Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 0937-0633 / 1432-1130
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 101,739
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Huai-Song Wang, Xingya Xia, Yingming Wang, Weiping Lyu, Mangmang Sang, Congcong Gu, ,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03669-x

Abstract:
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in the pathological processes of cancer metastasis and drug resistance. Anti-cancer drugs may also potentially lead to EMT, resulting in their reduced therapeutic effect. Therefore, the combination of these anti-cancer drugs with anti-EMT agents has been promoted in clinic. Screening anti-EMT drugs and evaluation of EMT process are highly dependent on EMT biomarkers on cell membrane. At present, the detection of EMT biomarker is mainly by Western blot method, which is time-consuming and complicated. In this work, for effectively screening anti-EMT drugs by evaluation of the EMT process, a type of aptamer probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was designed. The aptamer SYL3C was employed to target the EMT biomarker EpCAM on cell membrane. Two fluorophores, FAM and tetraphenylethene (TPE, an AIE dye), were modified at the two ends of SYL3C, respectively. This aptamer probe (TPE-SYL3C-FAM) can monitor the EpCAM expression, which can be recovered by anti-EMT drugs. By observation of the change in TPE emission intensity, the anti-EMT effect of drugs can be evaluated. The FAM emission was used as internal reference to reduce environmental interferences. This probe can be potentially used to screen anti-EMT agents as anti-cancer adjuvant drugs with high throughput.
Shirui Yang, Wenxiang Zhang, Zheyi Liu, Ziyang Zhai, Xudong Hou, Ping Wang, ,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03700-1

Abstract:
Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most important serum carrier proteins that deliver small-molecule drugs to their specific targets. Clarifying the molecular mechanism of the interaction between natural HSA and drugs in an aqueous solution has been a hot topic in pharmaceutical chemistry, clinical medicine, and biochemistry in recent years, but it is still challenging. In this paper, the details of molecular interactions of HSA with a variety of therapeutic drugs including ibuprofen, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and warfarin are systematically investigated using a mass spectrometry (MS)-based lysine reactivity profiling (LRP) strategy. The results reaffirm that the major ligand binding sites (including Sites I and II) of HSA are located in subdomains IIA and IIIA, while several potential drug-binding areas at subdomain IIIB and α helix IIB-IIIA are newly characterized. The MS-LRP strategy may have important application prospects in pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety evaluation of small-molecule drugs.
Yi Cen, Zhongping Wang, Peixiong Ke, Wenting Zhu, Zhongwen Yuan, Senling Feng, Yiqing Chen, Caiyan Lin, Xiaomin Liu, Yuting Li, et al.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03667-z

Abstract:
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific biomarker of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, cTnI detection kits prepared with antibodies have many defects. Nucleic acid aptamers are sequences of single-strand DNA or RNA that can overcome the deficiency of antibodies. Herein, sandwich ELONA methods were established based on aptamers. Two selected ssDNA aptamers (Apt3 and Apt6) showed high binding affinity and sensibility (Apt3: Kd = 1.01 ± 0.07 nM, Apt6: k = 0.68 ± 0.05) and did not bind to the same domain of cTnI. Therefore, these two aptamers can be applied to the ELONA methods. The detection range of cTnI using the dual-aptamer sandwich ELONA method was 0.05–200 ng/mL, and the bioanalytical method verification results can meet the national standard of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 Edition). There was no difference between results of the dual-aptamer sandwich ELONA method and the diagnostic results of serum obtained from 243 people (P = 0.39, P ˃ 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the ELONA with cTnI in serum were 96.46% and 93.85%, respectively. Compared with the FICA kit, which is clinically used, the consequences of ELONA method are closer to the diagnostic results. This study suggests that the aptamers Apt3 and Apt6 have high affinity and strong specificity and that the dual-aptamer sandwich ELONA method has a wide detection range and can be used to determine cTnI in serum, with potential applications in the diagnosis of AMIs.
Qiuyue Fu, Yanjiao Zhang, Peng Wang, Jiang Pi, Xun Qiu, Zhusheng Guo, Ya Huang, Yi Zhao, ,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03691-z

Abstract:
The resistance of urinary tract pathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics is increasing, which requires the rapid detection of infectious pathogens for accurate and timely antibiotic treatment. Here, we propose a rapid diagnosis strategy for the antibiotic resistance of bacteria in urinary tract infections (UTIs) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using a positively charged gold nanoparticle planar solid SERS substrate. Then, an intelligent identification model for SERS spectra based on the deep learning technique is constructed to realize the rapid, ultrasensitive, and non-labeled detection of pathogenic bacteria. A total of 54,000 SERS spectra were collected from 18 isolates belonging to 6 species of common UTI bacteria in this work to realize identification of bacterial species, antibiotic sensitivity, and multidrug resistance (MDR) via convolutional neural networks (CNN). This method significantly simplify the Raman data processing processes without background removing and smoothing, however, achieving 96% above classification accuracy, which was significantly greater than the 85% accuracy of the traditional multivariate statistical analysis algorithm principal component analysis combined with the K-nearest neighbor (PCA-KNN). This work clearly elucidated the potential of combining SERS and deep learning technique to realize culture-free identification of pathogenic bacteria and their associated antibiotic sensitivity.
Rui Lv, , Jin Liu, Ke Wang, Yevgeny A. Golubev, , Olga B. Kotova, Elena L. Kotova, Xiaoqin Nie, Daoyong Tan
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03728-3

Abstract:
The rapid development of nanozymes for ultrasensitive detection of contaminate has resulted in considerable attention. Herein, a carboxyl- and aminopropyl-functionalized copper organophyllosilicate (Cu-CAP) was synthesized by a facile, one-pot sol–gel method. The bifunctional groups endow it with superior catalytic activity than that of natural enzyme. Besides, it possesses outstanding catalytic stability under harsh conditions such as high temperature, extremely high or low pH, and high salinity. Apart from laccase-mimetic activity, Cu-CAP also shows oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to the blue-colored TMBox in the presence of H2O2, which is similar to natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Interestingly, this colorimetric system was suppressed by hydroquinone (HQ) specifically. Inspired by this, Cu-CAP was used to develop a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric method for the determination of HQ. This assay displayed an extremely low detection limit of 23 nM and was applied for the detection of HQ in environmental water with high accuracy. This approach offers a new route for the rational design of high performance nanozymes for environmental and biosensing applications.
Noor A. Aly, James N. Dodds, Yu-Syuan Luo, Fabian A. Grimm, Makayla Foster, Ivan Rusyn,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03686-w

Abstract:
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are xenobiotic chemicals of global concern due to their long-range transport capabilities, persistence, ability to bioaccumulate, and potential to have negative effects on human health and the environment. Identifying POPs in both the environment and human body is therefore essential for assessing potential health risks, but their diverse range of chemical classes challenge analytical techniques. Currently, platforms coupling chromatography approaches with mass spectrometry (MS) are the most common analytical methods employed to evaluate both parent POPs and their respective metabolites and/or degradants in samples ranging from d rinking water to biofluids. Unfortunately, different types of analyses are commonly needed to assess both the parent and metabolite/degradant POPs from the various chemical classes. The multiple time-consuming analyses necessary thus present a number of technical and logistical challenges when rapid evaluations are needed and sample volumes are limited. To address these challenges, we characterized 64 compounds including parent per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), in addition to their metabolites and/or degradants, using ion mobility spectrometry coupled with MS (IMS-MS) as a potential rapid screening technique. Different ionization sources including electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) were employed to determine optimal ionization for each chemical. Collectively, this study advances the field of exposure assessment by structurally characterizing the 64 important environmental pollutants, assessing their best ionization sources, and evaluating their rapid screening potential with IMS-MS.
Niloofar Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Bayatloo,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03725-6

Abstract:
Therapeutic peptides have an important effect on physiological function and human health, so it is momentous to quantify and detect low levels of these biomolecules in biological samples for treatment and diagnostic purposes. In the present study, an efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method was developed based on stearic acid–functionalized magnetic hydroxyapatite nanocomposite (MHAP/SA) as a novel and cost-effective adsorbent for extraction of five hypothalamic-related peptides (goserelin, octreotide, triptorelin, somatostatin, and cetrorelix) from biological samples. To characterize the morphology and physicochemical properties of MHAP/SA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM), CHNS elemental analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were applied. Under optimum conditions, the proposed method (MSPE–HPLC–UV) represented favorable linearity with R2 ≥ 0.9987, suitable intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD ≤ 6.9% and RSD ≤ 8.1%, respectively, n = 3), and limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.75–1.12 ng mL−1 and 2.50–3.75 ng mL−1, respectively. Eventually, the proposed method was used for the extraction and quantification of target therapeutic peptides in plasma and urine samples, and satisfactory relative recoveries were achieved in the range of 90.6–110.3%.
Amrutha Hasandka, Ankita Ramchandran Singh, Anusha Prabhu, Hardik Ramesh Singhal, M. S. Giri Nandagopal,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03671-3

Abstract:
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) make up a significant proportion of the global burden of disease in vulnerable groups and tend to substantially impair the quality of life of those affected, making timely detection of UTIs a priority for public health. However, economic and societal barriers drastically reduce accessibility of traditional lab-based testing methods for critical patient groups in low-resource areas, negatively affecting their overall healthcare outcomes. As a result, cellulose-based materials such as paper and thread have garnered significant interest among researchers as substrates for so-called frugal analytical devices which leverage the material’s portability and adaptability for facile and reproducible diagnoses of UTIs. Although the field may be only in its infancy, strategies aimed at commercial penetration can appreciably increase access to more healthcare options for at-risk people. In this review, we catalogue recent advances in devices that use cellulose-based materials as the primary housing or medium for UTI detection and chart out trends in the field. We also explore different modalities employed for detection, with particular emphasis on their ability to be ported onto discreet casings such as sanitary products. Graphical abstract
, Onyinyechi V. Uhuo, Emmanuel Iwuoha,
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03702-z

Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main infectious diseases worldwide and accounts for many deaths. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually affecting the lungs of patients. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to control the TB epidemic. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a cytokine that plays a part in the body’s immune response when fighting infection. Current conventional antibody-based TB sensing techniques which are commonly used include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). However, these methods have major drawbacks, such as being time-consuming, low sensitivity, and inability to distinguish between the different stages of the TB disease. Several electrochemical biosensor systems have been reported for the detection of interferon-gamma with high sensitivity and selectivity. Microfluidic techniques coupled with multiplex analysis in regular format and as lab-on-chip platforms have also been reported for the detection of IFN-γ. This article is a review of the techniques for detection of interferon-gamma as a TB disease biomarker. The objective is to provide a concise assessment of the available IFN-γ detection techniques (including conventional assays, biosensors, microfluidics, and multiplex analysis) and their ability to distinguish the different stages of the TB disease.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03687-9

Abstract:
This review article presents an overview of the evolution of the field of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP); in particular, it focuses on insulator-based electrokinetic (iEK) systems stimulated with direct current and low-frequency(< 1 kHz) AC electric fields. The article covers the surge of iDEP as a research field where many different device designs were developed, from microchannels with arrays of insulating posts to devices with curved walls and nano- and micropipettes. All of these systems allowed for the manipulation and separation of a wide array of particles, ranging from macromolecules to microorganisms, including clinical and biomedical applications. Recent experimental reports, supported by important theoretical studies in the field of physics and colloids, brought attention to the effects of electrophoresis of the second kind in these systems. These recent findings suggest that DEP is not the main force behind particle trapping, as it was believed for the last two decades. This new research suggests that particle trapping, under DC and low-frequency AC potentials, mainly results from a balance between electroosmotic and electrophoretic effects (linear and nonlinear); although DEP is present in these systems, it is not a dominant force. Considering these recent studies, it is proposed to rename this field from DC-iDEP to DC-iEK (and low-frequency AC-iDEP to low-frequency AC-iEK). Whereas much research is still needed, this is an exciting time in the field of microscale EK systems, as these new findings seem to explain the challenges with modeling particle migration and trapping in iEK devices, and provide perhaps a better understanding of the mechanisms behind particle trapping.
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