Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 0937-0633 / 1432-1130
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Yi-Wei Weng, Xiao-Di Hu, Lan Jiang, Qin-Ling Shi,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03521-2

Abstract:
An all-in-one nanosensor was developed for the magnetic enrichment and ratiometric surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The all-in-one nanosensor was constructed through the chemical integration of four components into a single nanoparticle, which include a manganese ferrite nanoparticle serving as the magnetic core, a thin silver shell as the SERS substrate, a self-assembled layer of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) molecules as the SERS internal standard, and a MBA-conjugated layer of aptamer sequences as the capture probe of E. coli. In the detection of E. coli in food, the target cells were first captured by the nanosensors and magnetically enriched in a short time of 15 min, and then the ratiometric SERS was performed through the Raman intensity ratio between two specific SERS peaks produced by the captured E. coli and the internal MBA. The pre-concentration and ratiometry enabled the nanosensor to detect E. coli with a detection limit down to 10 CFU/mL. The all-in-one nanosensor was successfully applied for the detection of E. coli in various liquid foods including milk, juice, tea, and coffee, with recoveries ranging from 89 to 110% and relative standard deviation lower than 1.7%. In comparison with the previous sandwich strategy adopted by most SERS sensors, this nanosensor endowed with an easier use and a lower cost is more sensitive and reproducible, leading to a great potential in practical applications.
Chengyu Zheng, Qinan Zhou, Zhenhe Wang,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-10; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03556-5

Abstract:
In recent years, the invasive cypress bark beetle (Phloeosinus aubei) has caused extensive damage to Platycladus orientalis plants in China, but its infestation is hard to monitor in the early stages. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was initially employed to investigate the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of P. aubei-infested P. orientalis saplings. The emissions of total sesquiterpenes were dominating (84−86% of total VOCs) and increased by 3.09-fold in P. aubei-damaged P. orientalis samples compared to undamaged samples, and the monoterpenes, aromatic compounds, and ketone emissions also had varying degrees of increase between 1.39-fold and 5.65-fold. Based on this variation, gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) was applied, as an untargeted analytical approach, to discriminate P. orientalis samples with different invasive severity. Two different features derived from GC-IMS data were adopted as the input information for classification and prediction models. Results showed that grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM) combined with multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) based on spectral fingerprint achieved the best classification performances (> 88.98%), and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSR) method can accurately predict the pest numbers (R2 > 0.9423 and RMSE < 0.9827). In a word, the VOC profiling-based approach had the potential for evaluating P. aubei invasive severity and pest management.
Monique G. Mello, Mika T. Westerhausen, Prashina Singh, Philip A. Doble, ,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03536-9

Abstract:
Immuno-mass spectrometry imaging (iMSI) uses laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to determine the spatial expression of biomolecules in tissue sections following immunolabelling with antibodies conjugated to a metal reporter. As with all immunolabelling techniques, the binding efficiency of multiplexed staining can be affected by a number of factors including epitope blocking and other forms of steric hindrance. To date, the effects on the binding of metal-conjugated antibodies to their epitopes in a multiplexed analysis have yet to be quantitatively explored by iMSI. Here we describe a protocol to investigate the effects of multiplexing on reproducible binding using the muscle proteins, dystrophin, sarcospan, and myosin as a model, with antibodies conjugated with Maxpar® reagents before histological application to murine quadriceps sections using standard immunolabelling protocols and imaging with LA-ICP-MS. The antibodies were each individually applied to eight sections, and multiplexed to another eight sections. The average concentrations of the lanthanide analytes were determined, before statistical analyses found there was no significant difference between the individual and multiplexed application of the antibodies. These analyses provide a framework for ensuring reproducibility of antibody binding during multiplexed iMSI, which will allow quantitative exploration of protein-protein interactions and provide a greater understanding of fundamental biological processes during healthy and diseased states.
, Guoyong Wang, Song Yang, Pengfei Li,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-10; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03561-8

Abstract:
Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug that has received much attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019. GS-441524 (Nuc) is the active metabolite of remdesivir and plays a pivotal role in the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Here, a robust HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine Nuc concentrations in rat plasma samples after a one-step protein precipitation process. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters XBrige C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) under gradient elution conditions. Multiple reaction monitoring transitions in electrospray positive ion mode were m/z 292.2 → 163.2 for Nuc and 237.1 → 194.1 for the internal standard (carbamazepine). The quantitative analysis method was fully validated in line with the United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The linearity, accuracy and precision, matrix effect, recovery, and stability results met the requirements of the guidelines. Uncertainty of measurement and incurred sample reanalysis were analyzed to further ensure the robustness and reproducibility of the method. This optimized method was successfully applied in a rat pharmacokinetics study of remdesivir (intravenously administration, 5 mg kg−1). The method can act as a basis for further pharmacokinetic and clinical efficacy investigations in patients with COVID-19. Graphical abstract
Elisabeth Koch, Michelle Wiebel, Carolin Hopmann, Nadja Kampschulte,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-13; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03525-y

Abstract:
Analysis of fatty acids (FA) in food and biological samples such as blood is indispensable in modern life sciences. We developed a rapid, sensitive and comprehensive method for the quantification of 41 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by means of LC-MS. Optimized chromatographic separation of isobaric analytes was carried out on a C8 reversed phase analytical column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm core–shell particle) with a total run time of 15 min with back pressure lower than 300 bar. On an old triple quadrupole instrument (3200, AB Sciex), pseudo selected reaction monitoring mode was used for quantification of the poorly fragmenting FA, yielding limits of detection of 5–100 nM. Sample preparation was carried out by removal of phospholipids and triglycerides by solid-phase extraction (non-esterified fatty acids in oils) or saponification in iso-propanol (fatty acyls). This is not only a rapid strategy for quantification of fatty acyls, but allows the direct combination with the LC-MS-based analysis of fatty acid oxidation products (eicosanoids and other oxylipins) from the same sample. The concentrations of fatty acyls determined by means of LC-MS were consistent with those from GC-FID analysis demonstrating the accuracy of the developed method. Moreover, the method shows high precisions with a low intra-day (≤ 10% for almost all fatty acids in plasma and ≤ 15% in oils) and inter-day as well as inter-operator variability (< 20%). The method was successfully applied on human plasma and edible oils. The possibility to quantify non-esterified fatty acids in samples containing an excess of triacylglycerols and phospholipids is a major strength of the described approach allowing to gain new insights in the composition of biological samples. Graphical abstract
Correction
Sabrina Metze, Stefanie Blioch, Jens Matuszczyk, Gerhard Greller, Christian Grimm, Jochen Scholz,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-1; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03508-z

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-11; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03430-4

Abstract:
Detailed molecular analysis is of increasing importance in research into the regulation of biochemical pathways, organismal growth and disease. Lipidomics in particular is increasingly sought after as it provides insight into molecular species involved in energy storage, signalling and fundamental cellular structures. This has led to the use of a range of tools and techniques to acquire lipidomics data. 31P NMR for lipidomics offers well-resolved head group/lipid class analysis, structural data that can be used to inform and strengthen interpretation of mass spectrometry data and part of a priori structural determination. In the present study, we codify the use of 31P NMR for lipidomics studies to make the technique more accessible to new users and more useful for a wider range of questions. The technique can be used in isolation (phospholipidomics) or as a part of determining lipid composition (lipidomics). We describe the process from sample extraction to data processing and analysis. This pipeline is important because it allows greater thoroughness in lipidomics studies and increases scope for answering scientific questions about lipid-containing systems.
Delphine Zanella, Tiffany Liden, Jamie York, Flavio A. Franchina, Jean-François Focant,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-12; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03505-2

Abstract:
In the host, pathogenic microorganisms have developed stress responses to cope with constantly changing environments. Stress responses are directly related to changes in several metabolomic pathways, which could hamper microorganisms’ unequivocal identification. We evaluated the effect of various in vitro stress conditions (acidic, basic, oxidative, ethanolic, and saline conditions) on the metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are common lung pathogens. The metabolite profiles of the bacteria were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The advantages of targeted and untargeted analysis combined with univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, partial least square discriminant analysis, random forest) were combined to unequivocally identify bacterial species. In normal in vitro conditions, the targeted methodology, based on the analysis of primary metabolites, enabled the rapid and efficient discrimination of the three bacteria. In changing in vitro conditions and specifically in presence of the various stressors, the untargeted methodology proved to be more valuable for the global and accurate differentiation of the three bacteria, also considering the type of stress environment within each species. In addition, species-specific metabolites (i.e., fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and nucleotide bases derivatives) were putatively identified. Good intra-day repeatability and inter-day repeatability (< 10% RSD and < 15% RSD, respectively) were obtained for the targeted and the untargeted methods. This untargeted approach highlights its importance in unusual (and less known) bacterial growth environments, being a powerful tool for infectious disease diagnosis, where the accurate classification of microorganisms is sought.
Monica Mattarozzi, Lorenzo Toma, Alessandro Bertucci, Marco Giannetto,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-12; doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03501-6

Abstract:
An outlook on the current status of different strategies for magnetic micro- and nanosized bead functionalization with aptamers as prominent bioreceptors is given with a focus on electrochemical and optical apta-assays, as well as on aptamer-modified magnetic bead–based miniaturized extraction techniques in food control. Critical aspects that affect interaction of aptamers with target molecules, as well as the possible side effects caused by aptamer interaction with other molecules due to non-specific binding, are discussed. Challenges concerning the real potential and limitations of aptamers as bioreceptors when facing analytical problems in food control are addressed. Graphical abstract
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