tools. Overexpression of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) has been implicated in insecticides resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. To identify the potential role of ABC transporters in pyrethroids resistance in this work, we use verapamil-a p-glycoprotein inhibitor in a synergist bioassay with pyrethroids on one An. coluzzii populations from northern Nigeria. Genomic DNA extraction and SINE 200 PCR established that the Anopheles s. l. from Auyo, Jigawa State was An. coluzzii. Pre-exposure to verapamil followed by Permethrin results in 0.12% knockdown after 1 hour exposure and 10.7% mortality after 24 hours, which was higher than that for permethrin alone, but not statistically significant. This bioassay result reveals that ABC transporters possibly do not contribute to the resistance.
Hilaire Djantio, Gilder Tonfack Temgoua, V. A. Njami, Serge Lombat, Rahim Seid Ndam, Louisiane Ngong Mbella, Bertrand Hugo Mbatchou Ngahane
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 9, pp 21-27; doi:10.4236/oji.2019.92002

Abstract:
Introduction: HIV infection is a public health issue. Developing countries are facing the challenge of patient populations that remain undiagnosed and under-served in combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) leading to opportunistic infections. Lymph node tuberculosis is one of the most common. His firm diagnosis is not always easy in resources limited country. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 35-year-old woman known HIV for the past 10 years but not on treatment. She presented with a four-month history of fatigue, weight loss and pain in the right flank. The diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis, hepatitis c virus infection and sickle cell disease was done. After 6 months of treatment, there was a favourable clinical evolution. Conclusion: This case report highlights the necessity to screen for opportunistic and non-opportunistic co-infection in HIV infected patient.
Samreen Soomro
Open Journal of Immunology, Volume 9, pp 1-20; doi:10.4236/oji.2019.91001

Abstract:
Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli. Debilitating diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer are the biggest pharmacological hurdles of today. Targeting inflammation is a broad task, since many mediators are involved in onset of particular disease. Among these many mediators, the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by macrophages and neutrophils are of great interest because of their major contribution in establishment of chronic inflammation and cancer. This review elaborates the pathogenesis of inflammation based on involvement of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the activation of signalling cascades in response to oxidative stress. Understanding this would eventually give a clue for target based therapeutic approach in search of new effective anti-inflammatory drugs.
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